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Utilitarianism Essays & Research Papers

Best Utilitarianism Essays

  • Utilitarianism - 912 Words Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a moral theory generally considered to have been founded by Jeremy Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and social reformer. It is centered on the concept of happiness, and those who seek it. The idea is that all people seek happiness, and that it is the ultimate goal of all human beings to be happy. Therefore, according to classical utilitarianism, when a person wishes to act in an ethically sound manner he or she should strive to bring about the... 912 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 557 Words Given the scenario of the mad scientist, a utilitarian approach would suggest that because the outcome of the biochemical produced a cure causing thousands of lives to be saved, then this may make him a good person. The result of this biochemical produced happiness for the masses by saving lives and curing disease. Considering the principle of utilitarianism is pleasure of the masses, the result of his actions would now be considered moral due to the amount of happiness that was produced.... 557 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1415 Words Utilitarianism as an ethical theory Utilitarianism is the view that an act is right if it equals the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarians describe moral actions as actions that boost something good and lessen something that is bad. Virtue, knowledge, and goodwill are all good but they are only good if they give people a pleasurable existence. Pain is the only thing that is intrinsically bad. Utilitarians focus on the result of an act instead of the... 1,415 Words | 4 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 2234 Words  Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that assesses an action as morally right and just if it produces the most amount of net happiness. There are two forms of utilitarianism: act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism is the standard form, which considers all paths of the action that lead to immediate and long-term happiness, as well has the magnitude and how long the happiness will last. Furthermore, if all paths lead to the same amount of net happiness,... 2,234 Words | 6 Pages
  • All Utilitarianism Essays

  • Utilitarianism - 1228 Words 1). A distinguish between utilitarianism of bentham and mill. Both Bentham and John Mill had Utilitarist ideas. The principle of utility is the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Utilitarianism is teleological it is the telos of a moral action,not the act itself or the moral rule you follow.That is good or of value.This is seen as a positive aspect to the theory. Utilitarianism tries to make the world a better place.Bentham ... 1,228 Words | 1 Page
  • Utilitarianism - 672 Words Utilitarianism: “Actions are right in the proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” John Stuart Mill utilitarianism, 1863 Utilitarians founder Jeremy Bentham has a famous formulation that is know as the “greatest-happiness principle”. The definition of this is “the ethical principle that an action is right in so far as it promotes the greatest happiness of the greatest number of those affected”. Central Beliefs: There are seven... 672 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 455 Words A person who is a utilitarian believes in one principle of utility, which is to opt for an action that will bring the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people (Ronsenstand, 2013). It is not a decision made with selfish intentions, as it does not matter who benefits from the decision, as long as it is for the greater good. The utilitarian belief can be a solution to certain moral problems, but there are also problems that may arise from it. One of the problems of the... 455 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1073 Words Utilitarianism and Business Ethics Utilitarianism is a normative, consequentialist, empirical philosophy which links the idea of a good action to one which promotes maximum pleasure or happiness, found by adding up costs and benefits (or pains and pleasures). It has two classic formulations - Bentham's hedonistic (pleasure-based) act utilitarianism and Mill's eudaimonistic (happiness-based) rule utilitarianism. In this article we make some preliminary comments on Bentham and Mill before... 1,073 Words | 4 Pages
  • utilitarianism - 348 Words “Utilitarianism is not compatible with a religious approach to ethics” To what extent is this a fair statement? Ultimately utilitarianism is a way of improving the lives of most people, and religious ethics also aims to act out of compassion and love to improve the lives of others. For example, Christianity has certain rules that benefit those in society. We know that they work as many of those rules are tied in with the laws of the country. For instance, Murder and stealing are both illegal... 348 Words | 1 Page
  • Utilitarianism - 956 Words The use of utilitarianism when making moral decisions leads to an injustice society, evaluate this claim. The use of utilitarianism is a controversial subject for many people, some believe by using it, it can bring happiness to the majority of society, others say by using utilitarianism it can take away peoples own judgment making our society unjust. Strengths of Bentham’s theory begin with the fact that utilitarianism offers a relatively straightforward method for... 956 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 456 Words Both Kantian Ethics and utilitarian ethics are two of the most well know conceptions on human nature and how we as human beings should go about living our lives. They also have strong cores and there purpose is very clear. According to utilitarianism humans have two masters’ pain and happiness, only good actions will achieve happiness and will also minimizes pain. In one sentence you can describe utilitarianism as “the greatest good for the greatest amount of people”. While in the other hand... 456 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1033 Words In this essay I will discuss Utilitarianism by first explaining how Utilitarians are consequentialists who base their actions on the pleasure of pain of their consequences. Secondly, Jeremy Bentham will be discussed as the propagator of the Principle of Utility which determines human self-interest and voluntary action to achieve the greatest good or greatest pleasure. Thirdly, I will discuss John Stuart Mills and his more complex version of Utilitarianism. To clarify the Utilitarian theory I... 1,033 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 479 Words “In the end utilitarianism is simply a moral justification for individual/group selfishness” Utilitarianism is a theory in which the quote by Jeremy Bentham applies “The greatest happiness to the greatest amount of people” which means that the best action is the one in which the most pleasure is given to the majority of people. The majority always wins rather than the minority and pleasure is the sole good whereas pain is the sole evil. On one hand this is classed as selfless as using... 