Epistemology - 233 Words
1. Epistemology: The theory of knowledge in sociology it is used to refer to the procedures by which sociological knowledge is acquired.
The theory of knowledge especially with regard to its methods validity and scope and the distinction between justified belief and opinion.
2. How sociologists conduct their study
Sociologists need to use different ways of finding out about the world
Seeks to apply the same methods that are used by the natural sciences : RESEARCH...
233 Words | 1 Page
Epistemology - 854 Words
October 7, 2011
Is it true to say that there is no truth? The very concept itself is contradictory, but is still a topic worth exploring. If a person were to simply go about their life believing everything they ever heard or experienced to be true, they could be deceived without their own knowledge. Say they overheard someone talking about Sam Houston when they stated, “... and then Sam Houston claimed her land.” Rightfully, without any other...
854 Words | 3 Pages
EPISTEMOLOGY - 1564 Words
“I have found that such an object has always been attended with such an effect, and I foresee, that other objects, which are, in appearance, similar, will be attended with similar effects”. This foretells that with knowledge, our society may be able to associate a certain aspect/detail with an object, but that does not necessarily mean it will always happen. Therefore, Hume, who starts out as an empiricist, has arrived at the conclusion where an individual may not have knowledge at...
1,564 Words | 4 Pages
Epistemology Vocabulary Epistemology - 473 Words
Epistemology: The branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge.
Rationalism: The position that reason alone, without the aid of sensory info, is capable of arriving at some knowledge, at some undeniable truths.
Empiricism: the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience.
Idealism: in metaphysics, the position that reality is ultimately non matter; in EPISTEMOLOGY, the...
473 Words | 2 Pages
All Epistemology Essays
Problems of Epistemology - 1319 Words
Epistemology is the study of our right to the beliefs we have. More generally, we start from what we might call our cognitive stances, and ask whether we do well to have those stances. Cognitive stances include both our beliefs and (what we take to be) our knowings; and in another dimension they include our attitudes towards the various strategies and methods we use to get new beliefs and filter out old ones, as well as the products of those strategies and methods. Epistemology, on this showing,...
1,319 Words | 3 Pages
Descartes' Epistemology - 1710 Words
Carefully explain Descartes’ cogito and his attempt to build his knowledge structure from the ground up. (Be as succinct as possible.) Does Descartes succeed or fail in that attempt? Justify your answer in full.
This essay attempts to explain Descartes’ epistemology of his knowledge, his “Cogito, Ergo Sum” concept (found in the Meditations), and why he used it [the cogito concept] as a foundation when...
1,710 Words | 5 Pages
Epistemology and Knowledge - 1742 Words
December 10, 2012
Dr. Kathy Downey
University of Phoenix
Epistemology, or the study of knowledge, requires the scholar analyze the what, how, and why’s of their own knowledge. Asking these questions of themselves is essentially applying that which they have learned. There are different origins of knowledge as conceptualized by philosophers, educators, and scientists. Early philosophers defined knowledge as “justified true belief” (Cooper, pg. 23). In...
1,742 Words | 5 Pages
Feminist Epistemology - 3997 Words
The Potential of Emotions in Feminist Epistemology:
Developing Jaggar’s Account
University of Calgary
In this paper I analyze the potential of Allison Jaggar’s suggestion that emotions in general, and outlaw emotions in particular, be incorporated into feminist epistemology. Jaggar advocates a standpoint theory of emotions, and suggests that the emotions of the oppressed in particular are helpful rather than inimical to acquiring...
3,997 Words | 11 Pages
Epistemology and Knowledge - 502 Words
13 May 2014
What Do We Know?
For centuries philosophers have questioned whether knowledge exists and if we know anything at all. This discipline is known as epistemology. Epistemology, or the theory of knowledge, is a branch of philosophy related to the scope and nature of knowing. The subject focuses on examining the nature of knowledge and how it relates to beliefs, justification and truth. It is actually quite hard to define knowledge. The dictionary...
