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Pricing Essays & Research Papers

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  • Pricing - 3675 Words Table of Content 1a) Page 3 1b) Page 3-4 1c) Page 4-5 2a) Page 5-6 2b) Page 7-8 3a) Page 9-10 3b) Page 11 3c) Page 11-12 4a) Page 13 4b) Page 13 5a) Page 14 5b) Page 14 Reference Page 15 1a) Listed in 2012, Global Premium Hotels Ltd (GPHL) is a Singapore based hotel operator and developer. The group’s first hotel,... 3,675 Words | 10 Pages
  • Pricing - 373 Words Pricing Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in microeconomic price allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix. The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place. Price is the only revenue generating element amongst... 373 Words | 1 Page
  • Pricing - 278 Words Determine price for each of the product of your choice based on the pricing strategies you have learnt. There are two type of new product pricing strategies which is skim pricing and penetrate pricing. Skim pricing A product pricing strategy by which a firm charges the highest initial price that customers will pay. As the demand of the first customers is satisfied, the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment. * Used when * Demand for the product... 278 Words | 2 Pages
  • pricing - 1917 Words 136 - Unit 2: Marketing Plan: Pricing Strategies Pricing Strategies There is no limit to the number of variations in pricing strategies and tactics. This wide variety of options is exactly what allows small business owners to be so creative. Pricing always plays a critical role in a firm’s overall strategy: pricing policies must be compatible with a company’s total marketing plan. Introducing a New Product Most small business owners approach setting the price of a new product with a great... 1,917 Words | 6 Pages
  • All Pricing Essays

  • Pricing - 1523 Words HND Marketing Principles 1301 BA (Hons) International Management Activity 6- Pricing 1. Give an example of each major type of pricing objective: profit-oriented pricing, sales-oriented pricing and status quo pricing. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel (2012) mention that establishing realistic and measurable pricing objectives is a serious part of any firm’s marketing policy. Pricing objectives are usually categorized into three categories: profit oriented, sales oriented and status quo. In consistent... 1,523 Words | 5 Pages
  • Pricing objectives and pricing methods in the Pricing objectives and pricing methods in the services sector George J. Avlonitis and Kostis A. Indounas Department of Marketing and Communication, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to explore the pricing objectives that service companies pursue along with the pricing methods that they adopt in order to set their prices. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive review of the literature revealed the... 8,311 Words | 35 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 1131 Words Pricing Strategies Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Pricing Strategies Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Penetration Pricing Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Penetration Pricing • Price set to ‘penetrate the market’ • ‘Low’ price to secure high volumes • Typical in mass market products – chocolate bars, food stuffs, household goods, etc. • Suitable for products with long anticipated life... 1,131 Words | 11 Pages
  • Siebel Pricing - 8962 Words The contents of this document are confidential and proprietary to Siebel Systems, Inc. Revision History: When Who What 11/17/2004 Rob Seaman Original creation 11/22/2004 Ashish Kothari Updates 3/22/2006 Jonathan Fan Updates Table of Contents Revision History: 2 Table of Contents 3 What This Is 4 Whom to Contact 4 Dynamic Pricing Procedure 4 Steps 4 Step Details 7 1. Check Header Price List 7 2. Raise Expired Error 8 3. Raise Not Effective... 8,962 Words | 29 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 2494 Words Strategies Definition Pricing is a powerful element of a small business’s marketing strategy. The pricing structure of your products and services, and how it relates to your competitors’ pricing strategies and the expectations of consumers, play an important role in creating an image for your company and establishing a specific customer base. An analysis of pricing strategy reveals that companies have a range of options in their pricing toolkit they can use to... 2,494 Words | 9 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 9923 Words Chapter 11 Pricing Strategy Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____ on pricing decisions concern primarily the nature of the target market and expected reactions of consumers to a given price or change in price. a. Government influences b. Environmental influences c. Supply influences d. Demand influences Answer: d Learning Objective: 11-1 Level of Difficulty: Easy Bloom's: Knowledge AACSB: Analytic Topic: Demand Influences On Pricing Decisions Page: 163 Explanation:... 9,923 Words | 56 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 608 Words Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs Marketing Management Price Changing in the Internet Internet reverse the fixed pricing trend, since: Buyers can: Get instant price comparisons from thousands of vendors. Name their price and have it met. Get products free. Both Buyers and Sellers can: Negotiate prices in online auctions and exchanges Sellers can: Monitor customer behavior and tailors offers to individuals. Give certain customers access to special prices. Consumer Psychology... 608 Words | 5 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 2181 Words RUNNING HEAD: Wall-Mart’s Pricing and Supply Management Wall-Mart’s Pricing and Supply Management Cesar Venegas Webster University The traditional goals and philosophies that Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, has left behind, is still leading Wal-Mart as one of the most successful retailers in history. He believed in three guiding principles: 1. Customer Value and Service; 2. Partnership with its associates; 3. Community involvement. Respect to Wal-Mart’s secrets to success, Walton... 2,181 Words | 6 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 401 Words 1. Customer value: What a product or services is worth to the customer. 2. Pricing decision is usually viewed as a way to recover cost, but we need to take the customer into the account/ consideration. The price could be higher than customers are willing to pay for that product. 3. The major factors affecting price are: a. Marketing Strategy b. Customer perceived Value c. Competition d. Cost 4. Role of Marketing Strategy in Pricing a. Price should be consistent with the pricing... 401 Words | 2 Pages