479 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 619 Words Explain the Utilitarian approach to Euthanasia. I think that both the Hedonistic and the Ideal Utilitarian would argue that voluntary euthanasia is often right. The Hedonistic Utilitarian would say that situations often arise in which a person's continued existence brings more pain than pleasure both to them and to all those who are distressed by their suffering - not to speak of the resources which are being spent on keeping them alive and which would produce more happiness if used in other... 619 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1705 Words  Utilitarianists are often persecuted for holding a morality in which the end always justifies the means, no matter how repulsive it may be to intuitional moral standards. Hare attempts to quiet controversy by combining act and rule utilitarianism in daily life in such a way that internal moral standards are satisfied and overall good is promoted. Kymlicka stays firm in his opposition to Hare’s theories and shuns the idea of consequentialism having intrinsic value greater than that of intuitive... 1,705 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 607 Words  Utilitarianism Utilitarianism the ethical doctrine of the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the criterion of the virtue of action. The principle that utilitarianism use in making moral decisions is a form of moral hedonism; that people should seek pleasure and avoid pain. Utilitarianism seeks to produce the greatest good for the greatest number. But, the problem is in determining what the greatest good is. Utilitarian define the “good” as good is what equates pleasure and... 607 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1037 Words Consequentialism 1 I) Utilitarianism…………………………………….P.3 II) Introduction to the main idea of Utilitarianism : The Principle of Utility ………………………….P.6 The Greatest Happiness Principle…………….P.9 III) Two kinds of pleasure………………........…P.11 IV) The Calculation of Utility…………………....P.15 V) The measurement of utility……………..…..P.17 VI) The proof of Principle of Greatest Happiness……………………………….…..P.18 VII) The Harm Principle ………………………..P.19 VIII) Assessing Utilitarianism…………………..P.21 2 I)... 1,037 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1042 Words Explain the main features of the theory of Utilitarianism The theory of Utilitarianism takes its name from the Latin word Utilis, meaning ‘useful’. It was first developed by Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher and legal theorist of the 18th century. Bentham sought to produce a modern and rational approach to morality which would suit the changing society of the industrial age. This was also the era of the French and American Revolutions, and of the Enlightenment, so orthodox morality was... 1,042 Words | 4 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1170 Words North central mindanao colleges maranding, lala, lanao del norte Criminology Department Utilitarian of Human Rights Labadisos, Arnold Rendal, Leorosa table of contents Introduction……………………………………………….. 3 -4 body……………………………………………………………… 5 - 6 conclusion…………………………………………………… 7 findings………………………………………………………… 8 recommendation………………………………………….. 8 references……………………………………………………. 8 Utilitarian of Human Rights Introduction: Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of... 1,170 Words | 4 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 400 Words UTILITARIANISM Utilitarianism is concerned with happiness, and utilitarians accept the idea that value is universal - so utilitarians believe that the intrinsic value of happiness it is unaffected by the identity of the being in which it is felt. Thus each counts for one, and none for more than one and my own interests cannot count for more, simply because they are my own, than the interests of others. Utilitarians support equality by the equal consideration of interests - they reject any... 400 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 1716 Words  Calculating Consequences: A Student Refutation of Utilitarianism Erik Z. Hallworth San Francisco State University Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory holding that moral actions are based on the maximization of overall happiness, defined as the Utility Principle. Mill and Bentham's utilitarianism makes a plausible and convincing argument, though not everyone agrees with it. Bernard Williams writes Utilitarianism: For and Against the... 1,716 Words | 5 Pages
  • utilitarianism - 753 Words Second Writing Assignment, PHILO 120 Professor Shelley, Tue/Thur 230pm Mill is an heir of an intellectual movement in England known as Utilitarianism; utilitarianism is concerned with the acquisition of pleasure and elimination of pain. John Stuart Mill follows the guidelines of utilitarianism in order to decide if certain actions are moral. Utilitarianism states that a person should perform the action that produces the most pleasurable outcome for every person involved. In order to... 753 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - 571 Words Ehtisham Waqar Josh Mildenberger 1000198788 Moral theories try to explain what distinguishes right actions from wrong ones. The theory of utilitarianism tries to do the same by incorporating several aspects that set up a moral standard to help investigate the balance between right and wrong. John Stuart Mill, a British philosopher of the 1800’s defends the utilitarian school of thought by pointing out what it is that makes utilitarianism the standard theory for morality. According to... 571 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Classical Utilitarianism - 996 Words Utilitarianism Classical Utilitarianism is a moral philosophy, which was developed in 19th century England by Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Henry Sidgwick. The essential feature a utilitarian reside in, is the notion that an action is right if it produces the most amount of happiness well limiting suffering. Utilitarianism focuses solely on the consequences of the action, in an attempt to bring about the most happiness from each situation, well ensuring everybody’s happiness is... 996 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism - 5761 Words (Redirected from Utilitarian) Jump to: navigation, search This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. For a discussion of John Stuart Mill's essay Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). The Utilitarianism series, part of the Politics series Utilitarian Thinkers[show] Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Henry Sidgwick Peter Singer Forms[show] preference utilitarianism rule utilitarianism act utilitarianism Two-level utilitarianism Total utilitarianism... 5,761 Words | 19 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Happiness - 859 Words This theory advocates that the actions worth is determined by maximizing utility (pleasure or happiness).it looks at the consequence of an action as to whether the outcome is good to the majority of people affected by it. According to Bentham, utilitarianism is the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle. There are many types of this theory which include act vs. rule, two level, motive, negative and average vs. total. (Clifford G., John C. 2009) In act utilitarianism, when people have... 859 Words | 3 Pages