502 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology and Descartes - 604 Words
Plato/Descartes Reading Response
In both Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and Descartes’ The Fourth Meditation, they discuss truth; what it is, where it comes from and how to differentiate it from falsehood and error. Plato’s paper is more metaphorical and uses imagery to paint a picture of his idea of truth, while Descartes’ is more straight forward, and uses examples. These papers are written very differently but are, at the same time, very similar when it comes to content. Although it’s not...
604 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology and Truth - 3441 Words
How do we know what we know? Is what we believe to be truth really truth? A branch of Philosophy that seeks out to answer these questions and to discover the origin of knowledge is Epistemology. Much of what we believe is based on allegations and generalizations rather than established evidence. That’s way so many people have different beliefs throughout the world. I will be discussing more of these Worldviews in a later paragraph. Right now I’d like to continue to focus on...
3,441 Words | 9 Pages
Philosophy Epistemology - 877 Words
Epistemology is one of the very important branches of philosophy. It is also known as the knowledge theory. The knowledge theory consists of three questions; “What is the origin of knowledge? What is the reliability of knowledge? & What is the criteria of knowledge?” Rene Descartes and John Locke really looked into epistemology and both had different theories to approach it. John Locke looked at empiricism...
877 Words | 3 Pages
Epistemology Essay - 751 Words
Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous "cogito" argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question.
Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge...
751 Words | 3 Pages
Epistemology and Skepticism - 370 Words
* Epistemology and Skepticism: How does The Matrix illustrate the challenge of skepticism about the external world? Explain, discuss, and critically evaluate the hallucination argument for complete epistemological skepticism. Be sure your essay includes a discussion of either Hospers' or Crumley II's criticism of complete epistemological skepticism. Is complete epistemological skepticism a logically coherent theory? Support your answer with a well-reasoned argument free of any major errors of...
370 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology and Stick - 720 Words
vhis quote is specifically about deception. If you have ever practiced deception, which can come in many forms, it becomes obvious.
One way you can use deception is by camouflage. The walking stick, an insect, is a perfect example. It appears to be a twig or a stick, but in fact, it is an insect. Most will be decieved by the appearance, but the intelligence of a few can see what has been carefully hidden. Basically, if you are smart enough, you will see through the camouflage and recognize...
720 Words | 3 Pages
Epistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper
Epistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper
Epistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper
The nature of skepticism in real-life today, on a daily basis goes mostly unnoticed. People react to environments of skepticism differently and could become biased upon the subject discussed. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2011), “skepticism is defined as 1: an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object 2...
512 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology: Logic and Knowledge - 1674 Words
Reflection Essay on Epistemology
What is knowledge? How do we know what we know? Do we really know anything at all? These questions, as well as multiple others that arise when searching for the answers are what epistemology is all about. Various philosophers present their own positions in which they try to provide answers to these questions. From externalism to internalism, empiricism to rationalism, and even skepticism, we are exposed to a wide variety of ways that these thinkers use to...
1,674 Words | 5 Pages
Epistemology - Foundational Internalism - 1894 Words
8 November 2012
Foundational Internalism Versus The Real World
Jim Pryor states, according to his explanations, that the argument against philosophies that encourage immediate justification go on to say that justifiers need to be wholly made up of propositional content. This becomes ‘The puzzle of the Given’, according to BonJour and Davidson, and states that this becomes a dilemma in how the foundationalists attempt to use this to account and...
1,894 Words | 6 Pages
Objectivist Epistemology and Ayn Rand
The starting point of Objectivist Epistemology is the principle, presented by Rand as a direct consequence of the metaphysical axiom that "Existence is Identity," that Knowledge is Identification. Objectivist epistemology studies how one can translate perception, i.e., awareness acquired through the senses, into valid concepts that actually identify the facts of reality.
Objectivism states that by the method of reason man can gain knowledge (identification of the facts of reality) and...
674 Words | 2 Pages
Princiole Issues with Epistemology
Principal Issues with Epistemology
June 18, 2012
Dr. Anne M. Edwards
Principal Issues with Epistemology
Society has attempted to decipher what is real. The idea of what is real and what is understood has been a problem for societies. The different societies and cultures believed in other beings such as different God’s. Greek society was a leader in worshipping and believing in God’s that perceived to be real in their minds and culture. Worshipping these God’s...
