metaphysics - 1040 Words
Metaphysics: Aristotle and Plato’s Views
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that tries to answer a few questions by looking at the fundamental nature of the world. What is appearance? What is real? And ultimately what is the nature of reality? It helps us to try and see past the physical things and determine for ourselves whether something actually exists and the ultimate reason for why it exists. Although a single term, metaphysics covers a wide array of topics, including Plato’s idea...
1,040 Words | 3 Pages
Metaphysics - 1347 Words
Why Mereological Universalism and Nihilism Are Not Mutually Exclusive In Function
In the following paper, I'll attempt to argue that the Mereological Universalism championed by James Van Cleve, and metaphysical nihilism, are more or less reconcilable. What’s more, I’ll argue that the functional understanding of the world occupied by universalists is more or less identical to that which is necessarily employed by all nihilists (or at least all...
1,347 Words | 4 Pages
Philosophy as Metaphysics - 2051 Words
Philosophy as Metaphysics
ABSTRACT: Philosophy works with special types of objects: the totalities. The basic characteristics of this type of object are their metaphysical, transcendental, and total character. The character of these objects determines the specificity of language and the methods of philosophy. The language of philosophy represents symbolic language; speculation is the basic method of philosophy. On the one hand, objects of this type emphasis homo sapien as essences capable...
2,051 Words | 6 Pages
Metaphysics and Nominalism - 1134 Words
Metaphysics shares a breadth of problems concerning ‘universals’. One view that addresses these problems is nominalism. Nominalism is the position that universals do not exist outside the mind. There are different sects of nominalism that expresses various stances about the problem at hand. Austere nominalism, metalinguistic nominalism, and trope theory are the various types of nominalism that refute the claim of realism. Each of these types of nominalism contain their own...
1,134 Words | 4 Pages
All Metaphysics Essays
Metaphysics and Monism - 989 Words
People are monists, dualists or pluralists depending on whether or not they believe that reality is composed of one, two or more substances. These positions may be represented as here indicated.
Hindus, Buddhists and Animists are for the most part monists. They believe that reality is one and that everything that exists is a functioning part of that whole which is spirit. Western man for the most part may be called a monist also as he believes that God is dead and matter is the only substance...
989 Words | 3 Pages
Metaphysics Essay 3 - 301 Words
Phi 350: Metaphysics
Please write a 1250-1500 word essay in response to the prompt stated below. In writing
this essay, you should use the textbook and classroom discussion as your foundation. You
should not try to summarize the reading assignments in turn, but only those parts that are
relevant to dealing with the prompt and for setting up and helping to explain the critical remarks
in your paper.
In this paper you should have your own thesis to defend about the question...
301 Words | 1 Page
Metaphysics SHort essay 4
Price begins by describing how things we see in nature share elements. He explains how a tomato, sunset in the sky and a blushing face share nothing more in common than the color. However, some objects have many things in common. These objects group themselves together into Natural Kinds. Price describes a Natural Kind as a group of objects, which have many, perhaps indefinite, features in common. He explains that while this repetition makes things seem dull and monotonous, they are important...
680 Words | 2 Pages
Metaphysics and Realism Proponents St.
*Realism may be defined as any philosophical position that asserts:
1. The objective existence of the world and beings an it and relatives between these beings independents on human knowledge and desires:
2. The knowability of these objects as they are in themselves
3. The need for conformity to the objective reality in man’s conduct
*Realisms an educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the realities of life and should prepare a...
647 Words | 3 Pages
Metaphysics: Philosophy and Idealism - 3133 Words
Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy that focuses on the nature of reality, including abstract concepts such as being and knowing. The term literally means ‘beyond the physical.’ It attempts to find unity across the domains of experience and thought. There are five broad philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today and these general frameworks provide the base from which the various educational philosophies are derived.
Idealism is the view that ideas or thoughts make up...
3,133 Words | 9 Pages
Metaphysics: Ontology and Universal Conceptions
Metaphysics has been given many definitions over the years, Aristotle says that it is the science of being as being, or the study of everything that can be. Another definition given to metaphysics is the science of the most universal conceptions. My personal favorite would be metaphysics is the science of the most abstract conceptions. This, to me, is saying that metaphysics is the study of ideas real physics does not solve, things that cannot be measured by a gauge. Aristotle also said "The...
277 Words | 1 Page
Metaphysics and Borges Tlon - 670 Words
Man I am glad that our world is intelligible! Enjoy!
Metaphysics paper 8c
In his excerpt of Tlon, Borges speaks about the discovery of a nation called Uqbar and exhibits much interest in it. He attempts to conduct research on it, however, fails miserably and can only find a single encyclopedia that mentions it existence. Some years later, Borges comes across an encyclopedia called the first encyclopedia of Tlon. He becomes fascinated with Tlon and concludes that it was...
670 Words | 2 Pages
Metaphysics: objective Realism - 1022 Words
Mr. Ralph Kam
PHL/215 - Methods and Applications
July 15, 2003
In philosophy, a term known as metaphysics, referred to the writings of Aristotle nearly three centuries after his death. Metaphysics is the area of philosophy that attempts to understand the basic nature of all reality, whether it is seen or indistinguishable we try to relate to our existence. It seeks a description so basic that it applies to everything, whether divine or human. In short, metaphysics attempts to...