  • Act Utilitarianism - 916 Words Oh My Gosh! Did Someone Say A Bomb!! I believe torture is morally justifiable/permissible only with situations, in which you can guarantee the best possible outcome. In this particular situation with the bomber, I believe we should take the Utilitarian-Act Consequentialism approach; and torture the bomber as an attempt to get him to reveal the location. Simply because, Act Consequentialism will focus more on the overall happiness that it will bring to all those involved. Seeing as how they... 916 Words | 3 Pages
  • the Utilitarianism approach - 289 Words Assignment Paper 2 1. What do Act Utilitarianism believes? How do their beliefs differ from those of Rule Utilitarianism? According to Aggabao (2013), act utilitarianism (AU) capture that people must implement that deed that well bring about the greatest benefit for all people who concerned. Act utilitarianism believes that each situation is different from other situations. On other word each situation... 289 Words | 1 Page
  • Mill: Utilitarianism - 1564 Words  To begin an exploration in ethical philosophy and build a foundational knowledge and understanding of how such thinking has evolved and progressed in humans over time, one must look to possibly one of the most influential approaches to ethics in history: Utilitarianism (Driver). In order to understand what Utilitarianism is and how this system of thought developed and can be applied in society, one must look back to the writings of thinkers who began to discover a clearer definition of the... 1,564 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Essay - 1080 Words  Utilitarianism Essay Fields, Vickie Grand Canyon University: PHI-305 November 9, 2014 Utilitarianism Essay Utilitarianism is a theory in ethics regarding actions that maximize utility. Utilitarianism is human- centered and has a foundation of morality. One could say this theory holds to happiness as the principle, at least that is what John Mill proposes. Mills is well known for being not only a great philosopher of his time, but also an advocate for utilitarianism, in so much... 1,080 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism in Britain - 3659 Words CONTENTS BIBlIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................2 QUESTION.........................................................................................................3 ANSWER............................................................................................................4 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bentham J, A Fragment on Government, (1776) -The Works of Jeremy Bentham (Simpkin, Marshal and Co, 1843)... 3,659 Words | 10 Pages
  • Rule Utilitarianism - 1524 Words Utilitarianism was developed in the 18th century by Hutchenson, who used the phrase "the greatest good for the greatest number" to describe his theory. His idea of Utilitarianism, however, seeks to find a rational means of assessing how best to put this promotion of happiness into practice, and is split into two types; Act Utilitarianism is the earliest form, in which what is deemed right is based on the assessment of results of a particular action, and Rule Utilitarianism, which allows to be... 1,524 Words | 4 Pages
  • Mill's Utilitarianism - 1119 Words March 26, 2013 Word Count = 1115 In the beginning of Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill states that throughout history very little progress has been made towards developing a set of moral standards to judge what is morally right or wrong. Although a certain disagreement about such foundations can also be found in the most “certain” sciences, in those areas truths can still have meaning without understanding the principles underlying them. On the other hand, in philosophy, where all actions... 1,119 Words | 3 Pages
  • Arguments on Utilitarianism - 1260 Words Arguments on Utilitarianism Which is more valuable: a game of push-pin or the study of Latin? Which has greater worth: the life of a single young girl or the lives of an entire community? These are the sorts of questions raised when dealing with the matter of utilitarianism. According to Jeremy Bentham, the father of the theory, the ultimate moral goal of human beings should be to increase pleasure and to decrease pain. To maximize the amount of time spent in content, and minimize the times... 1,260 Words | 4 Pages
  • Rule Utilitarianism - 1110 Words Mill's Utilitarianism brings an extended concept of Bentham's philosophy and a response to Kant's deontological philosophy. The basic concept of utilitarianism is to act in such a way as to create the most pleasure or the least pain. This is the guideline because, as Mill states, we desire happiness; happiness is maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. However, is utilitarianism viable? There are many arguments for it, but just as many against. First, utilitarianism allows for the good... 1,110 Words | 3 Pages
  • Ethics Utilitarianism - 1381 Words Ethics essay – Utilitarianism a.) Explain the main differences between the utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that looks at the concept of `utility`, or the usefulness of actions. Two of the most famous Utilitarians were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill; Bentham was the first to introduce the theory, and his views were more similar to that of Act Utilitarianism. Mill on the other hand differed in his views, and his intention was to improve the... 1,381 Words | 4 Pages
  • Bentham's Utilitarianism - 335 Words Jeremy Bentham was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham sees that man is being governed by two feelings, this is pleasure and pain. These determine that which is good and evil for man. These are also the basis of the act of man, and these-pain and pleasure would be the fundamentals of the philosophy, utilitarianism. The principle of utility "is the action that approves or disapproves an action whatsoever". By the... 335 Words | 1 Page