592 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology Exam Questions - 706 Words
Review Test Submission: Exam 3
Course | Epistemology-PHIL 201 |
Test | Exam 3 |
* Question 1
| __________________ combined rationalism and empiricism, showing how both played a role in our understanding
| | |
Correct Answer: | Kant. |
| | | |
* Question 2
| Descartes deduced God from the concept of God itself, in order to justify the idea of the material world.
Correct Answer: | True |...
706 Words | 5 Pages
Epistemology Study Guide - 1103 Words
Epistemology Study Guide
1. How can the senses deceive us?
a. Our senses are how we perceive the world. Our eyes, nose, tongue, fingers, and ears feed raw information to our brain, which then turns it into information we can use. If we lose one of our senses, we lose that entire set of raw data. As such, we place incredible amounts of reliance on our senses. The only way our senses can deceive us is if they give us the wrong data, which then becomes wrong information. If life is an...
1,103 Words | 4 Pages
The Relationship Between Epistemology and Metaphysics
What is the relationship between epistemology and metaphysics
In many ways epistemology clears the way for metaphysical construction or hypothesis. By adhering to the principles of one branch of philosophy, it allows us to become better at searching within the other. It is true that epistemic ideas are often knocked down by metaphysics, but when one considers that it is entirely possible to base metaphysical ideas on epistemology, it becomes clear that the branches of philosophy are very...
698 Words | 2 Pages
Epistemology: Scientific Method and Knowledge
Epistemology can be difficult to understand and maybe even harder to say. The short answer is that epistemology is the theory of knowledge. Perhaps that is too short of an answer, allow me expand. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions concerning the nature, scope, and sources of knowledge. Even these concepts can be foreign to the common public. The nature of knowledge is basically the qualities that constitute knowledge. One would find this answer by asking "What is...
930 Words | 3 Pages
Aquinas Epistemology and God - 1470 Words
Introduction: The scientific developments of the renaissance were powerful and they stimulate new ways of thought that one can be tempted to disregard any role medieval thinking plays in the general development of both renaissance and post renaissance philosophy up till today. It would be a mistake to take it that Descartes, Locke achieved a total radical break from the past and inaugurated a completely new philosophical era. One cannot understand scholars like Descartes or Locke without having...
1,470 Words | 4 Pages
Meno: Epistemology and Socrates - 882 Words
A paradox is a true statement or group of statements that leads to a contradiction or situation, which defies intuition (Wikipedia). In Plato’s Meno, Meno and Socrates engage in the typical Socratic elenctic method of examination pertaining to the topic of virtue. Socrates helps Meno reach a state of learned ignorance. After reaching this state, Meno presents his paradox to Socrates. Socrates, in philosophical fashion, examines the statement using epistemological evidence to...
882 Words | 3 Pages
Skepticism & Contextualism in Epistemology - 1847 Words
Skepticism & Contextualism in Epistemology
Epistemology, is generally understood as the study of knowledge. The word Epistemology was coined by Scottish philosopher James F. Ferrier, it is a word derived from Greek – Episteme meaning knowledge and logos meaning study. The study of knowledge or Epistemology covers not only basic day to day conceptualizations and realizations, but it is a field of study in itself that covers wide array of topics and almost everything one have learnt...
1,847 Words | 5 Pages
My Reaction Paper on Virtue Epistemology
My Reaction Paper on Virtue Epistemology
We were given an opportunity to listen to the lecture of Prof. Samuel P. Vera Cruz M.A about virtue epistemology. I wasn’t able to finish the whole lecture since I have to attend the following subject but I was able to gain additional insights regarding it.
At the beginning of his lecture, he mentioned different names of philosophers, each having different views about philosophy. By this, I came up with the conclusion that each of...
252 Words | 1 Page
Self Education - 1166 Words
Salman Shocken dropped out of high school at the age of 16. He built a chain of retail stores in Germany in the 1920’s. With the money he made he surrounded himself with contemporary scholars of his era including Franz Kafka. He paid these scholars a monthly salary so that they could write in peace and share their ideas with him. Salman fled Germany in the late 1930’s to avoid the coming...
