Thermodynamics - 1360 Words
Biomolecule BCH 3101
Thermodynamics of Biological Systems • Movement, growth, synthesis of biomolecules, and the transport of ions and molecules across membranes all requires energy. • All organisms acquire energy from their surroundings and utilize that energy efficiently to carry out life processes. • In order to study these bio-energetic phenomena we will require knowledge of thermodynamics.
• Thermodynamics: defined as a collection of laws and principles describing the flows...
1,360 Words | 7 Pages
Thermodynamics - 1889 Words
Thermodynamics is the study of energy which can exist in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. The variables that thermodynamics can be used to define include temperature, internal energy, entropy, and pressure. Temperature, relating to thermodynamics, is the measure of kinetic energy in the particles of a substance. Light is usually linked to absorbance and emission in thermodynamics while pressure, linked with volume, can...
1,889 Words | 7 Pages
THERMODYNAMICS - 1480 Words
UEME1112 Goh Sing Yau (May 2014), FES, UTAR
5.1 Definition of Temperature Equality
If 2 bodies are brought into contact, after a period of time, there is no observable change in
their physical properties (example: length, electrical resistance, density etc). The bodies are
said to be in thermal equilibrium and to be equal in temperature.
The 2 systems are equal in temperature when no change in any property occurs when they are
brought into communication.
1,480 Words | 15 Pages
Thermodynamics - 2389 Words
Objective: to show the relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam
Apparatus: a Marcet boiler (Figure 1) is used. It is provided with a pressure gauge, a digital thermometer and a safety valve. An aneroid barometer is used to determine atmospheric pressure.
1 2 3 Drain valve Heater Overflow
Variation of saturation temperature with pressure
Thermodynamics Laboratory Manual
6 7 8 9
Temperature sensor Pressure relief valve Filler opening...
2,389 Words | 12 Pages
All Thermodynamics Essays
Thermodynamics - 309 Words
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is neither created nor destroyed when transferred from one form to another. This means that the energy we put into a chemical or physical change will be the same energy we get out of the energy transformation. An example of the first law of thermodynamics is when you rub your hands together to generate heat on your palms. This is not creating energy instead you’ve actually moved energy from your body through your muscles and into your hands. The...
309 Words | 1 Page
thermodynamics - 936 Words
Ian A. Waitz
Course Learning Objectives:
To be able to use the First Law of Thermodynamics to estimate the potential for thermomechanical energy conversion in aerospace power and propulsion systems.
Measurable outcomes (assessment method):
1) To be able to state the First Law and to define heat, work, thermal efficiency and
the difference between various forms of energy. (quiz, self-assessment, PRS)
936 Words | 7 Pages
Thermodynamics - 343 Words
Thermodynamics is a branch of natural science concerned with heat and its relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables (such as temperature, internal energy, entropy, and pressure) that characterize materials and radiation, and explains how they are related and by what laws they change with time. Thermodynamics describes the average behavior of very large numbers of microscopic constituents, and its laws can be derived from statistical mechanics.
Thermodynamics applies to a...
343 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics - 3654 Words
Thermochemistry and calorimetry
Chem 1 General Chemistry Virtual Textbook → Chemical Energetics →Thermochemistry
Thermochemistry and calorimetry
Chemical Energetics and thermodynamics - 4
The heat that flows across the boundaries of a system
undergoing a change is a fundamental property that
characterizes the process. It is easily measured, and if
the process is a chemical reaction carried out at
constant pressure, it can also be predicted from the
difference between the...
3,654 Words | 18 Pages
Thermodynamics - 1204 Words
The first established principle of thermodynamics (which eventually became the Second Law) was formulated by Sadi Carnot in 1824. By 1860, as found in the works of those such as Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson, there were two established "principles" of thermodynamics, the first principle and the second principle. As the years passed, these principles turned into "laws." By 1873, for example, thermodynamicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, in his “Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of...
1,204 Words | 6 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab - 698 Words
Introduction: Thermochemistry investigates the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat. The amount of heat generated or absorbed in a chemical reaction can be studied using a calorimeter.
Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory was to determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter, and to understand thermodynamics/calorimetry by applying the calorimetry...
698 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab - 895 Words
Thermodynamics- Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law
1. To calculate the heat of reaction of a given reaction using the concepts derived from Hess’s Law.
1. Define Heat of Reaction.
The enthalpy change associated with the completion of a chemical reaction.
2. Define Specific Heat.
The energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.
3. Calculate the heat of reaction assuming no heat is lost to the calorimeter. Use...
895 Words | 4 Pages
Thermodynamics and Formula - 679 Words
9. A concrete highway is built of slabs 14 m long (20Cº). How wide should the expansion cracks be (at 20Cº) between the slabs to prevent buckling if the temperature range is -30Cº to +50Cº?
I know I use the formula:
L = LoT
L = ? (Change in length of the slabs. We are solving for this.)
= 12e-6 (Coefficient of expansion. I looked it up on page 388.)
Lo = 14 m (Initial length of slabs.)
T = 30 Cº (50Cº - 20Cº) (Change in temperaure. You only care about the hottest...
679 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics 101 - 494 Words
Department: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Course: Thermodynamics – I (ME 131)
Credit Hours: 3-0
Thermodynamics-I is one of the engineering foundation courses. This course deals with work / energy and their interaction. It is designed to attain knowledge about laws of thermodynamics and their application in thermal engineering. This course provides a foundation for subsequent major engineering courses like Fluid...