1,022 Words | 4 Pages
Metaphysics & Epistemology Paper - 570 Words
G. E. Moore’s Response to Skepticism
PHI 472/ Introduction to Metaphysics & Epistemology
October 20, 2012
Professor John Barker
G. E. Moore’s main contributions to philosophy were in the areas of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and philosophical methodology. In epistemology, Moore is remembered as a stalwart defender of commonsense realism. Rejecting skepticism on the one hand, and, on the other, metaphysical theories that would invalidate the commonsense...
570 Words | 2 Pages
The Relationship Between Epistemology and Metaphysics
What is the relationship between epistemology and metaphysics
In many ways epistemology clears the way for metaphysical construction or hypothesis. By adhering to the principles of one branch of philosophy, it allows us to become better at searching within the other. It is true that epistemic ideas are often knocked down by metaphysics, but when one considers that it is entirely possible to base metaphysical ideas on epistemology, it becomes clear that the branches of philosophy are very...
698 Words | 2 Pages
Phil. 101 Metaphysics - 905 Words
Philosophy stemmed from the early Greek religions and myths, in search for answers to their questions about life. From early B.C. till today people still have questions about life and after-life, what is real and what is reality. Philosophy has dozens of subdivisions within it, one being metaphysics. Metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, and within metaphysics there are three more divisions materialism, idealism, and hylemorphism. Each philosopher fits into one category more then...
905 Words | 3 Pages
Logical Positivism And The Absurdity Of Metaphysics
A SEMINAR PAPER
LOGICAL POSITIVISM AND THE ABSURDITY OF
PRESENTED BY: AKOMOLAFE OLUWATOBA M.
MATRIC NO: 187189
COURSE CODE: PHI 702
COURSE TITLE: HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
LECTURER IN CHARGE: Dr. Afolayan
LOGICAL POSITIVISM AND THE ABSURDITY OF
5,632 Words | 18 Pages
Metaphysics Is the Branch of Philosophy
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with abstract concepts. These abstract concepts include things like being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space. Over the years I have asked myself numerous questions pertaining to metaphysics. Things such as what is real? How do things such as our souls or even fate work? Do we determine our own fate or is it predetermined for us?
Most people, including myself, ask a majority of these questions when they leave the nest. When I...
808 Words | 3 Pages
Metaphysics: Soul and Aristotle - 1410 Words
Aristotle considered the most fundamental features of reality in the twelve books of the Μεταφυσικη(Metaphysics). Although experience of what happens is a key to all demonstrative knowledge, Aristotle supposed that the abstract study of "being qua being" must delve more deeply, in order to understand why things happen the way they do. A quick review of past attempts at achieving this goal reveals that earlier philosophers had created more difficult questions than they had answered:...
1,410 Words | 4 Pages
Nagel, Chisholm, and Locke - Metaphysics of the Mind
Instructor: Pierre Daigneault
Teaching Assistant: Dennis Papadopoulos
PHIL 265 / 2A
Introduction to Metaphysics
Word Count: 1596
It is very difficult to attribute characteristics to a mind when we know it does not actually exist in the physical realm. Though, personal identity has been connected to the mind. However, it is tricky to determine what exactly comprises one’s personal identity. Although it is a...
1,610 Words | 5 Pages
Difference in Metaphysics Between Aristotle and Kant
What is the central difference between metaphysics as Kant conceives it, and metaphysics as Aristotle conceives it? Argue in support of one or the other view.
Metaphysics is usually taken to involve both questions of what is existence and what types of things exist; in order to answer either questions, one will find itself using and investigating the concepts of being. Aristotle proposed the first of these investigations which he called ‘first philosophy’, also known as ‘the science of...
2,273 Words | 7 Pages
Metaphysics: Ontology: Dualism vs. Materialism
METAPHYSICS: ONTOLOGY: DUALISM VS. MATERIALISM
The original idea of the word 'philosophy' was a 'love of wisdom' (Cowan 2). Philosophy is meant to explore the 'big questions' and try to find answers as best we can in the time we have been given. One of the areas of study in philosophy is metaphysics, which deals in the ideas of the nature of reality. "We look at the world, and we assume that it is the way it appears to be. It is not." (Carreira 7). There is much to reality that can be...
2,086 Words | 6 Pages
Metaphysics is the main philosophy in Minority Report
There are several branches of philosophy found in Minority Report –ethics, truth and metaphysics. Ethics is the study of morality; truth is the study of what is true; metaphysics questions reality. The most prominent philosophy in the film is metaphysics, due to it being the underlying philosophy that created the problem and causes the plot to occur in the first place.
Ethics and truth are branches of philosophy evident in the film. In Minority Report, the pre-cogs are 3 children who live in...
627 Words | 2 Pages
Descartes and Skepticism - 888 Words
Descartes and the problem of skepticism |
Question: In Meditation III, Descartes argues that his idea of God could not have come from him, and so God must exist. How does this argument go? |
René Descartes was a great scientist, mathematician and philosopher. He was known for his extensive work on skepticism, and in particular a piece called “Meditations on First Philosophy” (written in 1641) which is still widely used by modern philosophers. In this publication, Descartes’...
888 Words | 3 Pages
Philosophical Issues Surrounding Aristotles Final Cause
What philosophical issues arise around aristotles final cause when applied to human beings?
The final cause according to Aristotle is the purpose for an object, for example, the final purpose of a chair would be to sit. This is a straightforward principle when applied to man made objects, because they all have an obvious creator and that creator makes them for a purpose.
Aristotle also said that the final cause could be applied to natural things, like trees, animals and humans. This is...