1,166 Words | 4 Pages
Knowledge And Reality Essay - 1694 Words
Can Knowledge be defined? Explain and defend your answer.
Knowledge is Functional
Defining knowledge has been an ongoing debate for philosophers in the field of
epistemology. To come to a conclusion about if knowledge can be defined or not we need to look at theories of knowledge and the different views philosophers who have studied epistemology have. To define knowledge one must find a definition that states, what is necessary for knowledge as well as sufficient and cannot be challenged by...
1,694 Words | 5 Pages
Was Decarte's skepticism influenced by his faith?
Ana Clara Martins
Modern World History (Period C)
12 February 2014
Was Descartes’ skepticism influenced by his faith?
“If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things” (Descartes, goodreads). René Descartes, often described as the “Father of Modern Philosophy”, was born in a time where philosophy and science were advancing at an unbelievable rate. The revolutionizing philosopher was...
1,419 Words | 5 Pages
Descartes Meditation - 282 Words
Descartes (Meditation One)
1. If Descartes’s aim is to find certainty, why does he proceed by doubting as many things as he can?
He feels that as long as he goes on believing his old beliefs, laziness and habit will block him from receiving any truths. He feels that if he regards his beliefs in the same way as he does any falsehoods he can remain unbiased when judging information and only then will he receive real truths.
2. What reason does he give for doubting that the senses give...
282 Words | 1 Page
PHIL 201 Study Guide
Study Guide: Lesson 13
Justification, Part 1: Noetic Structure
View and take notes on the presentation, “An Overview of Issues in Contemporary Justification, Part 1.”
What are 3 characteristics of a person’s noetic structure?
The sum total of everything that person believes
It recognizes the differing degress of certainty, firmness, and conviction with which people hold their beliefs.
Characterized by how beliefs are related together.
Explain coherentism and the 3 problems...
963 Words | 4 Pages
A Discourse on the Discourse - 1490 Words
A Discourse on the Discourse
In A Discourse on the Method, Descartes talk of his desire for certainty and truth and the method he uses to determine truth and falsity. The text shows Descartes method of making certain the knowledge he obtains and he does not limit this to philosophical knowledge he uses his method in seeking all forms of truth be it the sciences, theology or philosophy.
Throughout the text Descartes talks of the importance of certainty and truth and...
1,490 Words | 4 Pages
Rene Desacartes and David Hume
Rene Descartes and David Hume were two great philosophers during the modern period. Many of their issues focused on the existence of God. Hume’s writings on the existence of God are different to Descartes’. Descartes tries to prove Gods existence while Hume tries to show the foolishness of believing in God. However, both philosophers fail to solve the issue because they both hold many arguments. The major issue between Descartes and Hume is their conflicting methods on how the issue should be...
948 Words | 3 Pages
Platos Analogy of the Cave - 1782 Words
Explain the Analogy of the Cave in Plato’s Republic.
Plato was a Greek Philosopher, who was a student of Socrates. The Analogy of the Cave in Plato’s Republic was written as a dialogue between Socrates and Plato’s brother Glaucon. In the Analogy of the Cave, Plato describes the prisoners who lived an isolated life in the confined space of a cave. Plato’s Analogy explains a philosopher’s journey to knowledge and the difficulty that he faces along the way and the prisoners in the cave who have...
1,782 Words | 5 Pages
Skeptical Certainty - 1103 Words
What is it that I mean to say when I claim to know something? In general usage, the word knowledge has a comparatively low value as a threshold for acceptance. When using the word ‘knowledge’ in a philosophical context, however, it is necessary to delineate the boundaries of its definition. It is in this context that I will discuss knowledge in the sense that implies certainty as the level of confidence I hold in its ability to reflect reality. Hereafter I will defend the notion that certain...
1,103 Words | 3 Pages
the person is admire most
A Person I Admire
Do you have some one that you admire? Do you have someone that you look up to? I’m sure you do. Most people I know do as well. Generally people admire someone that is related or close to them. But I also know people who admire someone that they have never met personally such as a super star musician or athlete. Let me tell you about someone that is very close to me and that I admire more than anybody else because he is someone I spend time with every day.