  • Psychological Pricing - 276 Words PSYCHOLOGICAL PRICING: NINE ENDING PRICE Have you ever though what impact does a price which doesn’t end with a simple round number tend to had on consumers? In 1996, Schindler and Kibarian published an experimental study to test the influence of Nine Ending Price. This experiment was conducted through direct mail of a catalogue of women’s clothing retailer to around 90000 women. All catalogues were identical except for the prices, which ended with 00, 99, and 88. Results showed that nine... 276 Words | 1 Page
  • Pricing and Nike - 4245 Words Price •Nike’s pricing is designed to be competitive to the other fashion shoe retailers. The pricing is based on the basis of premium segment as target customers. Nike as a brand commands high premiums. Nike’s pricing strategy makes use of vertical integration in pricing wherein they own participants at differing channel levels or take part in more than one channel level operations. This can control costs and influence product pricing. •The company has designed its pricing structure in a way to... 4,245 Words | 13 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 5410 Words Marketing Management Unit 3 Developing Market Strategies & the Offerings Chapter 12 - Price-Decision and Strategies Lesson 36 - Pricing Strategies Would it not be interesting to how organizations make strategies for pricing? Let us dig deeply into it and find out… The only time when price setting is not a problem is when you are a “price-taker” and have to set prices at the going rate, or else sell nothing at all. This normally only occurs... 5,410 Words | 20 Pages
  • PRICING strategy - 12473 Words CHRISTIAN SERVICE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS STUDIES PRICING AND ITS EFFECTS ON CONSUMER BUYER BEHAVIOUR BY ISAAC OFORI MANU SHIRLEY ANNOR PRISCILLA ADJEI ERIC OFOLI ANANG MARY ABENA FORDJOUR JULY 2011 STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY We have read the university regulation relating to plagiarism and certify that this report is all our own work and do not contain any unacknowledged work from any other source. We also declare that we have been under supervision for this report herein... 12,473 Words | 68 Pages
  • International Pricing - 751 Words International Pricing-15 What is a Price? * Revenue received by a business in exchange for benefits provided * Customers give-up in exchange for the benefits they receive * Costs include: money, time effort, opportunities General Factors in Price Determination * True markets (customers have options) price determined by a combo of cust/co. issues including: * Pricing obj. of business, business constraints, gen pricing strategies, customer influences, competitive... 751 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Methodology - 1804 Words PRICING METHODOLOGY Pricing methods adopted by an organization determines the values attached to its products. Pricing determinant can be Internal or External. An Internal pricing determinant is one that is controlled by the marketer while the external is not controllable by the marketer. We shall be considering the following types of pricing models: PRICE DISCRIMINATION: Price discrimination is the practice of setting a different price for the same product in different segments to the... 1,804 Words | 6 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 366 Words Prices have been at the middle of human communication ever since the day people began trading one good for another. Who doesn’t like to try to predict what an item may cost or even dispute the cost of an item? Coming as no surprise to people, companies are spending most of the companies’ time and resources to figure out how to price a business’s products and/or services not just to better the company but to help compete with the competitors. Ford’s latest pricing strategy is regarding... 366 Words | 1 Page
  • Pricing Strategies - 5929 Words Department of Management Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development SHAF 1013 PRINCIPLE OF MARKETING CHAPTER 11 PRICING STRATEGIES GROUP 10 L ECTURER: Dr. Inda Sukati Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 3 Market Skimming Prices .......................................................................................................... 3 Market Penetrating... 5,929 Words | 16 Pages
  • Pricing Article - 6358 Words rP os t op yo Pricing It Right: Strategies, Applications, and Pitfalls Excerpted from Do No tC Marketer’s Toolkit: The 10 Strategies You Need to Succeed Harvard Business School Press Boston, Massachusetts ISBN-10: 1-4221-0262-9 ISBN-13: 978-1-4221-0262-6 2629BC This document is authorized for use only by Dilipchandra Seetharam at HE OTHER until August 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email protected] or 617.783.7860. rP os t op yo Copyright 2006... 6,358 Words | 35 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 1449 Words Pricing Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in microeconomic price allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix. The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place. Price is the only revenue generating element... 1,449 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 7396 Words [pic] [pic] TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPICS PAGE INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………..3 PRICING INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………… 3-4 IMPORTANCE OF PRICING …………………………………………………….4-5 SOME OF THE MORE COMMON OBJECTIVES OF PRICING………………..5-6 FACTORES EFFECTING DEMAND……………………………………………. 6-7 SETTING PRICING POLICY …………………………………………………… 7-11 PRICING INFLUENCES... 7,396 Words | 27 Pages