494 Words | 5 Pages
Thermodynamics 1 - 7112 Words
ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS FOR YEAR I ELECTRICAL
INTRODUCTION AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
All living things depend on energy for survival, and modern civilizations will continue to thrive only if existing sources of energy can be developed to meet the growing demands.
Energy exists in many forms, from the energy locked in the atoms of matter itself to the intense radiant energy emitted by the sun.
Many sources of energy exist: many are known, some perhaps unknown; but...
7,112 Words | 30 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab - 1872 Words
This report will show the acquired understanding of the refrigeration cycle by using first and second laws of thermodynamics. In order to analyze this system several assumptions where made such like an isentropic process at the compressor an isenthalpic expansion in the throttling valve. Diagrams will be provided to depict these thermodynamic processes in addition to computing the heat transferred to the system and the work input to the compressor.
Table of Contents
1,872 Words | 9 Pages
Engineering Thermodynamics - 580 Words
JEPPIAAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
113301 – ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
UNIT – 1 : ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS
1. A piston and cylinder machine contains a fluid system which passes through a complete cycle of four processes. During a cycle, the sum of all heat transfers is -170kJ. The system completes 100 cycles per min. Complete the following table showing the method for each item, and compute the net rate of work output in kW.
580 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics by Coursera - 1546 Words
So last time we talked about work
transfer as a form of energy transfer
across the system boundary.
Now there are a few key points we need to
Work transfer is not a system property.
Where transfer depends on the process
path and there are many different types
and forms of work transfer so last time
we introduced expansion and compression
work and that's the work to raise or
lower a piston.
Now that type of work is very important...
1,546 Words | 8 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab - 1032 Words
Thermodynamics-Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law
To demonstrate the principle of Hess’s Law and to find the heat capacity of the coffee cup calorimeter using three different reactions.
Tave = (46.4-45.2)/2 = 45.8 qwater = -(100g)(4.184)(46.56-45.8) = -318 J Ccal = 318J/(46.56-21.2) = -12.53J/g*C
Tinitial = (27.1+23.8)/2 = 25.45 qrxn = -(100g)(4.18)(38.43-24.45)+(-12.53x12.98)
=-5400J/.1mol(1J/1000kJ) = -54.0 kJ/mol
Tinitial = (26.0-24.5)/2 qrxn...
1,032 Words | 4 Pages
Engineering Thermodynamics - 1012 Words
czyET 3200 – Engineering Thermodynamics
Homework Assignment #6
Due June 15, 2013 @ 5:00 PM
Problem 4.8 - A Home Heat Pump for Space Heating
We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of a 1kW input power home heat pump system for space heating using refrigerant R134a. Consider the following system flow diagram
Thus the heat pump system absorbs heat from the evaporator placed outside in order to pump heat into the air flowing through the insulated duct over the condenser...
1,012 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics Of Borax - 1375 Words
Thermodynamics of Borax
C3C Justin Nevins
Chemistry 200, Section M1A
The purpose of the lab was to determine how the solubility of Borax (Na2B4(OH)4) and other thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature. When Sodium borate octahydrate (Borax) dissociates in water it forms two sodium ions, one borate ion and eight water molecules. The chemical reaction is shown as:
A simple acid-base...
1,375 Words | 6 Pages
Thermodynamics notes - 1955 Words
We have criticized evolutionists for their lack of understanding of basic thermodynamic principles, and we have criticized creationists for their inadequate explanation of why thermodynamic considerations rule out any possibility of evolution. Now it is time for us to attempt to do what others have failed to do.
This is no easy task. In engineering colleges, thermodynamics often turns out to be one of two "weed-out courses" that causes students to change majors. (The other is fluid...
1,955 Words | 7 Pages
Application of Thermodynamics - 2065 Words
APPLICATION OF THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMIC OF GASES
In thermodynamic of gases, we can study about the changes to the internal energy of gas and factors affecting the internal energy. Thermodynamic also involves work done and heat supplied or lost by a gas.
The study of temperature, heat, and related macroscopic properties comprises the branch of physics.
Thermodynamics deals with processes which cause energy changes (internal...
2,065 Words | 9 Pages
thermodynamics and economics - 4978 Words
The paper postulates a thermodynamic theory of money and describes both quantitavely and qualitatively its mechanics
that unify economic production and finance in a sustainability framework. The theory will examine various economic
issues, such as, full employment, economic growth, economic development, economic justice, the role of financial
institutions, technology transitions and sustainable natural resource use, and be contrasted with the dominant money
theory. It is claimed...
4,978 Words | 15 Pages
Thermodynamics of Colloid - 590 Words
Colloids is a system which consist of two or more phase, which are dispersed phase and medium of dispersion. The size of colloids particle is in the range of 10-9m to 10-6m. However this molecules is too small to be viewed under ordinary optical microscopy measurement. This colloidal particles is classified into several type, based on the physical state of the dispersed phase and dispersed medium. Moreover for solution, it can be defined as a homogenous phase which is formed by...
590 Words | 2 Pages
Introduction to Thermodynamics - 2745 Words
Introduction to thermodynamics
Topics First law of thermodynamics. Deﬁnitions of internal energy and work done, leading to dU = dq + dw. Heat capacities, Cp = CV + R. Reversible and irreversible processes. Various types of expansion, isothermal, adiabatic. CV and Cp according to kinetic theory, monatomic gases, other gases. The meaning of temperature, empirical temperature scale, perfect gas scale, the second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic temperature scale. So far, we have...