  • Act Utilitarianism - 489 Words Act Utilitarianism The theory of Utilitarianism was first developed by Jeremy Bentham who was a philosopher of the 18th century. Bentham developed this theory to create a modern and rational approach to morality which would suit the changing society. Bentham’s theory Act Utilitarianism has many strengths and weaknesses. A Strength is that this theory is considers the consequences and happiness which an action has created. This is because Act Utilitarianism is a teleological theory where... 489 Words | 2 Pages
  • Flaws with Utilitarianism - 640 Words Among the most glaring problems that I see with Utilitarianism is its inclusion of animals under the umbrella that blankets this theory. It seems irrefutable that there exists an inordinate number of cases where the consequence that is against the best interest of an animal is favorable to humans, yet that dictating action is one that has been continually taken and condoned by the general public. This is a fundamental challenge, as the Utilitarian philosophy decrees that the pleasure and pain... 640 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Notes - 1313 Words Utilitarianism Key Features • • • Relativist Theory – – – – – – – No Absolutes Morality Depends on individual circumstances Happiness is the most important thing Quality and Quantity of Happiness need to be taken into account The Measure of Usefulness or Fittingness for purpose an action may have Teleological Ethical theories such as Utilitarianism tend to rely on the principle of utility It is the way of measuring how useful an action is in bringing about the consequences that we desire... 1,313 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Abortion - 995 Words  Utilitarianism and Abortion Student Name University Introduction Abortion is one of the most debated issues across the globe. People from different sects of the society have their own perception on the abortion. Some try to prove it morally wrong and illegal while others justify abortion on several grounds. There is no need to say that people have their arguments in favor as well as in against the abortion and both the views seem to be right in specific circumstances. Apart... 995 Words | 3 Pages
  • Ethics and Utilitarianism - 1026 Words Utilitarianism What is Utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is an ethical framework for effective moral action. It’s a philosophical concept that holds an action to be held right if it tends to promote happiness for the greatest number of people. The essence of utilitarianism is in its concept of pleasure and pain. It defines the morally right actions as those actions that maximize pleasure or happiness and minimize pain or evil. Utilitarianism is all about making the right choices that will... 1,026 Words | 3 Pages
  • Williams and Utilitarianism - 1496 Words In his critique of Utilitarianism, Williams finds fault in the Utilitarian commitment to maximum utility in that it undermines the integrity of moral agents and denies people the projects and relationships they inherently value. Famously known as his “Integrity Objection”, this proposition is immediately very enticing in that it appeals to the idea of the invaluable and imperative nature of benevolence and compassion, versus the cold, impartial hand of Utilitarianism. That is not to say,... 1,496 Words | 4 Pages
  • Rule Utilitarianism - 637 Words Act and Rule Utilitarianism There are a lot of differences and similarities between act and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarian supports the principle of utility must be applied to each individual situation. The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by its usefulness. This was Bentham’s idea when he established that pleasure and pain was important qualities for determining what was morally right or wrong. With Act Utilitarianism, you must decide what action will bring the... 637 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Drugs - 2163 Words A key issue that is seen in media today is the legalization of certain drugs. There is a way to approach the issue, from a moral standpoint, on the use of drugs and whether or not it should be legalized. To solve this moral dilemma, a person can simply use and apply the concepts of utilitarianism. When deciding on whether or not something is considered to be a moral problem, it’s extremely important to differentiate the assumptions that people have made to support their claims. The situation... 2,163 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Happiness - 693 Words Utilitarianism, yet another ethical theory between right or wrong. If everyone acted in an effort to promote the greatest good for the greater number of people our universe would exist with a utilitarian state of mind. Although, when one looks at this statement on the surface without further analyzing it, most would assume that existing in a universe where everyone seeks the happiness for the greatest amount of people that it would be greater one to live in. Although, surface wise we can make... 693 Words | 2 Pages
  • The Act of Utilitarianism - 368 Words Act utilitarianism states that, when faced with a choice, we must first consider the likely consequences of potential actions and, from that, choose to do what we believe will generate the most pleasure. The rule utilitarian, on the other hand, begins by looking at potential rules of action. To determine whether a rule should be followed, he or she looks at what would happen if it were constantly followed. If adherence to the rule produces more happiness than otherwise, it is a rule that morally... 368 Words | 1 Page
  • What Is Utilitarianism? - 1187 Words “What is Utilitarianism?” Ask a passerby to describe his personal morality, and you’ll likely get a complicated explanation filled with ifs, ands, and buts. Ask a utilitarian, and he can give a six-word response: greatest good for the greatest number. Of course, utilitarianism is not that simple. Like any philosophical system, it is the subject of endless debate. Still, for the average reader who is unfamiliar with the jargon that characterizes most philosophy, utilitarianism can be a useful... 1,187 Words | 4 Pages
  • Ethics: Utilitarianism - 815 Words The theory behind utilitarianism is that one’s actions are right if it promotes happiness or pleasure and wrong if it does not promote happiness or pleasure. The main point to this theory is the principle of utility that states “according to which actions should be chosen that bring about the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.” (Palmer) Jeremy Bentham gave essentially utilitarianism its name and brought more attention to it than those before him. Bentham came up... 815 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Essay - 1083 Words  Utilitarianism Valeria Ornelas Grand Canyon University: PHI 305 10/30/14 John Stuart Mill’s Moral Theory John Stuart Mill, a philosopher and political economist, is known today as one of the most influential sponsors for Utilitarianism. His moral theory tends to go along with a “Utilitarian rubric” (Fitzpatrick, 2006) and thus holds that the theory is based on how to define right and wrong in terms of happiness. For Mill, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote... 1,083 Words | 4 Pages