  • Psychological Pricing - 325 Words Marketing Management Psychological Pricing Rodrigo Fernández-Romero. 20th March 2010. Psychological Pricing Many sellers believe that prices should end in an odd number (9,99€) instead of 10€ as price. Why?. • • • Because consumers have the tendency of ignoring the last digits instead of doing the rounding. Although actually seeing the cents, they may subconsciously ignore them. Some suggest that this effect may be enhanced when the cents are printed smaller (for example,... 325 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing decisions - 1706 Words Pricing Decisions are decisions faced by top management and marketing managers. How much to charge for a product or service depends on a multitude of factors such as competition, cost, advertising, and sales promotion. Economic theory suggests that the best price for a product or service is the one that maximizes the difference between total revenue and total costs. However, in reality, the price charged is usually some form of cost-plus, which is later adjusted for market conditions and... 1,706 Words | 6 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 616 Words Pricing Strategies The three types of pricing strategies are skimming, penetration, and competitive. Skimming pricing strategy is defined as a pricing strategy involving the use of a high price relative to competitive offerings (Boone and Kurtz, p641). Skimming can be used to introduce a new product slowly. This allows the distribution process to be able to keep up with the market. Sometimes called market-plus pricing, intentionally setting a relatively high price compared with prices... 616 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 5359 Words Table of Contents 1. The Need for Pricing 2. Pricing Software Industry Products 3. Licensing 4. Pricing Discrimination 5. Bundling 6. Other Pricing Issues 7. Summary The Need for Pricing Pricing has far reaching effects beyond the cost of the product. Pricing is just as much a positioning statement as a definition of the cost to buy. Price defines the entry threshold: who your buyers are and their sensitivities, which competitors you will encounter, who you will... 5,359 Words | 15 Pages
  • Lg Pricing - 1710 Words studyLG believes in honest pricing and not being gimmicks of discounts and price reduction as lure. Their strength of marketing is consumer pool, good products and pricing power. * Its product designs are centred on the middle & upper class and the ads screened highlight the product features. * Its employees are totally committed to quality and innovation. They chant “TPI 50 and TDR”, which signifies, total productivity innovation and tear down re-engineering. Through this method... 1,710 Words | 5 Pages
  • Transfer Pricing - 9917 Words 149 Control w it h fairness in transfer pricing A transfer price is useless unless unit managers feel they are being treated fairly while top management retains control Robert G. Eccles It seems straightforward on the face of it: when a unit in a company sells a product to another unit, it ought to charge a fair price. That price may be based on what it cost to make the product, or on the market price of the product, or on some combination of these two. But as most... 9,917 Words | 43 Pages
  • Pricing Methods - 5754 Words 20th MEETING OF THE VOORBURG GROUP Helsinki, Finland 2005 Producer price index for services Pricing methods by Aurél Kenessey (CBS, Netherlands) Benoît Buisson (INSEE, France) Richard McKenzie (OECD) 2 1. Introduction The term ‘pricing method’ in the context of compiling price indices would probably be regarded by most price statisticians as a common concept. However when one attempts to find a definition for this concept, or indeed a definition for various types of ‘pricing... 5,754 Words | 20 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 815 Words Pricing Strategies Competition based pricing Setting the price based upon prices of the similar competitor products. Competitive pricing is based on three types of competitive products: * Products having lasting distinctiveness from competitor’s product. Here we can assume * The product has low price elasticity. * The product has low cross elasticity. * The demand for the product will rise. * Products have perishable distinctiveness from competitor’s product, assuming the... 815 Words | 3 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 1718 Words Written Assignment 5 Pricing Strategies One of the four major elements of the marketing mix is price. Pricing is an important strategic issue because it is related to product positioning. Pricing also affects other marketing mix elements as well, such as product features, channel decisions, and promotion. A pricing strategy is a course of action designed to achieve pricing objectives. This strategy helps marketers set prices. There are many ways to price a product. The following,... 1,718 Words | 7 Pages
  • Pricing Decisions - 816 Words 1. Pricing decisions Factors to consider when setting prices All profit organizations and many non profit organizations must set prices on their products or services. Simply defined, price is the amount of money charged for a product or service. More broadly, price is the sum of the values consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. A company's pricing decisions are affected both by internal company factors and by external environmental factors. These... 816 Words | 3 Pages
  • Pricing strategy - 303 Words  Product, Pricing, and Channels Paper MKT/421 Pricing Strategy Establishing an effective pricing strategy is crucial for the success of a business when launching a product or service. “Pricng decisions affect both the number of sales a firm makes and how much money it earns.” (University of Phoenix, 2011, para. ) Indeed, one of the most important issues facing any business is determining how much to charge for a product or service. The market for tablets and other mobile devices... 303 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 468 Words Price is simply the amount of money that consumers are willing to pay for a product or service (Armstrong and Kotler, 1993). In earlier times, the price was determined through a barter process between sellers and purchasers. In modern times, pricing methods and strategies have taken a number of forms. This paper is aim to explain the different types of Pricing strategies, more specifically the market-penetration pricing strategy. Pricing products, new products or existing products require... 468 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 704 Words Different Pricing Strategies Penetration Pricing Price set to ‘penetrate the market’ ‘Low’ price to secure high volumes Typical in mass market products – chocolate bars, food stuffs, household goods, etc. Suitable for products with long anticipated life cycles May be useful if launching into a new market Market Skimming High price, Low volumes Skim the profit from the market Suitable for products that have short life cycles or which will face competition at some point in the... 704 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 1298 Words INTRODUCTION The board of a small hotel group in Dorset and Hampshire need to select a pricing strategy for their new brochure. Dorset and Hampshire is a seasonal area with a higher occupancy in the summer time then the winter. This would have an effect on the pricing strategy eventually chosen. Pricing is the only element of the marketing mix that does not represent cost. Therefore it is very important to gain the correct strategy otherwise the business can loose revenue or face closure. There... 