The first thing that...
391 Words | 1 Page
Power Versus Domination - 299 Words
Power versus Domination
Although Foucault’s methodology of archaeology and genealogy of knowledge contribute greatly to the study of history of knowledge but contrary to general facts of social science. Foucault’s archaeology and genealogy of knowledge produce outstanding works such as History of Madness and History of Sexuality. But, in fact, in theory and practice of social change there is no relation between power and domination. But on the other hand, Foucault’s methodology makes us more...
299 Words | 1 Page
Hey This Is Not Me
Coherentist Theories of Epistemic Justification
First published Tue Nov 11, 2003; substantive revision Thu Nov 15, 2012
According to the coherence theory of justification, also known as coherentism, a belief or set of beliefs is justified, or justifiably held, just in case the belief coheres with a set of beliefs, the set forms a coherent system or some variation on these themes. The coherence theory of justification should be distinguished from the coherence theory of truth. The former is a...
11,803 Words | 33 Pages
philo - 1190 Words
Running head: SENSE VS. REASON: A WAY TO OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE
Sense vs. Reason: A Way to Obtain Knowledge
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
NUR 710 Philosophy of Knowledge Development in Nursing
Dr. Beth Barba
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY
I HAVE ABIDED BY THE ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY ON THIS ASSIGNMENT.
Student Signature: Junjira Seesawang
SENSE VS. REASON: A WAY TO OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE
The debate about truth upon two schools of thought, rationalism...
1,190 Words | 5 Pages
Theories of knowledge - 2653 Words
Theories of Justification
Identify and carefully examine two theories of justification.
“The concern with understanding human knowledge has been a central philosophical one.”1“Like Rene Descartes, we have all ask ourselves at one time or another couldn't everything I seem to see, hear, etc. Be illusory? Might I’ll in fact be dreaming all this? If so what do I really know of the outside world?"2 Knowledge is a vague concept according to...
2,653 Words | 8 Pages
Explain Platos Theories of Form
Plato was born in 429 B.C. As the son of a wealthy nobleman, he turned his back on a political scene, and devoted himself to writing ideas of his master, complimented with his own views in his dialogues.
One particular theory he dedicated his time to was the the theory of ‘The forms’. Plato's theory of forms is strongly based on what is real and what is not. What is real is thought to be perfect, but something cannot be real or perfect if it is always changing. He believed that behind...
923 Words | 3 Pages
Identity and diversity - 1004 Words
Identity is a complex and diverse issue. As much as society, the media and academics try to debate its definition it is difficult to capture fully its meaning. According to Kroger (2000) identity is “a subjective feeling of self-sameness and continuity over time”. If research to date has shown anything it is that there are a number of ways to examine identity in psychology. Of the three Identity theorists available to us it is the Social Constructionist theory that has transformed the way...
1,004 Words | 3 Pages
Epistemic Closure Essay - 1321 Words
In this essay I am going to analyze the principle of epistemic closure and then I will look at the counterexamples, proposed by by Fred Dretsky and Jonathan Vogel. I will analyse and come to a conclusion whether their arguments are convincing and what responces there are to their counterexamples. In general epistemology is a «branch of philosophy that is directed towards theories of sources, nature and limits of knowledge»1. Rene Descartes’ famous treatise «Meditations on First Philosophy» will...
1,321 Words | 4 Pages
Universal Methodic Doubt - 1575 Words
Universal Methodic Doubt
All opinions and beliefs must be doubted
As we doubt, we cannot doubt that are doubting
To doubt that we are doubting by itself proves that we are indeed doubting.
Unless we are doubting, we can never attempt to doubt that we are doubting.
The fact that we doubt is to affirm a truth.
We doubt, therefore we exist. Unless we exist. Unless we exist, we cannot doubt.
“I think, therefore, I exist.”
“I doubt, therefore, I am.”
COGITO ERGO SUM
Since we doubt, we are not...