2,745 Words | 10 Pages
- Laws of Thermodynamics - 633 Words
Lesson1- Laws of Thermodynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is the study of energy, the conversion of energy to various forms and the ability of energy to do work. The term ‘Thermodynamics’ originate from two root words ‘thermo’ which means heat and ‘dynamic’ which means power. The laws of thermodynamics are absolute and the observable universe obeys the Laws of Thermodynamics.
The First Law of Thermodynamics is commonly known as the Law of Conservation of...
633 Words | 2 Pages
Explaination of Thermodynamics - 633 Words
A Layman’s Explanation of Two Laws of Thermodynamics
Energy is encountered in many forms, such as mechanical, chemical (food and fuel), electrical, nuclear, heat, and radiant (light). Energy has the ability to bring about change or to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of energy. The field of thermodynamics studies the behavior of energy flow in natural systems. These studies have rendered two laws of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics is also known as the law of conservation of...
633 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics Reviewer - 2618 Words
|College of Engineering and Computer Science
Mechanical Engineering Department
Mechanical Engineering 370
Thermodynamics | |
| |Fall 2010 Course Number: 14319 Instructor: Larry Caretto |
Unit Three Homework Solutions, September 16, 2010
1 A classroom that normally contains 40 people is to be air conditioned with window air conditioning units of 6 kW cooling capacity. A person at rest may be assumed to...
2,618 Words | 10 Pages
Thermodynamics and Marks - 987 Words
HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES
DEGREE OF BENG IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechanical Engineering Science 3
??day ?? June 2007 ??:?? – ??:??
Answer TWO questions from each section A & B.
Q1. a) For a Newtonian fluid state an expression for the shear stress.
b) An ice hockey puck traverses the ice on a thin sheet of water. A puck struck by an ice hockey player Initially...
987 Words | 6 Pages
Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry - 423 Words
Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry
The study of energy and its transformations is known as thermodynamics. Thermochemistry is the branch of thermodynamics that relates to chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat. Most thermochemical studies are conducted in a laboratory where the transfer of heat can be carefully monitored in a closed system. The measurement of heat transfer is called calorimetry. The device in which heat transfer is measured is called a calorimeter. A calorimeter...
423 Words | 2 Pages
Atmospheric Thermodynamics - 845 Words
In industry, a heat exchanger is used to cool down streams for temperature sensitive processes. The now hot cooling water is useless to the plant unless something is done to cool it down. In industry, cooling water towers are used to bring the water back down to a sufficient level . In a cooling tower, outside atmospheric air is flowed through a “column” while the hot water sprayed into the system. Since air is never at full saturation of water (unless it is raining), some of the...
845 Words | 4 Pages
INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS - 1518 Words
FUNDAMENTALs of thermodynamics
INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS
Applied Thermodynamics is the Science of the inter-relationship between Heat, Work and Properties of Systems. It is concerned with the means necessary to convert heat energy from available sources such as chemical fuel or nuclear piles into mechanical work.
This is the transformation of work and heat in relation to the properties of matter on macroscopic or bulk basis....
1,518 Words | 8 Pages
Thermodynamics: Entropy - 953 Words
Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to any form of energy. In thermodynamics, both the thermodynamic system and its environment are considered. A thermodynamic system, in general, is defined by its volume, pressure, temperature, and chemical make-up. In general, the environment will contain heat sources with unlimited heat capacity allowing it to give and receive heat without changing its temperature. Whenever the conditions change, the...
953 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics and Ferric Oxide - 992 Words
1. In a certain process, 678 J of heat is absorbed by a system while 294 J of work is done on the system. What is the change in internal energy for the process?
2. 10 g of Argon gas is compressed isothermally and reversibly at a temperature of 27o C from 10L to 5L. Calculate q, W, ∆E and ∆ H for this process. R=2.0cal K-1 mol-1, At. wt of Ar=40,log 2=0.30.
3. Calculate q, W, ∆E and ∆ H for the isothermal reversible expansion of one mol of an ideal gas from...
992 Words | 4 Pages
Thermodynamics and Final Volume - 928 Words
COMSATS – LANCASTER
(Dual Degree Program)
EEE-112 Engineering Mechanics and Thermodynamics
Assignment # 1 Submission date: Mon, Sep 17, 2012
1. A certain fluid at 10 bar is contained in a cylinder behind a piston, the initial volume being 0.05 m3. Calculate the work done by the fluid when it expands reversibly:
a. at constant pressure to a final volume of 0.2 m3;
b. according to a linear law to a final volume of 0.2 m3 and a final pressure of 2 bar;
928 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer - 1883 Words
National Diploma in Mechanical Engineering
Section A: COMPULSORY Answer ALL questions 1-12 1. A resistance temperature device has a resistance R0 = 100 Ω at 0o C. If the resistance RT = 197.7 Ω in an oil bath, what is the temperature of the oil in the bath, given that RT = R0(1+αT)? Take R0 = 100 Ω R0 = resistance at 0o C α = 3.9083 x 10-3 /o C (2 marks)
NDE Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Exam 2008
Read all the instructions before starting...
1,883 Words | 13 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab Report - 2147 Words
In this lab, the purpose was to verify Hess’s Law. Four main topics were covered during this experiment including enthalpy of reaction, heat of formation, Hess’s Law, and calorimetry.