1,298 Words | 6 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 1054 Words Pricing Strategy and Channel Distribution Pricing Strategy and Channel Distribution Determine and discuss a pricing strategy (Penetration or Skimming). The pricing strategy for Crystal Light Kicks will eventually be in line with current pricing of other Crystal Light products as the Crystal Light brand is already in existence. Current Crystal Light pricing is at a suggested retail price of $2.56 oz for a 1.4 oz package ($3.54) that includes 10 on the go packets and $1.25 oz for a... 1,054 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 480 Words An article in the Herald Sun Review on 29 March 2011 shows Coles now declares war on the price of chickens. In addition, this article also reveals defiant Coles has vowed to expand supermarket price cuts, adding fresh chicken to its discount battle and promising the cost of more staples will soon drop. In this article we can see what the Coles use the marketing concepts of customer wants, pricing, and satisfaction to the market. Coles’s latest product is more price cuts planned in the next few... 480 Words | 2 Pages
  • GAP Pricing - 104 Words The main concept of pricing strategy is to reach various demand of level of customers and their budget. For example, Jean/Denim in women’s collection, is $30 at Old Navy, 70 at GAP and 90 at Banana Republic. The quality, of course, reflects positively to price. Therefore low income and teenager tend to purchase from Old Navy rather than GAP and Banana Republic. But for professional worker or middle income who prefers higher-end apparel, agree to purchase a higher price in Banana Republic... 104 Words | 1 Page
  • Kamikaze pricing - 328 Words  1. What is “kamikaze pricing”? Kamikaze pricing is an extreme form of penetration pricing. “Kamikaze” is a reference to World War II Japanese dive bomber pilots who would sacrifice their lives by crashing their airplanes, heavily loaded with explosives, onto enemy ships. Kamikaze pricing happens when the reasoning for penetration pricing is flawed because marketers wrongly assume lower prices will increase sales. However, in the business world, the continuous pursuit of increasing sales by... 328 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Decision - 437 Words Factors which influence the establishment of prices Price is of fundamental importance as it is the only mix element that actually generates income. But, before any pricing decisions can be undertaken it is important that the factors influencing price are understood. The following are factors which determine price setting: Often are major factors in price determination. Pricing on the basis of cost is not a relatively simple procedure, especially in the absence of information on what... 437 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 560 Words According to the definition the price of the product might be the amount of money that a business expects to receive from good or service which was purchased by its customer. For a majority of products price is determined in a free market by the forces of supply and demand. Also price is one of the 4 elements of Marketing Mix. Pricing strategies are only the medium or long-term pricing plans that a business adopts. There are some main pricing strategies: Price skimming is often used when a... 560 Words | 2 Pages
  • Transfer Pricing - 2202 Words The Fuqua School of Business Duke University International Strategy: WBA 434 Professors Heath, Huddart, & Slotta Transfer Pricing 1. Overview An essential feature of decentralized firms is responsibility centers (e.g., cost-, profit-, revenue-, or investment-centers). The performance of these responsibility centers is evaluated on the basis of various accounting numbers, such as standard cost, divisional profit, or return on investment (as well as on the basis of other non-accounting measures,... 2,202 Words | 10 Pages
  • Mcdonald's Pricing - 1199 Words Price McDonald’s has realised that, despite the cost savings inherent in standardisation, success can often be attributed to being able to adapt to a specific environment. This is indeed the case with its implementation of its pricing strategy, which is one of localisation rather than globalisation. Table II illustrates the comparative Big Mac prices (flagship brand of McDonald’s) from around the world. It succeeds in highlighting the point that McDonald’s has had to come up with different... 1,199 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 864 Words Pricing strategies An enterprise should have a good pricing strategy which is suitable to the company’s current situation or condition in order to earn more profits. By adopting a good pricing strategy, company has a key option to stay viable. If a company wants to earn more profit, merely raising the price of a product is not a good option particularly in economy recession. It can lead a company to downfall as the company’s product lost out in the marketplace because of the price factor.... 864 Words | 3 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy ... - 1523 Words There are many ways in which the price of a product can be determined. The following are the foremost strategies that businesses are likely to use. Contents 1 Competition-based pricing 2 Cost-plus pricing 3 Creaming or skimming 4 Limit pricing 5 Loss leader 6 Market-oriented pricing 7 Penetration pricing 8 Price discrimination 9 Premium pricing 10 Predatory pricing 11 Contribution margin-based pricing 12 Psychological pricing 13 Dynamic pricing 14 Price leadership... 1,523 Words | 6 Pages
  • PRICING DECISIONS - 1382 Words PRICING DECISIONS Introduction Price can go by fares, tuition fees, rent, assessments and so on. All profit organisations and many non-profit-marking organisations face the task of setting a price for their products or service. 1 Factors affecting pricing policy Price sensitivity: Price sensitivity can be defined as the degree to which consumers’ behaviors are affected by the price of the product or service. Price sensitivity is also known as price elasticity of demand and this means the extent... 1,382 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 699 Words Pricing Strategy To set a pricing strategy, there are number of steps taken into consideration as follows: Step 1: Our pricing objectives are to maximize market share and increase sales volume. This strategy will be used when TrackR is being launched into the market. We charge a reasonable price in order for TrackR to be accessible in the market as quickly as possible and also to encourage the interest and excitement of a product. Because of the low price, we are able to raise the sales volume... 699 Words | 3 Pages