420 Words | 1 Page
Final - 57372 Words
Open Access Dissertations and Theses Open Dissertations and Theses
Bertrand Russell On Perception and Knowledge (1927 - 59)
Dustin Z. Olson
McMaster University, [email protected]
Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations Part of the Epistemology Commons, Metaphysics Commons, and the Philosophy of Science Commons Recommended Citation
Olson, Dustin Z., "Bertrand Russell On...
57,372 Words | 160 Pages
Existence Of God - 656 Words
Sem. Marc Stephen Melad
Locke and Berkeley On God’s Existence
Proving the existence of God has been an eternal work of philosophers since the days of old. One cannot really give a certain and definite answer to prove God’s existence. Even the traditional arguments of St. Thomas Aquinas has been put to the challenge by modern and contemporary philosophers. Yet despite this unsolved question, the mind has allowed us to discover more the complex realities behind the question on hand. Thus, in...
656 Words | 2 Pages
The problem with determinism and the benefits of Taylor's theory of agency. 900 words. Bibilogeraphy
In Metaphysics Richard Taylor outlines the different views on the concept of freedom.
The traditional view is that of the compatibilists which states that freedom is the ability to act, or not to act, according to the determinations of the will. It is so defined to make it compatible with the theory of determinism, which essentially states that all actions have a causal explanation due to the state of the world in the moment previous.
However, the definition is clearly inadequate due to the...
906 Words | 3 Pages
Sophies World Outline - 443 Words
Chapter 4: The Natural Philosophers
introduction: The idea that nothing can come from nothing is introduced. Sophie questions whether all things come from a basic element. She learned that things in nature are in a constant state of transformation. Is there a beginning of everything? What do you believe it to be?
introduction: The idea that nothing can come from nothing is introduced. Sophie questions whether all things come from a...
443 Words | 2 Pages
Cover Note - 3851 Words
THE RELATION OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION
Some fresh observations on an old problem
by RICHARD P. FEYNMAN
"The Relation of Science and Religion" is a transcript of a talk given by Dr. Feynman at the Caltech YMCA Lunch Forum on May 2, 1956.
In this age of specialization men who thoroughly know one field are often incompetent to discuss another. The great problems of the relations between one and another aspect of human activity have for this reason been discussed less and less in...
3,851 Words | 11 Pages
Study Guide 7 - 876 Words
Study Guide: Lesson 7
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions of reality. Since it deals with literally everything that exists, it is perhaps the broadest branch of philosophy. However, we will briefly spend time in this area. In this lesson, we will introduce some of the questions that we seek to answer in metaphysics as well as some basic metaphysical terminology you will need to master as we discuss metaphysical issues....
876 Words | 3 Pages
Philosophy of Benedict Spinoza - 1576 Words
If one were to make a list of iconoclastic and radical thinkers, Benedict Spinoza would rank high. His great and enduring work, Ethics, continues to have renewed impact, currently among environmentalists and ecologically minded thinkers. Spinoza wrote numerous philosophical, political, and religious criticism works. His efforts consistently express a mind set in favor of religious tolerance and in opposition to traditional religious orthodoxy. In his two major...
1,576 Words | 5 Pages
The Weakest Argument of Thomas Aquinas' Five Ways for the Proof of God's Existence
Thomas Aquinas' weakest argument is, without a doubt, the argument from gradation. In Aquinas' fourth way, God is defined as the Absolute Being which, in a sense, is used as a yardstick for the measurement of all qualities.
There is a belief that some things are better than others, which can be applied to all things, but can it really be applied to everything? Is one rose better than another if equal in age and care? Who determines which one is better? If there were two identical twins, is one...
481 Words | 2 Pages
Atheism vs Theism - 3495 Words
The problem Atheists have with Theists and the premise of God, a Being who is all good, omniscient, omnipotent and eternal, is that they believe that since science and the world cannot prove that such a being exists and since life seems to sustain itself without any external help, then this Being probably does not exists nor can this Being ever be proven to exist. This method of thinking stems directly from a belief, not that science is god, but more that mankind is a...
3,495 Words | 9 Pages
Response Paper of Meditation Four, Five, and Six
Dr. Eric Morton
7 July 2013
Response Paper of Meditation Four, Five, and Six
Descartes talked about the true and the false, and how we make mistakes in Meditation Four. Descartes believed that error as such is not something real that depends upon God, but rather is merely a defect. And thus there is no need to account for my errors by positing a faculty given to me by God for this purpose(546). He thought that the reason why we make mistakes is that the faculty...
773 Words | 2 Pages
Spinoza - 1544 Words
“I think therefore I am-Descartes;” “All noble things are as difficult as they are rare- Spinoza.” Decorates and Spinoza are unique; they are like nothing this class has studied previous. They focus on nature, existence and power as the fundamental building blocks to their unique philosophies. The beauty of these two men’s philosophies is not only in their contrasts but in all the ideas the students can draw from their logically thinking strategies; ultimately creating an individual philosophy...
1,544 Words | 4 Pages
Clarke's Cosmological Argument - 1028 Words
Clarke begins his argument by asserting the obvious--that based on experience, all of the beings that surround us today do exist. These beings, encountered based on one’s experience, are dependent on a prior cause. In other words, everything that exists must have been caused by something else that also exists or has existed; and for something finite to exist today, such as any being in this world, it would mean that there must have been something that has existed since infinity. According to...