The enthalpy of reaction, ΔHrxn is the heat or enthalpy change for a chemical reaction. The energy change is equal to the amount of heat transferred at a constant pressure in the reaction. The change represents the difference in enthalpy of the products and the reactants and is independent of the...
2,147 Words | 9 Pages
Laws of Motion and Thermodynamics - 629 Words
When watching tennis match or any other sport who of thought science played a big part? Science is involved in many things; we just don’t see it. It’s much entertaining to watch a match then to learn from it. The way we look at science is the use of chemicals, explosions, experiments, etc. What we don’t really see is how science is related to any sport. The use of these science laws plays a big part in the way sports are played. Newtown’s laws of motion and the laws of thermodynamics set...
629 Words | 2 Pages
Second Law of Thermodynamics - 1022 Words
The first law of thermodynamics states that a certain energy balance will hold when a system undergoes a change of state or a thermodynamic process. But it does not indicate whether that change of state or the process is at all feasible or not. It is the second law of thermodynamics which provides the criterion as to the probability of various processes through the statements of Clausius that ‘’Heat does not pass from a body at low temperature to one at high temperature without an accompanying...
1,022 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics and Thermal Efficiency - 838 Words
dksd dksmdfklda dksmdfmsd dfdsa sdfds sdfas d gfgdsf sd fsd d s d sd d gsdf gs d fgsd f g sd d g d g df d dfgf d g dff d sf s f sf d s f s f s f sdgfsdf sdf s d g sdf d d f f d sdddddddddd f gf d f ff f f s d gs df sdfgwsgsd gfsdfljkljgs sjgfskjflskjgsl sjflskjsjg skgsjjljdf s jskjljlsjlkjs sjfkjsdflgsenters the boiler at a pressure of 18 MPa, and
saturated vapor enters the turbine. The condenser pressure is
6 kPa. Determine
(a) the thermal efficiency.
(b) the back...
838 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics Paper Vdw Model
Crystalline Solids Structure and Perturbation Approximation Methods Voices from the past rarely resonant as loudly in the present, however, for the Van der Waals (VDW) theoretical perspective, its voice has found substantially significant vibrancy in today’s modern scientific community. The advent of computer simulations has lead to the creation of complex theoretical models that can be calculated and visualized like...
1,672 Words | 7 Pages
Thermodynamic Variables of KNO3 - 1541 Words
Solution Calorimetry: Thermodynamics of Potassium Nitrate
A determination of thermodynamic variables of KNO3 is presented. KNO3 was heated and dissolved in varying volumes of distilled water. Upon dissolution, the KNO3 solution was removed from heat and the temperature was recorded once crystals formed. For each solution, ∆G the Ksp were found with the temperature and molarity values. ∆H and ∆S were found through the linearization of...
1,541 Words | 6 Pages
Corolaries of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Corollary 1: The clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics is the first corollary i.e. ‘It is impossible to construct a device operating in a closed cycle that performs no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.’
The mathematical statement of which is given by; Q1‐Q2=W Q1 W Q2 Corollary 2: It is impossible to construct an engine operating between only two heat reservoirs, which will have a higher efficiency than a reversible heat engine operating...
648 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics and Coffee Cup Holder
2mol of HCL * V = 50 cm3 * 1 mol
Volume needed to neutralise 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 of NaOH is 25 cm3 of HCL
Independent variable: Volume of HCL
Dependent variable: Temperature of mixed solution
Controlled variables: Volume of alkaline, Concentration of acid, Concentration of alkaline
d)Fix the burette into a burette holder securely. Pour HCL into the burette with a funnel until it reaches the 0.0cm3 mark.
e)The risk of using plastic cup...
334 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics impact paper - 1008 Words
December 4, 2013
Dr. Doba Jackson
Thermodynamics within a Heat Engine
Physical chemistry can be considered anything that undergoes a physical or chemical change using the underlying concepts of mathematics and physics. According to chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis, “Physical chemistry is everything that is interesting” (ACS). When you think about it, physical chemistry is all around us in the world we live in today. Some aspects of physical chemistry can even...
1,008 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics and Ideal Gas - 1188 Words
Problem 1: A volume 10 m3 contains 8 kg of oxygen at a temperature of 300 K. Find the work necessary to decrease the volume to 5 m3, (a) at a constant pressure and (b) at constant temperature. (c) What is the temperature at the end of the process in (a)? (d) What is the pressure at the end of process in (b)? (e) Show both processes in the p-V plane. Problem 2: The temperature of an ideal gas at an initial pressure p1 and volume V1 is increased at constant volume until the...
1,188 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics and Ideal Gas - 5879 Words
Thermodynamics Exam Prep 2012
Chapter 1: Basic and Ideal Gas Law
1.1 State of a System
System + surroundings = Universe
Open system: can exchange matter and energy with the surroundings
Closed system: can exchange energy with the surroundings
Isolated system: cannot exchange matter or energy with the surroundings
If one knows the x/y/z position and the vx/vy/vz velocity of a particle (6 parameters) for a time point t0 it is possible to predict where the particle will be for any future...
5,879 Words | 24 Pages
The application of Thermodynamics In Industry - 2038 Words
Title : The application of Thermodynamics In
MUHAMAD NORSAM BIN HASHIM
SYAFIQ BIN SULAIMAN
Lecture Name : ASNIDA YANTI ANI
Date of Submission : 3/9/2014
Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy, which is essential for sustenance of life and thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering and...