  • pricing strategy - 613 Words . Pricing Strategies: 1. Penetration Pricing: This pricing strategy is followed by companies with the intention to maximize their market share. They believe that a higher sales volume will lead to lower unit costs & higher long-run profit. Example: China Mobile Phones in India.This is one of the fastest growing industries in India. China mobile phones are cheap and offer the same features as a expensive mobile from some other well known manufacturer few samples of Chinese mobiles... 613 Words | 3 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 284 Words Device a price strategy to increase market share and to increase market effiency? (100) Currently looking at the data provided sales grew by 4.1% from 2006 to 2007 from 29.177 to 30.284 and market share did not grow from 2006 to 2007 which is 16.8% to 16.7%. Our objective is to increase growth by 1.9% which will be 6% from 4.1% and increase market share from 16.7% to 17% which is realistic. Our pricing strategy would be to increase price to premium and market ourselves to the higher income... 284 Words | 1 Page
  • Pricing Strategy - 2046 Words g White Paper Rate Optimization: Enhancing Your Hotel’s Pricing Strategy For many hotels, developing effective pricing strategies remains a complex issue for revenue managers. Their goal, ultimately, is to maximize companywide revenue and profits while building strong hotel partner relationships within their marketplace. The emergence of rate optimization has made strides to demystify pricing practices and help revenue managers understand the demand characteristics of their products,... 2,046 Words | 9 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 1417 Words Answer of Question No 1 Pricing objectives of Pampers: 1. To capture the Diaper market: Disposable diapers were used less than 5% before launching the pampers Uni if P & G. So P & G had opportunity to enter into the Brazilian market and they launched relatively cheap and high quality Uni. 2. To retain the position: Proctor and Gamble company lost their market position to the Kimberly Clark so it changed its pricing objectives to retain the market position and it broadened... 1,417 Words | 8 Pages
  • Pricing and Milo - 784 Words 2.2 Pricing Strategy 2.2.1 Factors affecting pricing decisions Milo is considered as a product of monopolistic competition market because there are many competitors of Milo in the market. Some of the competitors include Vico, Ovaltine, Horlicks, Dutch Lady and Nutrilite. Secondly, monopolistic competition market has free market entry and exit. This means that new competitors can enter the market easily and Milo may be easily force out of the market by its competitors. Monopolistic competition... 784 Words | 3 Pages
  • The pricing policy - 1860 Words MARKETING Session III: Pricing Policy Question I: Why is pricing policy so important in the marketing mix of a product ? What is pricing? Pricing is the process of determining what a compagny will receive in Exchange for its products. Pricing strategy is important for several aspects in the compagny wich are: Survival : short-term objectives are set in order to survive Profit :the objective is to maximise profits Return on investment : prices are set to attain a specified return... 1,860 Words | 5 Pages
  • pricing products - 4434 Words Pricing productsIntroduction Products and services have a price just as they have a value. Many non-profit and all profit-making organizations must also set prices. Pricing is controversial and goes by many names: Price is all around us. You pay rent for your apartment, tuition for your education. The airline, railway, taxi and bus companies charge you a/are; the local utilities call their price a rate; and the local bank charges you interest for the... 4,434 Words | 17 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 2582 Words Pricing Strategy Steps in Setting Price: Following are the steps in setting price for a product: 1. Selecting the pricing objectives; 2. Determining the consumers' demand; 3. estimating costs; 4. Analysing the competitors' costs, prices and offers; 5. Selecting a pricing method; and 6. Selecting the final price. 1. Selecting the pricing objectives: Before selecting a suitable price for a product, the marketer is needed to review the company's objectives. The more clearer the company's... 2,582 Words | 8 Pages
  • Pricing Analytics - 8948 Words Banking Customer Insight Pricing Analytics 2011 Copyright © 2010 Accenture. All Rights Reserved. Document Overview Banking Customer Insight : Pricing Analytics Title Description Sponsors Developers Updated The document briefly describes the concept & methodology adopted in the field of Pricing Analytics Edwin VanderOuderaa (edwin.vanderouder[email protected]) John T Mchugh ([email protected]) Sanjay Ojha([email protected]) Gaurav Goyal... 8,948 Words | 94 Pages
  • Pricing and Distribution - 1929 Words Pricing is one of the most important elements of the marketing mix as it is the only mix, which generates a turnover for the organization; the remaining 3p's are the variable cost for the organization. It costs to produce and design a product; it costs to distribute a product and costs to promote it. Price must support these elements of the mix. Pricing is difficult and must reflect supply and demand relationship (Constantinides, 2006). Pricing a product too high or too low could mean a loss of... 1,929 Words | 6 Pages