  • Human and Utilitarianism - 1265 Words Utilitarianism Let me begin by defining Utilitarianism: utilitarianism is the belief of doing what is right for the greater number of people. It is a theory used to determine the usefulness of the happiest outcome and how it will affect everyone else. Now, this sounds like a amazing theory, what would be better than making yourself and others happy? I found myself at first agreeing with this theory up until I really looked into it. At first I found myself thinking that not everything is... 1,265 Words | 3 Pages
  • theory of utilitarianism - 786 Words The Philosophy of Utilitarianism may have a positive outcome, but it can be flawed at times as well. The Utilitarian theory states “ The greatest happiness for the greatest number of people”. Some say this approach is flawed due to it lacking reason and consequence, I believe this depends on specific circumstances. Abortion is a big issue now a days and I feel that the utilitarian theory would be a reasonable outlook on this particular situation. To apply the Utilitarian theory to abortion,... 786 Words | 2 Pages
  • utilitarianism essay - 516 Words ‘Increasing pleasure is more important than ending pain and suffering.’ How far would utilitarian’s agree with this statement? A utilitarian’s opinion on increasing pleasure rather than ending pain would depend upon the severity of the case being assessed. Although utilitarianism is used to decide whether or not in theory carrying out an act will bring about more pleasure, some utilitarian’s may argue that there are cases of suffering which require more serious attention, to put an end to... 516 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Happiness - 1076 Words The philosophical theory that I choose to do is called “utilitarianism”. In a brief sentence, utilitarianism means the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Basically what this means is, doing the right thing is based on how many people your action benefits rather than how much it benefits you. According to the Oxford American Dictionary utility means “the state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial”(oxford dictionary,2013). The whole theory is all about how much it benefits... 1,076 Words | 3 Pages
  • Act Utilitarianism - 15392 Words Utilitarianism 1 Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes overall happiness. It is now generally taken to be a form of consequentialism, although when Anscombe first introduced that term it was to distinguish between "old-fashioned Utilitarianism" and consequentialism.[1] According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome although there is debate over... 15,392 Words | 44 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Happiness - 945 Words Utilitarianism In his book, J.S. Mill attempts to build on Jeremy Bentham's original idea of Utilitarianism. His definition of the moral theory is one that is grounded in Bentham's original work but also extends to include remarks to criticisms of Utilitarianism. Mill believes that, like Bentham, utility is what is valuable to society. Utility, according to Mill, is the promotion of pleasure or the absence of pain. He defines this as happiness, which is why he refers to utility as the... 945 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Euthanasia - 1031 Words Laurentine Asare Philosophy 103 April 28, 2011 ETHICS The moral issue that I will discuss about is Euthanasia. Euthanasia simplu means bringing the death of another for the benefit of that person and also known as mercy killing. “When a... 1,031 Words | 3 Pages
  • Objections to Utilitarianism - 1467 Words OBJECTIONS TO UTIILITARIANISM SECTION (1) INTRODUCTION We noted, last week, that UTILITARIANISM is a version of CONSEQUENTIALISM in that it holds that the RIGHT action (in any given situation) is the action WHICH HAS THE WHICH HAS THE BEST CONSEQUENCES; CONSEQUENTIALIST ethical theories may be contrasted... 1,467 Words | 7 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Kantianism - 699 Words In the history of ethics, two major viewpoints emerge: the consequentialist and the nonconsequentialist. The consequentialist view is based on or concerned with the consequences of one’s actions, while nonconsequentialist views are not. One major consequentialist ethical theory is utilitarianism. This theory, whose principle architects were Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), derives its name from utility, which means usefulness. Utilitarianism is commonly found in two... 699 Words | 2 Pages
  • Explain Utilitarianism - 1586 Words Explain Utilitarianism Utilitarianism was developed in the 18th century by Hutcheson, who used the phrase ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’ to describe his theory. Hutcheson’s idea, seeks to find a rational means of assessing how best to put this promotion of happiness into practice. It is split into two types; Act Utilitarianism, this is the earliest form in which what is deemed right is based on the assessment of results of a particular action, and Rule Utilitarianism which allows... 1,586 Words | 4 Pages
  • Case Study: Rule Utilitarianism or Act Utilitarianism? This paper examines the procedure that were followed that it is a common sight to see on the street, children and sometimes old, physically handicapped, beggars and sickly people begging for food and some money. It critically examines these procedures in the moral dilemma with reference of applying the concepts: rule and act utilitarianism. Should we give these beggars money or not? In deciding whether we give or not, the answer for that is we should give. Why? Act utilitarianism basically... 512 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Aspects Of Theory - 916 Words Utilitarianism: Bentham – Hedonic Calculus Bentham was a hedonist – he believed that pleasure is good in itself, and other things are good in so far as they bring about pleasure and the absence of pain. “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.” You could work out which action to perform by calculating which option brought about the greatest amount of pleasure: Duration – how long does the pleasure last? Remoteness – how distant is the... 916 Words | 4 Pages