1,028 Words | 3 Pages
Minority Report Review - 858 Words
Minority Report is a film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the story by Philip Dick. The film takes place in the District of Columbia in the year two thousand fifty four. The protagonist, John Anderton who is played by Tom Cruise is the Chief of the Pre-Crime cops, whose job is to prevent murders before they occur. In order to fulfill their duties as Pre-Crime cops, they use the help of three beings known as pre-cogs who are the by-product of a genetic research...
858 Words | 2 Pages
Kant & Hume, Comparative Study
Immanuel Kant and David Hume—
Two of the modern world’s most followed and known, yet opposing philosophers.
Immanuel Kant and David Hume both assert that all knowledge comes from experience, yet disagree on whether or not experience determines all knowledge, disagree on the causality of the universe as organized or unorganized, and disagree on God’s existence (or non-existence) within the world. Despite these vast differences, however, both philosophies have managed to co-exist in the modern...
2,034 Words | 5 Pages
Take Home Test Sample
Take Home Test #2
1. George Berkeley
2. Immanuel Kant
3. David Hume
4. Rene Descartes
5. St. Thomas Aquinas
6. John Locke
1. Descartes’ Eideological Proof for God’s existence claims that we have an idea in our minds that a person more perfect than ourselves exists. Descartes’ says that we know we cannot come from nothing, but we can also not come from ourselves. The idea of perfection has been placed in our minds by a person who is already perfect...
290 Words | 2 Pages
Search for Truth - 1600 Words
Since the dawn of philosophical thought there has been a desire to find truth. Now exactly what truth is depends upon whom you ask. Philosophers have been searching for truth in various forms for at least as far back as Aristotle in the first century B.C. all the way up to Carl Hempel in the 20th century A.D. To Aristotle and Plato truth was reality; To Descartes truth was found in God; To Hempel truth was found in explanation. None of these are accurate and yet all of them...
1,600 Words | 5 Pages
Aristotle vs Plato - 905 Words
Two of the greatest and earliest thinkers of our time are Plato, and his most famous pupil, Aristotle. Soon after Plato’s teachings, Aristotle criticized his claims and independently became a thinker on his own. These philosophers viewed metaphysics differently, and they approached the idea of reality in two opposing ways. Plato’s Theory of Forms was a concept that was defined in a different way by Aristotle. They both believed in “forms” but approached this idea differently.
Plato felt that...
905 Words | 3 Pages
Descartes' First Trademark Argument
Descartes First Trademark Argument – Essay
Descartes argues that our idea of God is innate, meaning it is something inside us from birth, something that has always been there and will always be there. He believed that everybody has an idea of God being a supremely perfect being, and comes to the conclusion in his argument, that God himself put this idea there, he even said that our idea of God is like “the mark of the craftsman stamped on his work” – us being the work, the mark being our...
1,251 Words | 4 Pages
The Wickedness of Ignorance - 1289 Words
There is no greater evil one can suffer than to hate reasonable discourse.” – Socrates, Phaedo 89d:2
Wisdom is perfect, beautiful and forever absolute – the efficacy of truth, regarding any and all subjects and temporal and metaphysical concerns of conscious being, does not progressively degrade1; however, I believe it is also conversely feasible that one’s comprehension of truth can arguably be perceived to dilute by and within the limitations manifested through the existence and effect of...
1,289 Words | 4 Pages
Thomas Aquina's vs. Descarates
THOMAS AQUINA’S V. DESCARATES Meditation III
Several hundred years ago, two great philosophers Thomas Aquinas’s and Rene Descartes used the method of ontological argument for the existence of God and used intuition and reason alone to get to each other’s theory. Rene Descartes wrote out several mediations, but the one we’re going to touch base on is meditation III that he wrote in the 1600’s; While Thomas Aquinas’s wrote his five proofs of God in 1270 that specifies God’s existence in each...
671 Words | 2 Pages
Reflection Confession of St. Augustine.
St. Augustine uses his focus on the fact that God may exists in the same extent which wisdom and truth exists, which is as concepts or ideas in the mind but not reality. He shows that there is evidence of God but not a powerful creator. To Augustine, God exists but requires him to exist for the basis of his argument. St. Augustine focuses on memory as an unconscious knowledge, which eventually leads him to his knowledge of God. Augustine is no longer telling events of the past, but only of...
751 Words | 2 Pages
The Categories of Aristotle - 1465 Words
SPIRITAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY ISIENU-NUSKKA
AN AFFILIATE OF
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
THE CATEGORIES OF ARISTOTLE
INTRODUCTION TO METAPHYSICS 1
MABKWE NICHOLAS CHUKWUNWEIKE
REG. NO 09/UN/SI/A/0826
REV. FR. DR. B. ABANUKA C.S.Sp.
Aristotle (384-322BC) is one of the most influential philosophers of the western tradition and had many philosophical works credited to him. In his treatise on logic...
1,465 Words | 5 Pages
A Short History on Modern Philosophy Paper
As a Christian, St. Augustine (354-430 AD) couldn’t believe that the soul preexisted creation despite his ties to Neoplatonists, who held disdain for the material world. Philosophy had a purpose geared towards the religious and the ethical because God’s truth is that He is a priori, or prior to experience, in his existence. His work expressed his belief that happiness can be achieved when Faith is preceding and Understanding is succeeding: an individual cannot understand if he first does not...
1,076 Words | 3 Pages
Anselm's Cosmological Argument - 728 Words
Anselm seeks to explain the existence of a greatest being, i.e. God. He approaches this task not via our experience of the universe, but rather attempts to explain it solely based upon reason. Anselm attempts to prove the existence of God by providing us with a logical explanation, based upon our understanding, definition, and necessity of God.