2,038 Words | 7 Pages
Thermodynamics and Chemical Reactions - 367 Words
Energy, often in the state of heat, is involved in chemical reactions and phases changes. Changes in energy, can translate in temperature differentiations. In such a case, energy is transferred as heat. The quantity of heat exerted in a reaction referred to as (joules) can be identified through the following equation:
Heat Exerted= (Mass of Sample) x (Specific Heat) x (Change in Temperature)
Within a calorimeter is where the reactions within this lab take place. A calorimeter allows...
367 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics Lab Manual - 2591 Words
CHEMICAL LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR (EP 205/EG207)
Name: Student ID: Course:
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
UCSI UNIVERSITY 2013
TABLE OF CONTENT General Instructions Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Experiment 6 Isentropic Expansion Process Brief Depressurization The Fundamental Pressure-Temperature Relationship of Saturated Steam in Equilibrium Determination of Ratio of Volume...
2,591 Words | 10 Pages
Thermodynamic steady flow process
THERMODYNAMICS - THEORY
A control volume may involve one or more forms of work at the same time. If the boundary of the control volume is stationary, the moving boundary work is zero, and the work terms involved are shaft work and electric work. Another work form with the fluid is flow work.
Flow Work (Flow Energy)
A Flow Element
Flow Work with Imaginary Piston
Click to View Movie (68 kB)
Work is needed to push the fluid into or out of the...
707 Words | 4 Pages
Short Essays on Thermodynamics - 351 Words
Short Essays on Thermodynamics
1. The two ways of transferring heat are Conduction and Radiation:
Heat conduction, also called diffusion, is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature at thermal equilibrium. Conduction happens in both fluids and solids.
351 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics Of Borax LAB REPORT
Heats Effect on Borax
By: Alexis H. Prince
Department of Chemistry; Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC 29526
April 13, 2015
Borax has many uses, whether it’s being used as an antiseptic, helping to cure people, getting rid of pests, or even assisting fruit trees in their growth. It is actually the most important source of the element boron, and has been used for years as a “water softening agent.” Borax was found forming in saline lakes, or one may find it in Boron,...
1,293 Words | 5 Pages
Application of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Another industry related to the second law of thermodynamics is the air-conditioner. As the weather in this country, Malaysia is always hot and humid, air-conditioners are used to cool down the surrounding inside the house. In fact, the concept of air-conditioner is one of the applications of the second law of thermodynamics which stated that for any process occurring in a closed system, the entropy increases for an irreversible system and remains constant for a reversible system, but never...
526 Words | 2 Pages
The second law of thermodynamics - 644 Words
The Second law of thermodynamics
There are four laws of thermodynamics, which define temperature, energy and entropy, characterizing thermodynamic systems. To understand the second law of thermodynamics we should know that on a basic level it explains the “catch twenty-twos” to the first law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics says that energy can never be created nor destroyed, only transferred to another form of energy. The second law states that some processes do not take...
644 Words | 2 Pages
Thermodynamics and Electronic Ear Thermometer
THE MERCURIAL THERMOMETER
The principle of the mercurial thermometer is that mercury when heated expands more than glass. If, therefore, a glass-tube having a bulb blown at one end be partially rilled with mercury and immersed in a bath at a higher temperature than its own, the mercury will rise in the tube. If the bath have a lower temperature, the mercury will fall. If the mercury neither rise nor fall we may fairly conclude that the mercury and the bath are each at the same temperature. The...
836 Words | 3 Pages
Thermodynamics of a laptop computer - 475 Words
Thermodynamics of a laptop computer
Electronic computers currently have many orders of magnitude more thermodynamic process of freedom than information-bearing ones (bits).Because of this, these levels of description are usually considered separately as hardware and software, but as devices approach fundamental physical limits these will become comparable and must be understood together. Using some simple test problems, I explore the connection between the information in a laptop...
475 Words | 2 Pages
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics - 2753 Words
Basic Concept and Definition
Thermodynamics is known as a branch of the physics and also conceptualise engineering science. Scientists are normally interested in understanding fundamentals of physical as well as chemical behavior of the fixed and the quiescent quantities of matter and also use principles of the thermodynamics to relate properties of the matter. Whereas, engineers are in general interested in studying the systems and their interaction with the surroundings. In...
2,753 Words | 9 Pages
LAB REPORT THERMODYNAMIC - 1399 Words
Thermodynamics- Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law
December 5, 2011
Kylie Case, Emma McKee, Rebecca Smith
Purpose: In this lab, the purpose was to verify Hess’s Law.
Four main topics were covered during this experiment including enthalpy of reaction, heat of formation, Hess’s Law, and calorimetry.
The first being enthalpy of reaction, ΔHrxn, which is the heat or enthalpy change for a chemical reaction. The energy change is equal to the amount of heat transferred at a...
1,399 Words | 7 Pages
Exothermic: Thermodynamics and Data Table
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Lab
The purpose of this lab is to observe how heat is released or absorbed with different chemicals.
Data Table 1 – HCI and NaOH
Volume 1.0 M HCI(ml)
Volume1.0 M NaOH (ml)
Ti of HCI before mixing
Ti of NaOH before mixing(
Average Ti before mixing(
Tf of mixture )
Specific Heat (J/g)
Heat, q (J)
777 Words | 8 Pages
identify laws of motion thermodynamics
Identify Laws of Motion and Thermodynamics
The first example is oscillating a pendulum, which is categorized in the law of motion due to the object remaining in that state unless an external force is applied. The second example stating cooling food and drinks in a refrigerator is categorized in the laws of Thermodynamics due to thermalization. The third example of using the coffeemaker can be a combination of both laws due to moving touching to coffeemaker to make create an action is Law of...