  • a) What are the key concepts of utilitarianism? Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) developed his ethical system of utilitarianism around the idea of pleasure. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) later furthered and many believe he improved Bentham’s theory (Mill is often linked to Rule Utilitarianism) but still followed many of his original ideas. The theory is based on ancient hedonism, which pursued physical pleasure and avoided physical pain. Hedonism saw human beings as “Under the governance of two sovereign masters of pain and pleasure.” So a key... 636 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism - Act and Rule - 741 Words Explain the differences between Act and Rule Utilitarianism Since it began, there have been two main exponents of Utilitarianism. They are Jeremy Bentham and J S Mill, and both of them base their own individual theories on the principle of utility, which defines something (an act, etc) dependent on if it achieves "the greatest happiness for the greatest number". This makes Utilitarianism a relativistic and consequentialist argument, as it takes into account only the outcome of events rather... 741 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism—by John Stewart Mill Classical utilitarianism is hedonist, but values other than, or in addition to, pleasure (ideal utilitarianism) can be employed, or—more neutrally, and in a version popular in economics—anything can be regarded as valuable that appears as an object of rational or informed desire (preference utilitarianism). The test of utility maximization can also be applied directly to single acts (act utilitarianism), or to acts only indirectly through some other... 760 Words | 3 Pages
  • Assessing the View: Utilitarianism Works “Utilitarianism works” Asses this view Bentham created utilitarianism and Mill improved it. It main points are that human society exists to create happiness, that happiness is the highest goal and that everything needs to fit a purpose. The advantages of Bentham’s theory include a reasonable link between moralities, the pursuit of happiness and the avoidance of pain. According to Bowie it seems natural to consider the consequences when deciding our actions. He stated that “Utilitarianism... 597 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Genetic Engineering - 1595 Words Utilitarianism and Genetic Engineering In the past thirty years, humans are witnessing a huge revolution in the genetic engineering industry. Having identified most of the Human Genome, gene sequencing has become programmed and extremely fast, and laboratory techniques in molecular biology allow for in-vitro fertilization and transfer of genetic material. Gene therapy and repair based on stem cells research allows for replacement of a defected allele in the DNA, and even a whole damaged tissue... 1,595 Words | 5 Pages
  • utilitarianism is the foundation of law making Utilitarianism was first developed by Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher and legal theorist of the 18th century. Bentham argued that one should maximise happiness for the majority (‘the greatest good for the greatest number, a view which is known as the ‘Utility Principle’. Happiness was equated with moral goodness. This idea further identifies Bentham as a ‘psychological hedonist’, since he regarded humans as being primarily motivated by pleasure and the avoidance of pain. A contented society would... 402 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Greatest Happiness - 1472 Words Utilitarianism: Bentham and Mill Utilitarianism begins with the work of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), an English political and social reformer. Educated at Oxford, Bentham eventually headed up a small group of thinkers called the “Philosophical Radicals.” This group, which included James Mill (father of John Stuart Mill, more on him later), was dedicated to social reform and the promulgation of Bentham’s ideas. Bentham based utilitarian ethics on the so-called “greatest happiness... 1,472 Words | 5 Pages
  • John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill published Utilitarianism in 1861 in installments in Fraser's Magezine it was later brought out in book form in 1863. The book offers a candidate for a first principle of morality, a principle that provides us with a criterion distinquishing right and wrong. The unilitarian candidate is the principle of utility, which holds that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happpiness. By happiness is intended... 275 Words | 1 Page
  • Bentham and Mills on Utilitarianism - 1882 Words As an American society statues and laws are placed before us to set a standard of morality and justice. But what truly determines whether an action is moral or immoral? As I analyze the works of Jeremy Bentham, in his "Principle of Utility," Alongside John Stuart Mill, on "Utilitarianism," we will better understand what the foundations of morality are in accordance to their writings. Furthermore, through their standards of utility I will analyze the situation proposed as to whether cheating on... 1,882 Words | 5 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Greatest Happiness Principle Happiness Happiness: In one word, this concept exemplifies the American dream. People go to any means by which to obtain the many varied materials and issues that induce pleasures in each individual, and intrinsically, this emotion remains the ultimate goal, John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth century philosopher, correctly advocated the pursuit of happiness, and maintained the concept that above all other values, pleasure existed as the final destination, Mill's hedonistic views correctly... 1,380 Words | 4 Pages
  • A moral understanding of Utilitarianism and torture Aaron Casas Philosophy 003 Professor Reath February 26th, 2012 A Moral Understanding of Utilitarianism and Torture KSM is a mastermind terrorist who has been captured by the CIA. He refuses to reveal any information about his organization or the members thereof that could be fundamental to the welfare of hundreds of lives. Even under the presence of coercive methods such as sleep deprivation and water boarding, he has refused to talk. His nine and eleven year old children have... 1,248 Words | 4 Pages
  • Critique of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person's intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other hand there is the teleological view which holds that it... 1,783 Words | 5 Pages
  • Bentham's Act Utilitarianism - 372 Words Essay plans: Bentham’s form of utilitarianism: Define utilitarianism and Bentham’s theory 3 stages Explain stages link to act utilitarianism/ teleology/relativism conclusion Act utilitarianism: Define act utilitarianism (qualitative) 3 stages link to Bentham/ teleology/relativism conclusion John mills: Define utilitarianism and his problems with it Higher lower pleasures examples Better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. Too much self sacrifice to serve the... 372 Words | 2 Pages
  • examine the key principles of utilitarianism Outline the important concepts of utilitarianism (21) The theory of utilitarianism determines the rightness or wrongness of an action by its consequences. This is determined by measuring the amount of pleasure or pain brought to someone caused by an action. Utilitarianism is a teleological theory of ethics, this means that it is concerned with the outcome and the consequences, meaning that an act is not right or wrong in itself but is right or wrong depending on the outcome of said action. The... 1,920 Words | 5 Pages