  • pricing policies - 517 Words The main Factors that affect the price being charged by your chosen business for their product/service The pricing decisions for a product are affected by internal and external factors. A. Internal Factors 1. Cost While fixing the prices of a product, the firm should consider the cost involved in producing the product. This cost includes both the variable and fixed costs. Thus, while fixing the prices, the firm must be able to recover both the variable and fixed costs. 2. The predetermined... 517 Words | 2 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies - 1410 Words Pricing Strategies Ryan W. MKT 441 February 23, 2006 5 Pricing Strategies In this paper, I will cover five different pricing strategies used, by retailers and manufacturers, to sell their products. I will demonstrate how pricing products according to one of the five pricing strategies chosen works effectively for each company. Loss Leader Look in any newspaper circular, it is chocked full of advertisements from untold numbers of retailers who are trying to push "loss leaders" onto... 1,410 Words | 4 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy - 252 Words E. Pricing Strategy FARMERS GRANARY PRODUCT COSTING Production cost per hectare for 110-120 days Direct Expense Urea Fertilizer Php 6,300.00 Pesticide 2,4-D Amine Weed Killer Php 500.00 Surekill Molluscicide Killer Php 960.00 Php 1,740.00 Sacks 200 pieces Php 2,600.00 Seeds (Hybrid) Php 23,050.00 Total Direct Expense Php 33,690.00 Indirect Expense Fuel Php 500.00 Irrigation Php 1,200.00 Kuliglig or... 252 Words | 3 Pages
  • Psychological Pricing - 286 Words MKT 521 *Psychological Pricing S*trategy {draw:frame} Reference Pricing.- Any business can leverage on reference pricing by positioning their product in the market place along with high value or luxury items to make consumers perceive that its product fits into the same category. However, if consumers feel that the product does not belong in that category the pricing and positioning strategy will not work and be it counterproductive for the product and the company. Two common forms... 286 Words | 1 Page
  • Cost-Based Pricing vs Value Based Pricing There are several differences between cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. In this essay we will consider a few of them. Value-based pricing is based on the customer’s perception of value rather than the seller’s cost as the key. Cost-based pricing is based on the product. A company comes up with an idea of what they think would be a good product and sets the price after considering all the production costs plus a target profit. (Kotler, Armstrong, 2008, p. 285, 286) Instead of... 972 Words | 3 Pages
  • Assignment 1 Pricing Strategy  Strategic Market Pricing and Smalls’ Premium Steakhouse By: Andrew Smalls Professor: Irene Zoppi MKT 402, Pricing Strategies February 1, 2015 Strategic Market Pricing and Smalls’ Premium Steakhouse A Premium Dining Experience If given the opportunity to open a restaurant, it would be an upscale restaurant catering people who the desire to have excellent food and a premium dining experience. I would name this establishment Smalls’ Premium Steakhouse. My name inspires the name of the... 1,750 Words | 5 Pages
  • Pricing and Cost Test Notes Chapter 11 What are the basic factors that affect price in any market? What considerations enter into the pricing decision? Ans 1 Price: The amount charged to customers in exchange for goods and services.Price communicates value to customers and profit to business owners. Market Price: The price that prevails in the market for a particular good at a specific time. For example, the price of gasoline posted at the gas stations around your town reflects the market price. Supply, demand, and... 1,541 Words | 5 Pages
  • Pampers: Pricing Strategy - 357 Words Posted by Petra at 1:43 PM No comments: Wednesday, January 9, 2008 9. Pricing Price is the amount of money a buyer has to sacrifice in order to get what he/she wants. Pampers' tends to make their products available to wide range of customers, so their price must also be affordable, reasonable and relatively low. I've already mentioned that Pampers' makes constant improvements of the products, but also of the production process with new technology. That makes possible lowering of the... 357 Words | 2 Pages
  • Value Based Pricing - 902 Words INTRODUCTION Value-based pricing is a method of pricing products in which companies first try to determine how much the products are worth to their customers. The goal is to avoid setting prices that are either too high for customers or lower than they would be willing to pay if they knew what kind of benefits they could get by using a product. In most firms prices are determined by intuition, opinions, rules of thumb, out-right dogma, top management’s higher wisdom, or internal power... 902 Words | 3 Pages
  • Marketing Pricing Objectives - 559 Words Pricing objectives are goals that describe what a firm wants to achieve through pricing. Pricing objectives must be stated explicitly, and the statement should include the time frame for accomplishing them. There are six stages of setting prices. They are developing pricing objective, assessing the target market's evaluation of price, evaluating competitors' prices, choosing a basis for pricing, selecting a pricing strategy, and determining a specific price. Cost-based pricing is adding a... 559 Words | 2 Pages
  • New Product Pricing Strategies New Product Pricing Strategies You have only one chance to get new product pricing right. Set prices too high and lose valuable market opportunities. Set prices too low and leave money on the table. Setting prices for new products doesn’t need to be a guessing game. Sound market information combined with a strong pricing strategy will hit the mark every time. And, while setting prices for new products is critical, every new product must have a pricing strategy that considers pricing over the... 324 Words | 1 Page
  • Pharmaceutical Pricing Strategy - 743 Words Pharmaceutical Pricing Strategy Ryan Ritchey American Military University November 22, 2009 Pharmaceutical companies are in constant pricing competition and innovative “idea wars” so to speak. Differential pricing, the specific price structuring and implementation, is the solution to resolving the conflict between pharmaceutical drug patents. There are always several different brands of drugs that can be prescribed or even bought over-the-counter, but the decision of the consumer or... 743 Words | 2 Pages
  • Transfer Pricing in India - 1207 Words Transfer Pricing in India 1. Introduction Increasing participation of multi-national groups in economic activities in India has given rise to new and complex issues emerging from transactions entered into between two or more enterprises belonging to the same group. Hence, it was pertinent to introduce a uniform and internationally accepted mechanism of determining reasonable, fair and equitable profits and tax in India in the case of such multinational enterprises. Accordingly, the... 1,207 Words | 4 Pages