It is inconceivable for God not to exist. There is a certain nature through which everything that is exists, Anselm explains, is caused to exist by...
728 Words | 2 Pages
Critical Evaluation of Thales and His Unique Contribution to the Development of Philosophy
The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus, in Greek Ionia. Aristotle the major source of Thales’ philosophy and science identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, for in the sixth century he broke away from explaining the natural phenomena through myths and adopted rational means of explaining it. In explaining the totality of all things, Thales described one primary material substance as the elemental foundation of all things, for he believed that...
1,820 Words | 5 Pages
Heraclitus V. Parmenides - 548 Words
Heraclitus v. Parmenides
The heavily studied philosophical debate that has been carried for centuries on the nature of being and the perception of it, displays the vast differences between the two philosophers Heraclitus and Parmenides. One which believed in a singularity of things, while one differs and carries the philosophy of a duality of reality. One that believes that the changes in perception are deceitful, while the other displays a philosophical view that our perceptions...
548 Words | 2 Pages
500 Word Summary Hicks Theodicy
500 word summary of Hicks theodicy
John Hick is a modern theologian who developed his theodicy based on an argument originally put forward by St Irenaeus. Hick’s theodicy is a form of the free will defense with a few particular developments such as his concept of soul making, mans epistemic distance from God and the concept of universal salvation.
Irenaeus’ original theory is based on his interpretation of Genesis 1:26 ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness’. From this Irenaeus...
587 Words | 2 Pages
Weekly Assignment 1 - 343 Words
16 April 2013
Weekly Assignment 1
In Moore’s proof if an external world, he is attempting to show that we can know things outside of our own us (Moore; 144). He proves this by using the example of showing his hands, pointing at one hand and saying “here is my right hand” then pointing to the other and saying the same thing (Moore; 144). He states that by just being able lift hand is proof that it exists. He provided three conditions that support his...
343 Words | 1 Page
Kant's Views on Space and Time
Kant’s View on Space and Time
In his Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant wrote about the science of the transcendental aesthetic in which he argues that space and time exist as a priori intuitions in the human mind. Space and time, for Kant, are the pure forms of intuition that order our empirical intuitions or sensations and allow us to have them. Thus, the essence of his view in this regard is that space and time are subjective human conventions that our mind brings to the realm of...
373 Words | 1 Page
Socrates, Body and Soul - 806 Words
Body and Soul
According to Socrates
In the first part of the Phaedo, Socrates lays out his theory regarding the immortality of the soul. Near the end of this part he breaks down the body and soul and shows us that they are very different in permanence and structure. The body and soul, which are are interlinked when alive and separated at death, are fundamentally different constructs. The dichotomy here is expressed through the argument as opposites of composition, ideal...
806 Words | 2 Pages
Explain the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Design Argument for the existence of God
Explain the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Design Argument for the existence of God.
The design argument, also known as the argument of teleology, is the argument for the existence of God, or some kind of intelligent creator. Derived from the Greek word ‘telos’ meaning end or purpose, it is an a posteriori argument, because it is based on experience, not on reason or revelation, using the surroundings of the world as supporting evidence. The argument is an inductive one, as its reasoning can...
462 Words | 2 Pages
Explain the problems of religious language
A) Explain the problems of religious language. (30)
Some words used within religious language may be viewed as contradictory to our inherent beliefs and logical view as human beings one example of this would be the story of the ‘virgin Mary’ as there is no logical explanation to how she gave birth. Many of the words used in religious language are also metaphysical and have no physical representation therefore it is very hard for us as humans to fully comprehend the ideas they are expressing....
433 Words | 2 Pages
The Problem of the "One and Many" - 1821 Words
In a quest to inquire into being, metaphysics is confronted by one fundamental question that; is reality constituted by one being or are there many beings? This question establishes the central problem of metaphysics that is known as the problem of the ‘one’ and ‘many’. Parmenides who first dealt with the nature of being and considered ‘being as being’ as the source of unification of all reality, held that “ultimately there exists a One Being”. It follows that this being is...
1,821 Words | 5 Pages
Mid-Semester Exam - 560 Words
Both Heraclitus and Parmenides were obsessed with change. Explain how change fits into each of their philosophical systems. Are there any two similarities in their two accounts? Why are they so important to later metaphysicians such as the particle theorists?
Heraclitus believed in the unity of opposites. The succession of the opposites brings out his key notion of change. The successive manifestation of contrary properties in an object is a way of saying that everything undergoes change....
560 Words | 2 Pages
St. Thomas Aquinas - 740 Words
St. Thomas Aquinas
The Five Ways of the Summa Theologica was written by St. Thomas Aquinas. In this writing Aquinas argues against two objections of the existence of a God and provides five arguments in which he believes to solidify the idea that God does exist, further disproving these objections.
Aquinas’s first argument for the existence of God is that of motion. To Aquinas, everything is in motion and motion must start from somewhere. He explains that nothing can be moved without...
740 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology Essay - 751 Words
Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous "cogito" argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question.
Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge...
751 Words | 3 Pages
Study Guide for Philosophy of Religion
PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION 1. Thomas Aquinas gave us five proofs for the existence of God. His second proof is known as the Cosmological Argument. experiment. 1) There are things that are caused. 2) Nothing can be the cause of itself. 3) An infinite regress of causes is impossible. 4) Therefore, there must be an uncaused first...