277 Words | 1 Page
chapter 5 thermodynamic - 11807 Words
MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL
Conservation of Mass
5-1C Mass, energy, momentum, and electric charge are conserved, and volume and entropy are not
conserved during a process.
5-2C Mass flow rate is the amount of mass flowing through a cross-section per unit time whereas the
volume flow rate is the amount of volume flowing through a cross-section per unit time.
5-3C The amount of mass or energy entering a control volume does not have to be equal to the amount...
11,807 Words | 129 Pages
Boilers: Thermodynamics and Marine Propulsion Plant
Topic: Principles of Steam Plant Technology
Develop an understanding of the principles of thermodynamics and mechanical engineering related to the design of marine propulsion and auxiliary boilers.
Become familiar with the factors affecting overall efficiency of the generation system, and the measures taken to optimize the performance of a steam propulsion plant.
Modern Marine Engineer's Manual MMEM
Chapter 3 - pages 1...
392 Words | 2 Pages
Refrigeration: Thermodynamics and Simple Vapor Compression
Prof. U.S.P. Shet, Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
6.5 Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System:
A simple vapor compression refrigeration system consists of the following equipments: i) Compressor ii) Condenser iii) Expansion valve iv) Evaporator.
C ∆Q1 200C
FLUID TO BE COOLED
00C ∆Q2 A
Fig.6.5. Simple vapour compression system...
1,611 Words | 10 Pages
Calorimetry: Thermodynamics and Specific Heat Value
Calorimetry and Specific Heat
In this experiment, the specific heat and the density of an unknown metal was determined in order to identify the unknown metal. The average specific heat of the unknown metal was 0.197˚C and was determined using a calorimeter. The density of the unknown metal was 6.57 g/mL and was determined using a cylinder and displacement. Using the specific heat value of the unknown...
983 Words | 5 Pages
Basic Principles and Definition (Thermodynamics 1)
CONCEPTS AND DEFINITION OF THERMODYNAMICS
The study of this lesson will enable the students to:
1. define thermodynamics and other terms necessary in the study of thermodynamics;
2. know the approaches in the study of thermodynamics;
3. state the difference between dimension and unit;
4. explain the different thermodynamics system;
5. differentiate homogenous system to a non homogenous system;
6. know the different thermodynamic properties and...
3,920 Words | 16 Pages
Thermodynamics: Entropy and Suggested Reading Problems
Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts 1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy Application Areas of Thermodynamics 1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units Some SI and English Units Dimensional Homogeneity Unity Conversion Ratios 1-3 Systems and Control Volumes 1-4 Properties of a System Continuum 1-5 Density and Specific Gravity 1-6 State and Equilibrium The State Postulate 1-7 Processes and Cycles The Steady-Flow Process 1-8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Temperature Scales The...
506,121 Words | 2088 Pages
Unit 08 Thermodynamics Students Manua
Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India
Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India
The CBSE-International is grateful for permission to reproduce
and/or translate copyright material used in this publication. The
acknowledgements have been included wherever appropriate and
sources from where the...
24,553 Words | 184 Pages
Rice: Thermodynamics and Grain Drying Rate
Drying is the process that reduces grain moisture content to a safe level for storage. Drying is the most critical operation after harvesting a rice crop. Delays in drying, incomplete drying or ineffective drying will reduce grain quality and result in losses.
Drying and storage are related processes. Storage of incompletely dried grain with a higher than acceptable moisture content will lead to failure regardless of what storage facility is used. In addition, the longer the...
1,222 Words | 5 Pages
Thermodynamics Section/Chapter Review(S)
Section Review 9A:
1. Scientists believed that the caloric was a material but mainly that it was an invisible fluid consisting of self-repelling particles. Two examples include how gases expand according to Newton’s laws, and determining the speed of sound in air.
2. The first person to successfully challenge the caloric theory was Benjamin Thompson. Benjamin observed that a dull boring bit could generate more hat than needed to melt the entire cannon barrel.
1,700 Words | 6 Pages
Thermodynamic Investigation of the Joule-Thompson Effect
Thermodynamic Investigation of the Joule-Thompson Effect and Coefficient Determination for Helium and Carbon Dioxide
Niki Spadaro, Megan Cheney, and Jake Lambeth
University of North Florida, CHM4410C Fall 2010
The Joule-Thomson coefficient explains the behavior of any real gas when changes in intensive properties, such as temperature and pressure, occur. The coefficients for helium and carbon dioxide were determined using a Joule-Thomson apparatus that created constant enthalpy within the...
2,206 Words | 10 Pages
Physics: First Law of Thermodynamics Assignment Solutions
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle possible for a heat engine. An engine that operates
accordance to this cycle between a hot reservoir (Til) and a cold reservoir (Te) has efficiency
I - -T
Kelvin temperatures must be used in this equation.
In a certain process, 8.00 kcal of heat is furnished to the system while the system does
6.00 kJ of work. By how much does...
2,110 Words | 25 Pages
Thermodynamic Modeling: a Unique Tool to Study Magma Evolution
Thermodynamic Modeling: A Unique Tool to Study Magmatic Systems
Nikitha Susan Saji
Given a set of variables - temperature, pressure and concentrations of chemical components forming the system – thermodynamic theory has the rigorous theoretical framework that can simulate chemical evolution of magmatic systems. This is what thermodynamic modeling does. Equilibrium phase composition of the system is calculated as a function of existing conditions. This article primarily explains the theory and...