  • Wembley Stadium Pricing Study Ticket Pricing Strategy for the new Wembley Stadium 1 Introduction OBJECTIVE To maximise profits from ticket sales at Wembley Stadium KEY ASSUMPTIONS 1. Wembley has a monopoly on certain types of match 2. Wembley is run by profit maximising managers selling tickets to utility maximising buyers STRATEGY Set prices for seats as close to the willingness to pay as possible using price discrimination KEY CHOICES What type of seating to sell and at what price? 2 Scope This strategy is limited... 1,391 Words | 6 Pages
  • developing pricing strategies and programs CHAPTER 5 Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs CLASS NOTES OBJECTIVES— § Define the internal factors affecting a firm's pricing decisions. § Identify the external factors affecting a firm's pricing decisions. § How do consumers process and evaluate prices? § How should a company set prices initially... 1,771 Words | 71 Pages
  • Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs [pic] Price is the one element of the marketing mix that produces revenue; the other elements produce costs. Prices are perhaps the easiest element of the marketing program to adjust. Price also communicates to the market the company’s intended value positioning of its product or brand. A well-designed and marketed product can command a price premium. [pic] Pricing decisions are clearly complex and difficult. Holistic marketers must take into account many factors in making pricing... 4,621 Words | 15 Pages
  • Pricing Strategy and Channel Distribution. Pricing strategy and Channel Distribution. Strayer University Author Note Silp Dhanasin, Master of Business Administration, Strayer University Correspondence concerning this article should be address to Silp Dhanasin, Master of Business Administration, Strayer University, 500 Redland Ct#100, Owing Mills, MD 21117 Abstract Gravity Co., Ltd is a start-up game on mobile business, and because the company intends to establish its market share; it will be utilizing the best pricing... 1,079 Words | 4 Pages
  • Managemnt Pricing Title - 825 Words Course Outline MBA 2011-13 Management of Pricing Elective Subject, Credit 2 20 Hours Course Coordinators: Ranajoy Bhattachrayya, Pinaki Dasgupta & Biswajit Nag (both for Delhi & Kolkata) (I) Objective The objective of this course is to bring both theoretical as well as actual practices in decision making process for pricing of goods or services. Pricing has moved up to the top priority in management decision making especially during the time of changing economic... 825 Words | 6 Pages
  • Pricing Luxury Handbags in Recession Julie Gundrum, Jared Sennet, Marlee Watson, and Kim White Group 14 RCSC 304, Eastlick Written Retail Applications Exercise Pricing Merchandise The article, “Accessories After the Fact,” found online in The Wall Street Journal showcased the pricing strategies that luxury goods like handbags, shoes and leather-goods have used throughout 2009 thus far. Their retail prices and therefore their markups have dropped dramatically due to economic conditions outside of the company’s control... 841 Words | 3 Pages
  • Summary of Value Based Pricing Summary of pricing article Value based pricing intro This article is focused on the value based pricing strategy. Traditionally many sellers have taken an approach of charging what the market will bear when it comes to price. This strategy leads to a transactional relationship with the customer which means they will have little to no loyalty. If a competitor comes along with a lower price and the relationship is only based on price then the customer will switch to the lower cost competitor.... 727 Words | 2 Pages
  • Value Pricing at Procter & Gamble EBS Business School EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht Case Study Price Management (Managing Market Offerings) Fall Term 2012 Value Pricing at Procter & Gamble (A) Group Members: Abhir Bhomavat Akash Singh Amar Deep Singh Bin Zhang Pranaykumar Mahendra Jain Submitted to: Submission Date: Prof. Dr. Alexander Pohl 10 October 10, 2012 Value Pricing At Procter & Gamble (A) 1 Table of Contents List of Tables and... 2,569 Words | 8 Pages
  • Choosing the Wrong Pricing Strategy Choosing the Wrong Pricing Strategy Can Be a Costly Mistake: [email protected] ( Choosing the Wrong Pricing Strategy Can Be a Costly Mistake Published : June 04, 2003 in [email protected] Prices have been at the center of human interaction ever since traders in ancient Mesopotamia -- our modern-day Iraq -- began keeping records. Who doesn’t love to guess what something costs – or argue about what something ought to cost? So... 1,683 Words | 5 Pages
  • Product Pricing Strategy - 584 Words 2.2Pricing Strategy Factors affecting pricing decision Kia Optima is one type of the oligopolistic competition market. It dominated by a small number of sellers, each seller is likely to be aware of the actions of the others. The prices might be uniform or not uniform to buyers. The price can be different at different places due to the reason of labor, resources, and taxes. Besides, there are few competitors include Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai. New Product Pricing Strategies Normally when... 584 Words | 2 Pages
  • Selecting a Pricing Method - 882 Words Selecting a Pricing Method 3 major considerations in price setting : costs of production, distribution, communication set a floor to the price competitors’ prices and the price of substitutes provide an orienting point customers’ assessment of unique features establishes the price ceiling (plafond) Companies select a pricing method that includes 1 or more of these three considerations. We will examine 6 price-setting methods: Mark-up pricing, target-return... 882 Words | 3 Pages
  • Competitive Pricing Strategy - 257 Words As you market yourself to employers, the salary you demand is essentially your personal price. Keeping that in mind, what pricing strategy should you follow (penetration, skimming, or competitive)? Why? Issues to consider: a. Who is your target market? My target market is the childcare industry. b. How would you position your price to this market? I would use competitive pricing strategy. I would use competitive pricing strategy. By using this concept does not necessarily mean that... 257 Words | 1 Page
  • Business: Economics and Pricing Strategy 1 (a) State the main difference between a skimming pricing strategy and a penetration pricing strategy. [2] A penetration pricing strategy is a technique which involves setting a relatively low price initial entry price to attract customers and gain a foothold in a market whereas a skimming pricing strategy is a pricing technique in which a firm sets a relatively high price for a product upon launching. (b) Briefly explain why a business might... 658 Words | 3 Pages