707 Words | 3 Pages
John Locke's Teachings and Theories
Throughout the 17th century, John Locke presented society with his teachings and theories that clarified the order of natural law and fulfilled humanity’s divine purpose for living. It all began in 1647, as a young boy when he attended the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham. During his years at the Westminster School, he found the work of modern philosophers more interesting than the material being taught at the university. Much of Locke's...
976 Words | 3 Pages
Thinking Through Film Stranger Than Fiction
PV 2006 – THINKING THROUGH FILM ASSIGNMENT 1
‘Investigate how the work of a chosen screenwriter or director explores and illuminates a particular philosophical issue’.
‘’Stranger Than Fiction’’ 2006
Zach Helm is a writer born in California, USA and he is mostly known for the film ‘’Stranger than Fiction’’ for which he won awards such as Literary Award at PEN Centre and NBR award at National Board of Review in USA and was also...
1,597 Words | 4 Pages
Free Will and Schopenhauer - 1462 Words
The Delusion of Free Will
Free will is considered as having the ability to choose a course of action solely based on one’s character. Immanuel Kant argues that humans have free will and act accordingly, while Arthur Shopenhauer suggests that humans are delusional and desire to have free will, yet they are lead by laws of nature and motives only. Perceiving ourselves as acting with free will is just to satisfy the metaphysical requirement on being responsible for one's action. Free...
1,462 Words | 4 Pages
Essay 1: Leibniz' Principle of Pre-Established Harmony
Essay 1: Leibniz' Principle of Pre-Established Harmony
In his Monadology, Leibniz describes the existence and nature of "Monads" or substances. Leibniz believes that it is impossible for there to be any kind of causal interaction between the Monads. Yet, he also states that each Monad reflects the system as a whole, including any change in any other Monad. So then, to explain how it is that this "mirroring" takes place, without the existence of any causal interaction, Leibniz puts forth...
770 Words | 2 Pages
Hume vs Kant Causality
Hume vs. Kant: Causality
Hume's ultimate goal in his philosophic endeavors was to undermine abstruse Philosophy. By focusing on the aspect of reason, Hume shows there are limitations to philosophy. Since he did not know the limits, he proposed to use reason to the best of his ability, but when he came to a boundary, that was the limit. He conjectured that we must study reason to find out what is beyond the capability of reason.
Hume began his first examination if the mind...
1,784 Words | 6 Pages
Kant Metaphysical Exposition of Space
Explain and asses what you think to be the best argument Kant gives as his "Metaphysical Exposition of Space" (B37-40) that space cannot be either and actual entity (Newtonian concept) or any independent relation among real things (Leibnizian concepti be on). In other words, is he successful in arguing that space must be (at least) a form of intuition? Do any of his arguments further show that space must be ONLY a form of intuition and not ALSO something Newtonian or Leibnizian?
2,584 Words | 7 Pages
Heraclites V. Parmenides - 729 Words
Philosophy serves one purpose, bringing order to reason. This, on so many levels can organize ones way of thinking into a structured manner; therefore rendering it much easier for one to conclude solid conclusions, thereby avoiding error.
There have been many independent streams of philosophy from several different parts of the world, such as China, and India. But the most popular school of thought that has created the most impact on the United States, without a doubt would have to be the...
729 Words | 2 Pages
Cause And Effect - 290 Words
Cause and effect, the philosophical concept of causality
Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical consequence of the first.
In common usage, causality is also the relation between a set of factors (causes) and a phenomenon (the effect). Anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. A direct...
290 Words | 1 Page
Bakit hangad ng mga bansang Asyano na magkaroon ng pambansang Wika?
René Descartes (1596—1650)
René Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy.” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all...
5,731 Words | 16 Pages
Philosophy of mind - 417 Words
The theory of Dualism refers to the idea that a substance is made up of two fundamental components; mind and matter. The mind component of Dualism refers to thinking and consciousness without an extension into space, whereas, the matter component of Dualism refers to a substance which pertains physical properties which extends into space. The essential essence of the mind is thought, while the essence of the body is extension, which is examined in Renee Descartes’ Six Meditation in which he...
417 Words | 1 Page
Why Was God Important to Descartes?
Why is God so important to Descartes’ philosophical project in the Meditations? Answer with reference to Descartes’ attempts to prove the existence of God in Meditation 3.
The existence of God has an extreme influence on the majority of philosophical debate and questioning and no more so than with Descartes and his meditations. His meditations and his method of approaching philosophical questioning all derive from a rationalist ideology. Therefore he argues that all humans are thinking...
1,278 Words | 4 Pages
What Advantages Does Spinoza’s Substance Monism Have over Descartes’ Dualism?
Spinoza’s philosophy as espoused in the Ethics was a response to Descartes’ dualism. Through works such as the Ethics, Spinoza seeks to address the main flaws in Descartes’ philosophy.
These flaws included but were by no means limited to, proof for the existence of God and the interaction between mind and body.
This essay will highlight the advantages of Spinoza’s monism over Descartes’ dualism by looking at Spinoza’s response to these issues.
First, in order to consider the advantages...
3,470 Words | 10 Pages
David Hume's Necessary Connection
Hume Writing Assignment 1
Hume questions why humans always make a necessary connection to events. Hume has always stated that it is impossible for humans to think anything that they have not already experienced. So to find the idea of Necessary Connection we have to look back on our impressions. We have to find where the idea of Necessary Connection came from. Hume argues that we cannot create new ideas for ourselves, which solidifies his position...