  • Explain Mill S Utilitarianism Explain Mill’s Utilitarianism [30] John Stuart Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher who was principally famous for revising and expanding on Jeremy Bentham’s theory of Utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham said that it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong. He then devised the hedonic calculus or the principle of utility as a measure of working out the usefulness of an action according to how much pleasure it creates for how many... 508 Words | 2 Pages
  • Main Strengths of Mill's Utilitarianism A) Explain the main strengths of Mills Utilitarianism? With rule utilitarianism you first have to agree to the general rule then after you apply it to specific cases. Some people see Mill as a rule utilitarian, which means that you act in accordance with those rules which, if generally followed, would provide the greatest general balance of pleasure over pain. This rule is also in line with how society works in the way that most people would prefer to cause pleasure rather than pain. Mill... 1,078 Words | 3 Pages
  • The Lifeboat Case And Utilitarianism - 583 Words The Lifeboat Case and Utilitarianism Imagine that four men are placed in a life or death situation. They are stranded in a boat in the middle of the ocean with nothing to eat for nourishment. In a severely weakened state, the men decide that for the benefit of the majority they will draw lots and eat whoever draws the shortest; one of the men refuses to draw. The next day, in spite of the lottery, the youngest boy is killed and fed on by the other men. The argument proposed to justify their... 583 Words | 2 Pages
  • Outline the Important Features of Utilitarianism Outline the Important Features of Utilitarianism The word Utilitarianism comes from the Latin word ‘utilitis’ meaning useful. This traditional ethical theory stemmed from the late 18th and 19th centuries. The Principle of Utility is a teological theory popularised by the late British philosopher, Jeremy Bentham. Its basic meaning suggests it’s the total consequences of an action which determine how morally right or wrong an action is. If the amount of happiness produced in an action... 804 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Greatest Number - 1483 Words Mara Kaouzova Professor Anthamatten Philosophical Ethics April 3 2013 Utilitarianism: ------------------------------------------------- The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number In the ethical debate, a divide has long existed between two models. One school of thought, notably Immanuel Kant’s Deontology, emphasizes the importance moral motivation, the other, represented by Consequentialism, emphasizes the importance of the outcome. Consequentialism is distinguished from the... 1,483 Words | 5 Pages
  • ‘Utilitarianism Is Unsatisfactory as a Theory of Ethics Utilitarianism is an ethical theory coined by an English philosopher who lived during the late 1700’s name Jeremy Bentham. Bentham believed in the principle that human beings should be motivated by pain and pleasure; he said “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure” this meant that every human being’s goal in life should be to pursue pleasure and avoid pain and that these should be defining factors of what is moral. Utilitarianism is strongly... 581 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Aristotelian Ethics - 1841 Words Utilitarianism and Aristotelian Ethics John Stuart Mill and Aristotle are two of the most notable philosophers in history to date. Between Mill’s Utilitarianism and Aristotle’s virtue ethics you can see a large portion our cultures ethics today. Their philosophies are apparent in contemporary everyday life. Aristotle has written several pieces on virtue and friendship. The two most notable works being the Magna Moralia and the Eudemian Ethics. However, his Nicomachean Ethics were by far... 1,841 Words | 5 Pages
  • Comparison between Utilitarianism and Idealism Utopia Would Be a Mix of Philosophical Theories? The two theories that will be compared and contrasted in this essay are Plato's Idealism and Mill & Bentham's Utilitarianism. I chose these two theories because, to me, they are the ones that seem to be the most realistic and interesting. The way to get from the level of the "is" to the level of the "ought" of the Philosophers in these theories are the two bests. In this essay, it will be shown that the two theories are not so different in their... 1,153 Words | 3 Pages
  • Asses the Merits of Utilitarianism - 1458 Words Assess the merits of Utilitarianism (24 Marks) Utilitarianism is a theory aimed at defining one simple basis that can be applied when making any ethical decision. It is based on a human's natural instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Jeremy Bentham is widely regarded as the father of utilitarianism. He was born in 1748 into a family of lawyers and was himself, training to join the profession. During this process however, he became disillusioned by the state British law was in and set out... 1,458 Words | 4 Pages
  • Outline the key features of utilitarianism Outline the key features of utilitarianism The theory of utilitarianism was developed by and associated by Jeremy Bentham and utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory where the moral value of an action can be judged by its consequences. Three main philosophers have come up with different types of utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham introducing Act Utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill trying to improve the flaws that he encountered with Bentham’s theory with his Rule Utilitarianism and... 735 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Healthy Homeless People Extreme Measures is about ethics. How far is someone willing to go, and how much we are willing to sacrifice, in order to cure the world's setbacks. Utilitarianism is defined as the moral philosophy that says we should act in such ways as to make the greatest number of people as happy as possible. In the movie, Dr. Myrick acts as the utilitarian. He takes healthy homeless people with “no purpose” to live into his lab and performs experiments on them for research to help people who are not... 310 Words | 1 Page
  • Key Features of Utilitarianism - 1193 Words Examine the key features of utilitarianism (21) The theory of Utilitarianism is based on the concept of utility, a theory of usefulness. Utilitarianism is a system of morality that generates us with what the most useful thing to do in different situations and outcomes. Different Utilitarian approaches to morality have emerged each with their own theory of good and community of concerning individuals. Featuring the main influential contributors to this theory are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart... 1,193 Words | 3 Pages