2,882 Words | 10 Pages
The relevance of Statistics and Probability for the study of the thermodynamics properties
Course paper in Philosophy of Science and Ethics
Title: The relevance of Statistics and Probability for the study of the thermodynamics properties (The Maxwell-Boltzmann Theory)
There are many philosophical debates as to the appropriateness of the use of statistics and probability as scientific research measures. Many renowned philosophers believe that since scientific investigation aims at the ultimate goal of presenting truth about the observations and processes in our...
5,872 Words | 17 Pages
Thermodynamic Exam Paper 2012- Level 1
School of Engineering and Design SED06: Examinations Cover Sheet
SUBJECT AREA: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Module Code: Module Title:
Time allowed Hours:
Answer FOUR questions: TWO from Section A, TWO from Section B.
Examiner(s): Prof. T. Megaritis and Dr R. Kirby Special Stationery Requirements:
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids, GFC Rogers and YR Mayhew. Only School approved calculators are allowed....
1,649 Words | 7 Pages
Practical Writeup Experiment 2, Thermodynamics of the Rhodamine B Lactone Zwitterion Equilibrium
The aim of the experiment was to determine the enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) for the Rhodamine β-Lactone Equilibrium. To accomplish this, a manual spectrophotometer was used to determine the maximum absorbance of a sample of Rhodamine β-Lactone. The absorbance of the sample was then measured over a range of temperatures from which the equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy were then calculated.
1,923 Words | 6 Pages
cbse class 11 physics thermodynamics important question and sample paper
Brief Summary of the chapter:
Thermodynamics: Science which deals with study of different forms of
energy and quantitative relationship.
System & Surroundings: The part of universe for study is called system and
remaining portion is surroundings.
State of system & state function: State of system is described in terms of T,
P, V etc. The property which depends only on state of system not upon path
is called state function eg. P, V, T, E, H,...
2,369 Words | 26 Pages
Hess's Law - 1439 Words
Enthalpy and Hess’s Law Lab
Every chemical reaction is accompanied by a change in heat. Thermochemical reactions include the heat of reaction as part of the
equation. The heat released or absorbed in a reaction at constant pressure is the Enthalpy change (∆Hrxn) for the reaction. The enthalpy
change for each reaction is unique to that reaction. Many values for ∆Hrxn were experimentally determined, and many were calculated used
Hess’s law. This lab will illustrate the principle...
1,439 Words | 7 Pages
Designing a Handwarmer Lab Report (AP Chemistry)
Julia (hour 2)
TITLE: INVESTIGATION – Hand Warmer Design Challenge: Where does the heat come from?
PURPOSE: to determine which of the 3 ionic compounds (NaCl, LiCl, or NaCH3COO) is most
suitable for use as a hand warmer
DAY 1 (Part 2 only):
1) Measure out 2 separate samples of 100.0 mL of distilled water
2) Heat one to about 50˚C, and place other one in calorimeter (at around 20˚C)
3) Add heater water to calorimeter,...
1,784 Words | 24 Pages
Chemistry - 1031 Words
Constructing Distillation Diagrams to Determine Activity Coefficients of the Real solution of Binary Liquids
Kim Shannon Nguyen, Kim Shannon Nguyen* and Heenal Shah
4000 Richmond Ln, Blacksburg, VA 24060
Supporting Information available
ABSTRACT: This experiment attempted to determine the relationship between vapor pressure and the composition of the solutions of cyclohexane and ethyl acetate at various concentrations. This was achieved through an experimental analysis...
1,031 Words | 4 Pages
Physics Investigation SHC - 379 Words
An investigation into the specific heat capacity of a solid
In this experiment I investigated the specific heat capacity of brass and aluminium, in order to do this I arranged a series circuit with a heater, the heater would go inside the brass and aluminium and heat it for an amount of time in which I decided, I also used the voltmeter in parallel. This arrangement made me able to arrange the equation VIT= mcΔθ, since the electrical energy in would be equal to the mass times...
379 Words | 2 Pages
ammonia-water - 21726 Words
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 681–707
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: elsevier.com/locate/rser
An overview of ammonia-based absorption chillers and heat pumps
Wei Wu, Baolong Wang, Wenxing Shi, Xianting Li n
Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China
art ic l e i nf o
a b s t r a c t
Received 27 January...
21,726 Words | 142 Pages
General Chemistry Ii - Midterm 1 Answ
ersStudent name: ________________________________
Student ID Number: ________________________________
Length: 1.5 hours
Instructor: Sandra Warren
Instructions: Please use pen. Calculators allowed.
Part A: (3 marks each)
Q. 1 | Q.2 | Q.3 | Q.4 | Q.5 | Q.6 |
Part B: (10 marks each)
Q.1 | Q.2 | Q.3 | Q4. |
Total: / 52 marks
Part A: Short Answer. Only answer 4 of the 6 questions.
(3 marks each)
A1. Under standard state conditions, predict which...
1,257 Words | 5 Pages
Rdr 1 - 1041 Words
DATE PERFORMED: NOVEMBER 14, 2012
INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
RECEIVED NOVEMBER 20, 2012
Heat is a form of energy that can be passed from an object with high temperature to an object with low temperature.
The heat required to change the temperature of a substance by 1 K is called heat capacity.
A calorimeter is a device commonly used to measure the amount of heat...