299 Words | 1 Page
St. Augustine's Political Philosophy
St. Augustine is a fourth century philosopher whose groundbreaking philosophy infused Christian doctrine with Neoplatonism. He is famous for being an inimitable Catholic theologian and for his agnostic contributions to Western philosophy. He argues that skeptics have no basis for claiming to know that there is no knowledge. In a proof for existence similar to one later made famous by René Descartes, Augustine says, “[Even] If I am mistaken, I am.” He is the first Western philosopher to...
314 Words | 1 Page
The First-Cause Argument: Why I am Not a Christian
The First-Cause Argument
In Bertrand Russell's "Why I am Not a Christian" in the first-cause argument he states that If everything has a cause, why do we assume God has no cause. If God has no cause then we can not assume that everything has a cause. For instance the universe might as well not have a cause if God does not have one.
He also states that it is possible to imagine the world beginning to exist and it is also possible to imagine that the world did not exist. We simply choose...
328 Words | 1 Page
Descartes Essay - 328 Words
Descartes’ Discourse on the Method (IV)
None of the proposed philosophical theories is exact, not even a combination of two or more theories (Sayre, 2011). However, Descartes has unique way of metaphysical argument concerning existence of God. Descartes’ Discourse on the Method (Part IV) ends surprisingly with a claim of God’s existence, which can be deduced from the interrelationship between mind, soul and our existence.
Descartes began the fourth section by discussing about himself. The...
328 Words | 1 Page
Philo - 309 Words
Metaphysics is the study of “reality.” More specifically it is the study of reality that is beyond the scientific or mathematical realms. The term “metaphysics” itself literally means “beyond the physical.” The metaphysical issues most discussed are the existence of God, the soul, and the afterlife.
2. Epistemology - This philosophy study concerns human knowledge: what knowledge is, what the conditions are which make human knowledge possible and the extent to which human...
309 Words | 1 Page
Marketing 300 Notes - 1625 Words
Can we know that God exists? vs. Can we know God?
In the Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas uses the philosophical method to theology and addresses the question of whether God’s existence can be demonstrated as well as the question of whether we can know God completely. For Aquinas, the question of proving the existence of God is always bound up with the question of how, and to what extent, we can know God at all. St. Thomas Aquinas believes that yes, God’s existence can be demonstrated but...
1,625 Words | 4 Pages
meta reflection 2 - 811 Words
Japeth B. Jaco AB- Philosophy
Metaphysics December 1, 2014
Occurrence in my life
“A mind that is stretched by a new experience can never go back to its old dimensions”. We could never go back to the past were what we did has already been done. When we discover new things you don't see your old thoughts the same way. We add new information that will help us to expand and deepen our knowledge through our understanding the experiences that we had encounter. I saw too many...
811 Words | 2 Pages
Descartes vs. Spinoza - 1582 Words
Term Paper, Philosophy 1107 Aaron Davis
Evaluation & Comparison Between Descartes and Spinoza
About The Paper:
What I will do in this following paper is to discuss two very interesting philosophers, Rene
Descartes and Benedictus de Spinoza. I will discuss each philosopher’s perspectives and insights
on their most recognized theories and thoughts. I will then evaluate them and then give my opinion
on the given topic. By doing this, I will contrast the similarities...
1,582 Words | 9 Pages
Descartes vs St Augustine
World of the Ideas
To examine life, you must first determine existence
. I will attempt to determine if their really is existence
and then examine two of the most impostant factors in peoples lives; love and religion. Everyone has tried to come to a conclusion on what is love and whether their is a God and people have dedicated their lives to both of these subjects Their are an infinite number of ways of examining love and religion but none of them can be taken as fact and none...
3,041 Words | 8 Pages
St. Augustine - 1249 Words
ST. AUGUSTINE’SPHILOSOPHY OF LOVE
St. Augustine’s philosophy of man reconciles and brings together to anadmirable synthesis and harmony the wisdom of Greek philosophy and the divine truths contained in the scriptures.
In common with Greek ethics, its being eudemonistic in character, as it makes happiness the end-all and the be-all of human living; but Augustine tells us with the Bible that this happiness can be found in GOD alone.
The summumbonum which is Plato’s and Aristotle’s...
1,249 Words | 4 Pages
Work and Play - 652 Words
“Work and Play” By: Michael Oakeshott
“I have called ‘play’ either as a holiday designed to make us ‘work’ better when it is over or merely as ‘work’ of another sort” (Oakeshott). In his article Work and Play, Michael Oakeshott goes into detail about human’s desire for pleasure. Oakeshott explain that in order to achieve that “true happiness” we must work for it, even though “playing” is involved in the process of reaching this happiness as well.
Work is defined by Oakeshott as...
652 Words | 2 Pages
Naturalism in Miss Julie - 532 Words
.......Naturalism developed in France in the 19th Century as an extreme form of realism. It was inspired in part by the scientific determinism of Charles Darwin, an Englishman, and the economic determinism of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, both Germans. Four Frenchmen—Hippolyte Taine, Edmond and Jules Goncourt, and Emile Zola—applied the principles of scientific and economic determinism to literature to create literary naturalism. According to its followers, literary naturalism has...
532 Words | 2 Pages
God's Existence Can Be Proven a Priori
“God’s existence can be proved a priori” Discuss
Trying to prove that God exists is a difficult argument and many people have tried many different ways. The Ontological argument is one argument; at the centre of the argument is the concept of existence. The Ontological argument has been argued from a group of philosophers for the existence of God. "Ontological" means talking about being and so that being is the existence of God. The ontological argument differs from other arguments in favour...