  • The Lonesome Stranger and Utilitarianism - 934 Words Utilitarianism and the Lonesome Stranger Utilitarianism is the ethical theory that believes one should do what will promote the greatest utility for as many people as possible, that utility is often considered to be happiness or pleasure. There are different kinds of utilitarian views; hedonistic, preference, rule, and act to name a few, but they all have the same main objective. This theory does indeed seem good at first, but it is flawed. The case of the lonesome stranger challenges... 934 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism Stuart vs Mill One of the major players in ethical theories has long been the concept of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism states that in general the ethical rightness or wrongness of an action is directly related to the utility of that action. Utility is more specifically defined as a measure of the goodness or badness of the consequences of an action. Utility is considered to be the tendency to produce happiness. There are two types of Utilitarianism; "act" and "rule". An act utilitarian uses thought... 994 Words | 3 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Animal Rights - 3188 Words Animal Rights Throughout history morality has been a topic of intense debate. Innumerable thinkers have devoted immense amounts of time and energy to the formulation of various ethical theories intended to assist humans in their daily lives. These theories set out guidelines which help to determine the rightness or wrongness of any given action and can therefore illuminate which choice would be morally beneficial. And while many of these theories differ substantially, most have at least one... 3,188 Words | 9 Pages
  • Utilitarianism in Health Care Issues In this paper, I will evaluate Health Canada’s argument to the Ministry of Health that coalmining in Dunsmuir Coalmine, Belleville NS needs to be shut down as a moral good to the miners, in consideration of their health. I will argue, using virtue theory and utilitarian philosophy, that coalmining in the town should not be shut down, as shutting it down would not be ultimately beneficial to the miners and their families, and therefore would not be a moral good. Firstly, I will summarise Health... 1,208 Words | 3 Pages
  • Morality and Rule Utilitarianism - 652 Words Utilitarianism can be defined as an ethical philosophy that an action is morally right if its consequences lead to pleasure, and wrong if it ends in pain. There are two types of utilitarianism, that is act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism proposes a decision making procedure for every detailed action. Rule utilitarianism state that utilitarianism standard should be applied not to individual actions, but to moral codes as a whole. There are some arguments for... 652 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism- A Short Critique  Utilitarianism vs. Moral Rights and Principles of Justice Ed Konieczka University of Mary Undergrad Student This assignment asks us to answer the following two questions: Does utilitarianism provide a more objective standard for determining right and wrong than moral rights do? Does utilitarianism provide a more objective standard than principles of justice? I was previously asked to study utilitarianism in a class that studied business law. I was unsatisfied with... 1,027 Words | 3 Pages
  • Explain Benthams Utilitarianism - 589 Words Explain Benthams Utiliarianism (30 marks) The theory of utilitarianism was put forward entierly by Jeremy Bentham, who wrote about Ethics and Politics. He was a social reformer keen to improve the lives of the working class. Many of the improvements made in the treatments of criminals in the 18th and 19th centuries were the results of Benthems ethics. Bentham believed that which is good is that which equals the greatest sum of pleasure and the least sum of pain.... 589 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Greatest Number - 703 Words Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the belief of ‘the greatest good for the happiest and greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong’. Utilitarianism can be characterized as a quantitative and reductionist approach to ethics. It is a type of naturalism. It can be contrasted with deontological ethics, which does not regard the consequences of an act as a determinant of its moral worth; virtue ethics, which primarily focuses on acts and habits leading to happiness; pragmatic ethics; as... 703 Words | 2 Pages
  • Utilitarianism and Animal Rights - 1431 Words Jacob Letourneau 110233960 July 22nd 2013 PP-223-OC1- Contemporary Moral Issues Prof. Simpson Long Essay Utilitarianism and its Paths The definition of utilitarianism is that the morally good thing to do is to pleasure the greatest number of people or animals for the least amount of suffering. For example you can rationalize killing a mass murderer before he kills even more people. Therefore taking the life of one person to save the life of many more. There are multiple arguments... 1,431 Words | 4 Pages
  • Utilitarianism In Contemporary Ethics - 448 Words 1. State the Principle of Utility as formulated by Bentham and Mill and apply it to a particular action (e.g., lying) to illustrate how it works. (3 points.) 2. Explain the difference between “act utilitarianism” and “rule utilitarianism.” (2 points.) 3. Identify three different utilitarian philosophers and explain how their versions of utilitarianism differ from one another. (3 points.) 4. Identify one strength and one weakness of the utilitarian view. (2 points.) 1. The Principle of... 448 Words | 2 Pages
  • Comparison of Direct and Indirect Utilitarianism  Comparing Direct and Indirect Utilitarianism British philosopher, John Stuart Mill, served many years as a member of parliament and worked diligently to bring forth liberal ideas. Amongst these ideas was the distinction of utilitarianism, or the act of doing what is right for the greatest number of people. Yet, just discussing the idea of right versus wrong for the masses was not enough, Mill’s determined there were two forms of utilitarianism; act, the direct form, or sanction, the... 1,511 Words | 4 Pages
  • Critics of Jeremy Benthem Utilitarianism of Criticisms of Utilitarianism Though there are many supporters of utilitarianism given the fact that this theory prioritizes the benefits of the happiness and satisfaction of the majority not the minority, there are some philosophers and scholar who critique its implications. - Distastefulness: The argument from distaste is often expressed as a suggestion that utilitarianism doesn't provide enough support for individuals' rights. It says that just in order to achieve its goal,... 452 Words | 2 Pages

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