  • Nokia's Pricing Strategy - 737 Words Case No.07 – Nokia’s pricing strategy Nokia is one brand name that inspires all those who are into the mobile culture. Of the entire brand that touches our lives, Nokia stand s out significantly. It has taken mobility a step forward by creating products with continuous innovations in this industry has made it imperative that every player keeps pace with changes. Nokia has been one step ahead in anticipating future market moves and strategizing accordingly. Interestingly the company prices... 737 Words | 3 Pages
  • Pricing Simulation Report - 541 Words Pricing Simulation During twelve months, starting in October, we were responsible for setting the pricing strategy of Universal Rental Car Company, as the district manager for the Florida region of Orlando. It was a big role as Florida was the company’s worst performing region and had two major problems: “Stock outs”, which used to occur during demand peaks, and “unsold inventory”, which occurred in demand valleys. Furthermore, we had to deal with the competitor in an intense price war, as the... 541 Words | 2 Pages
  • Types of Pricing Objectives - 311 Words Four Types of Pricing Objectives Price is a vital component of a marketing mix, also known as the "four Ps" of marketing. The other components are product, place and promotion, all of which constitute costs. Price, on the other hand, generates a return as it supports the other marketing-mix elements. Although supply and demand drive pricing decisions, they're not the only factors. Any number of pricing objectives may come into play, but four in particular apply to most businesses. Survival... 311 Words | 2 Pages
  • Standard Machines Pricing - 668 Words I. Who should take the blame for getting Standard Machines Corp into the crisis it faces vis-à-vis closing on a major sale with an established account? The blame for Standard Machine Corp can be directed in one of three ways: Industry: One could argue that innovation in the machine tool equipment industry has been stagnant and resulting caused customers to view machines as commodities and compete on price. Another thought is that the industry allowed a low cost player to enter and... 668 Words | 3 Pages
  • Fair pricing on the internet - 4366 Words FAIR PRICING ON THE INTERNET 1. Introduction Among marketing mix variables, price alone directly affects a firm’s revenue. Setting prices is a critical issue manager face and prices signal information. It conveys the value of a product or service to consumers. Throughout history, price has been a major factor in influencing buyer decisions. Thus, it is essential for firms to carefully implement their pricing strategies in order to attract sales and capture their profit... 4,366 Words | 50 Pages
  • Pricing Strategies in India - 3502 Words Background on India India and China cover nearly 40 percent of the world’s population and their cumulative output accounts for nearly 25 percent of the global GDP. India is today the second fastest growing economy in the world. The growth is being driven by domestic consumption and the expansion of the information technology industry; India has 75 percent of the IT services export market. India’s consumer goods market is already among the top ten in the world and is expected to be the fifth... 3,502 Words | 9 Pages
  • Target: Pricing and Channel - 13129 Words A; Yan, Ruiliang. “Pricing strategy for companies with mixed online and traditional retailing distribution markets”. Emerald Group Publishing, Limited. Business And Economics--Marketing And Purchasing. Santa Barbara, United Kingdom. 2008. Pp 48-56. Scholarly Journals. When a company employs a multi-channel strategy, an important question is what pricing strategy should be adopted so that the company... 13,129 Words | 27 Pages
  • Economics - Pricing Methods - 2092 Words thods2011 Assignment Enrolment Number Annamalai University Director of Distance Education MBA xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 1st year Assignment Topic 1.2 Management Economics Self Declaration I declare that the assignment submitted by me is not a verbatim/photo static copy from the websites/ books/ journals/manuscripts. Signature of the student Countersigned Signature of the Faculty Concerned Q 4. Explain pricing methods and which method will be suitable in this present... 2,092 Words | 7 Pages
  • American Airlines Dynamic Pricing EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Revenue management is a proven technique to help service industries maximize revenue. It involves management of inventory and distribution channels and prices to maximize profits over the long run. Simply stating the technique involves selling the right product to the right customer at the right time at the right price. The following are the primary activities involved: demand data collection, demand modeling, demand forecasting, pricing optimization, and system... 2,522 Words | 7 Pages
  • Comparing Pricing Strategies - 467 Words COMPARING THE PRICING STRATEGIES OF VARIOUS STORES Firstly, Wendy’s uses many different types of pricing methods to attract customers to buy their food items. One of the strategies they use is price discrimination (same product sold in different markets at different prices) by offering discounts to seniors for 10% and children with a hamburger Kid’s Meal for only $2.69. Wendy’s also uses promotional pricing (charging a low price to entice customers and to build brand awareness) by presenting... 467 Words | 2 Pages
  • issues on pricing strategy - 1666 Words Ethical Issues of Pricing Strategy Pricing is often regarded as the most important ‘P’ in the 4P's view of marketing. Of all the P's, it is the one that generates revenue. Therefore, its importance cannot be overemphasised. If implemented properly, pricing allows a firm to capture rent for the activities that the organisation undertakes to create value for the consumers. However, few managers and practitioners think strategically about pricing, and rarely use the price lever to manage their... 1,666 Words | 5 Pages
  • Pricing Procedures of Medical Professionals The pricing procedure of private medical practitioners has been under close scrutiny in the recent months as well-known doctor, Susan Lim has been found guilty of 94 charges. The main trigger of her trial was the accusation by Brunei officials that she had overcharged the sister of Brunei’s queen. The healthcare service, unlike any other form of service industries, is heavily subjected to the scrutiny of ethics. The medical profession emphasises on the idea of curing and healing above the... 846 Words | 2 Pages

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