1,634 Words | 4 Pages
wally - 1496 Words
pro con list: Hard sciences such as math are easier than soft sciences such as sociology.
pro con list: Hard sciences such as math are easier than soft sciences such as sociology.
pro con list: Hard sciences such as math are easier than soft sciences such as sociology.
pro con list: Hard sciences such as math are easier than soft sciences such as sociology.
1,496 Words | 5 Pages
Philosophy of Man - 307 Words
Death is a typically human event, not just a biological occurrence. It is a separating of body and soul, but it is not just the body that dies, it is the whole man. It is difficult to talk of the very moment of death, since some people who had been there, did not talk of their experience. There are some written accounts of such experiences and from these we get glimpses of the next life. [Corazon Cruz]
Philosophy of man is the study of man and its philosophy in life that is subdivided into...
307 Words | 1 Page
St. Thomas Aquinas - 885 Words
Owen Zimmermann 11-20-11
Mrs.Donofree Rel. Pd. B
St. Thomas Aquinas
Saint Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher, theologian, Doctor of the Catholic Church, and is the patron saint of Catholic Universities, colleges, and schools. He was born in Rocca Secca, Italy, in 1225 and was born into a wealthy family. He even was related to the kings of Aragon, Castile, and France. His journey into Catholic beliefs seemed predestined, for he was told when he was a young child that he would become...
885 Words | 2 Pages
Descartes, Leibniz, and Spinoza
December 16, 1999
Paper 1, Section 2
If these great thinkers (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were to discuss instead the soul's connection to the body, what might each say (both on his own behalf and in response to the other)? Would they find any places where they might agree? If not, why not? (These are, after all, smart guys!)
Though this sort of meeting would strike me as a debate with as furiously disparate and uncompromising ideals as one would...
701 Words | 2 Pages
Moral Agency - 374 Words
Most philosophers suggest only rational beings, who can reason and form self-interested judgments, are capable of being moral agents. Some suggest those with limited rationality (for example, people who are mildly mentally disabled or infants) also have some basic moral capabilities.
Determinists argue all of our actions are the product of antecedent causes, and some believe this is incompatible with free will and thus claim that we have no real control over our actions. Immanuel Kant...
374 Words | 2 Pages
Augustine on Evil - 293 Words
St. Augustine believed that God made a perfect world, but that God's creatures turned away from God of their own free will and that is how evil originated in the world. Augustine assumes that evil cannot be properly said to exist at all, he argues that the evil, together with that suffering which is created as punishment for sin, originates in the free nature of the will of all creatures. According to Augustine, God has allowed evil to exist in the world because it does not conflict with his...
293 Words | 1 Page
The Existence of God - 498 Words
Journal Reflection – Proofs for the Existence of God
St. Thomas Aquinas’ 5 Ways
St. Thomas Aquinas’ Five Ways (3)
God either exists or doesn’t, believe what you want but many have argued over this ongoing topic including famous philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas, who created 5 ways to prove that God actually exists. I will be focusing on three of his ‘Five Ways’, which include the ideas that there has to be a first mover that had initially started everything in motion,...
498 Words | 2 Pages
Aristotle - 571 Words
Living a “Good Life.” This is something most people strive for, but what we all question is, what is it that leads to a “good life,” or what does it really mean to have a “good life.” Most people would agree that whatever makes a person happy will lead to a good life, but happiness with each individual differs. Whether it be pleasure, wealth, or health many can disregard the virtue of true happiness, and their material desires leads to ignorance. Aristotle’s answer to this is that we...
571 Words | 2 Pages
The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God
The cosmological argument for the existence of god
According to St. John 8:31-32 said, “If you remain in my word, you will truly be my disciples, and you will know the truth and the truth shall set you free”. This sentence is come from the bible, but I am not a christian, so I do not really understand what this means. I guess it was talking about if people believe in god, and trust his words, and in the end the will get the freedom. For many of christians, they believes in god, but many...
1,416 Words | 4 Pages
Thomas Aquinas - 850 Words
As I was a Christian, my parents use to ask me to read different types of books about God and religion. One of my favorite books that I had read during my high school years was a book by Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas believed in a unique combination of faith and reason in his believes of God, and had brought up five different arguments on his believes in political and ethical in the existence of God.
1st: The First Mover
Aristotle got the idea that the whole universe is...
850 Words | 3 Pages
The teleological argument as put forward by St Thomas Aquinas
The teleological argument as put forward by St. Thomas Aquinas attempts to prove the existence of God by use of empirical evidence. Aquinas attempts this through three ways.
The first way Aquinas attempts to prove the existence of God is through cause and effect. Every action or outcome must have a previous action that allowed that action or outcome to come about. This previous action must have been set in motion by another action. St. Thomas reasons that this infers an infinite chain of...
438 Words | 1 Page
Midas Case Study - 470 Words
Qualifiers: Midas's qualifiers include: (1) Speed; (2) Specialisation of services; (3) Price; (4) Trust/Reliability; (5) Quality parts; (6) Customer service; (7) Guarantee; and (8) Location.
Winners: From the customer's perspective the winners which ensures they utilise Midas are Speed and Price.
In order to assess the anticipated impacts of the introduction of maintenance services on the existing business process it is necessary to analyse the potential fit of the new business with the...
470 Words | 2 Pages