1,041 Words | 5 Pages
Graphical Representation of Data - 921 Words
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA
1. Pressure versus temperature (P-T)
2. Pressure vs. volume (P-v)
3. Temperature vs. volume (T-v)
4. Temperature vs. entropy (T-s)
5. Enthalpy vs. entropy (h-s)
6. Pressure vs. enthalpy (P-h)
The term saturation temperature designates the temperature at which vaporization takes place.
For water at 99.6 C the saturation pressure is 0.1 M Pa, and for water at 0.1 Mpa, the saturation...
921 Words | 4 Pages
Open and Closed System - 260 Words
A system that allows third parties to make products that plug into or interoperate with it. For years, the term "open systems" (plural) referred to the Unix world because Unix ran in more types of computer hardware than any other operating system
Open systems are computer systems that provide some combination of interoperability, portability, and open software standards. It can also mean specific installations that are configured to allow unrestricted access by people...
260 Words | 2 Pages
Phsical Chemistry Laboratory - 291 Words
CHEM 323 PHSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
Name: PINAR AYDOĞAN Date of experiment: 03/10/2011
Date of submission: 10/10/2011
Accompanying TA: Gözde Barım
Experiment Title: Thermal Equation of State and Critical Point
PURPOSE: Determining the...
291 Words | 2 Pages
Vapour Absorbtion Refrigeration - 2006 Words
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12)
Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
V.D.Patel*a, A.J.Chaudhari*, R.D.Jilte*
(Department of Mechanical Engineering)* Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology, Vasai (W), Dist: Thane, Pin: 401 202, (M.S.), INDIA. e-maila: [email protected]
2,006 Words | 7 Pages
Pressure-Temperature Relationship for Steam
Pressure-Temperature Relationship for Steam
The objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between saturation pressure and saturation temperature of the wet steam.
Pressure-temperature apparatus with pressure gauge and thermometer.
In order to determine the relationship between the saturation temperature and pressure of wet steam it is necessary to obtain a number of corresponding values of...
1,148 Words | 9 Pages
Chemistry 12 Equilibrium Review3
Review Sheet on Unit 2
What two things are equal at equilibrium?
_________________________________ and ________________________________
Consider the following potential energy diagram:
a) Which reaction, forward or reverse, will be affected more by an increase in
b) Write a thermochemical equation for the forward reaction using the numerical value
for the heat.
1,205 Words | 15 Pages
Enthalpy - 610 Words
Planning Exercise 2: Energetics & Alcohols
The enthalpy change of combustion of ethanol, ∆Hc, can be determined experimentally under laboratory conditions using the following apparatus.
(a) Using the apparatus shown above and any other apparatus required that is normally found in a school laboratory, plan a step-by-step method to determine the enthalpy change of combustion of ethanol, ∆Hc.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure 50.0 cm3 water with a measuring cylinder and fill into the copper can. Set...
610 Words | 3 Pages
Chemistry Lab Essay and Error Analysis
In the experiment the main concepts were the ideal gas law, the molar enthalpy of vaporization (, and the.
Using the equation and the plotted graph we know that the slope is equal to, with the intercept C. With the plotted points of lnP and 1/T we can find the value. We also know that is independent of temperature as long as the temperature range is limited and the pressure is about 1 atm, which in our situation both are true.
A simple but key procedure that was...
467 Words | 2 Pages
Thermometric Titration - 704 Words
Date: October 29, 2014
Title: Thermometric Titration
Purpose: To determine the concentration of sulphuric acid by thermometric titration
Background Information: A thermometric titration is a titration technique where the endpoints of the reaction are located from the enthalpy change between the reagents. In thermometric titration we make use of the fact that reactions in solution are accompanied by temperature changes and thus it is possible to follow the course of the reaction with a...
704 Words | 4 Pages
Differential Heating - 411 Words
The purpose of this differential heating lab is to see which of the given materials would heat up faster or remain the same when heated by our heat lamp. in previous years, when this lab has been conducted for the most part, results were the same as our results. Our background knowledge consisted of knowing about which of the given materials were more flammable.
Hypothesis: if differential heating occurs, then different materials will heat at different rates. I would assume that the...
411 Words | 2 Pages
Hello - 678 Words
-425.93 -92.30 -407.27 -285.83
Hess's Law: ΔH(rxn) = Sum[ΔH(f) products] - Sum[ΔH(f) reactants]
ΔH(rxn) = [(1 mol)(-407.27 kJ/mol) + (1 mol)(-285.83 kJ/mol)] - [(1 mol)(-425.93 kJ/mol) + (1 mol)(-92.30)]
= - 359.47 kj/molWhy are there energy changes when a chemical reaction takes place? Do physical state changes involve energy changes? Exothermic energy changes and endothermic energy changes in chemical reactions are described, and exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions are discussed...
678 Words | 3 Pages
Evaporator - 265 Words
* For Refrigeration Effect RE
* Enthalpy Properties
h1 = 348
h2 = 400
h3 = 260
h4 = 260
* For mass in the system
Qs = m (h1 – h4)
65 kW = m (348 – 260)
* Qe = 65 kw
* Temperature at the evaporator is -31.56 0C
* Specific volume is 0.528 m3/kg (from ph diagram)
* Consider steel material for coil: Uo=90-120 Btuhrft2 0F ; use 105Btuhrft2 0F
* Allowable velocity at the liquid line is 125 – 450 ft/min; use 287.5...
265 Words | 3 Pages