1,575 Words | 4 Pages
Ujhhjk - 600 Words
➢ Plato was born in Athens in 428/27 BCE, one year after death of Pericles.
➢ His father traced his lineage to the old kings of Athens and before them to the god Posiedon.
➢ His, mother Perictione, was the sister of Chramides and the cousin of Critias.
➢ In such a family atmosphere, Plato learned much about public life and developed at an early age a sense of responsibility for public political service.
➢ Around 387 BCE, when he was about 40 yrs....
600 Words | 4 Pages
Analyzing Bertrand Russell - 698 Words
Analyzing Bertrand Russell
I believe what Russell was stating was that we not only need to nourish our bodies, we also need to tend to our minds as well. We must be careful not to sink into monotony, because when we do we tend to fall back to the base instincts of operating on routine rather than using our minds. When this happens we risk starving ourselves intellectually.
The whole basis of philosophy is that there is no right answer, philosophers debate and never come to any real...
698 Words | 2 Pages
Turtles All the Way Down: A critique of Infinitism and Coherentism
Epistemic Justification is an important factor in regards to the possibility of knowledge and to whether one has proper grounds for believing in some proposition of knowledge. This paper is concerned with the necessity of Epistemic Justification theories to have some sort of non-inferential clause, and seeks to make it clear that Coherentist and Infinitist theories of Epistemic Justification fail to provide a level of sufficient justification necessary to exempt Coherentism and Infitnism from...
3,556 Words | 10 Pages
An Element of Art and Science - 1177 Words
An Element of arts and science
Astrology provides a very debatable kind of knowledge that is generally assessed by the intelligent as a useless kind of knowledge, which only makes sense for the ignorant. At the same time astrology is usually associated with gypsies and hucksters, who are known for their deceptive and fake knowledge, as they try to deceive people for their own financial interest. On the other hand, we find people with high education attempting to study astrology and very...
1,177 Words | 4 Pages
fdgdf - 9906 Words
Principles like those Parmenides assumed are said in contemporary jargon to
be a priori principles, or principles of reason, which just means that they are
known prior to experience. It is not that we learn these principles first chronologically
but rather that our knowledge of them does not depend on our senses.
For example, consider the principle “You can’t make something out of nothing.”
If you wished to defend this principle, would you proceed by conducting an
experiment in which you...
9,906 Words | 40 Pages
Tobacco Smoking Among Teenagers : Issues and Remedies
SAMPLE OF ESSAY
CIVIL ENGINEERING (100L)
GST 113(philosophy and human existence)
Review of the chapter one (1) of olusegun oladipo (thinking about philosophy)
Philosophy is not easy to define because it is difficult to identify the subject matter of it, on like biology, political science and so on. Also we cannot say philosophical method, the way we talk of scientific method. But according to the preface of the book, philosophy is an intellectual Endeavour to acquire self knowledge. Three...
587 Words | 2 Pages
John Lock'Es View on Innate Knowledge
John Locke, a renowned English philosopher in the seventeenth century, argued against the
pre-existing prevalent belief of innate knowledge, such as those led by Descartes. Many of
Locke’s arguments begin with criticisms on philosophers’ opinion on innate knowledge,
notably Descartes. Therefore, many of Locke’s arguments are direct rebuttals of Descartes
and other philosophers’ beliefs about the existence of innate knowledge. To arrive at the...
967 Words | 6 Pages
Apearance vs Reality - 3034 Words
What can I know with certainty, if anything? What is the source of knowledge? What is ‘truth’?
In human life, there are many things people think they know with certainty. Is it really so? Can anybody be really sure about knowing something? What make us know something? Is there any knowledge in the world that is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? According to Bertrand Russell, this last question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult...
3,034 Words | 8 Pages
Mind and Matrix - 1227 Words
Epistemology is the nature of knowledge. Knowledge is important when considering what is reality and what is deception. The movie "The Matrix" displays a social deception in which Neo, the main character, is caught between what he thought was once reality and a whole new world that controls everything he thought was real. If I were Neo, I would not truly be able to know that I was in the matrix. However, it is rational to believe that I am in the matrix and will eventually enter back into my...
1,227 Words | 3 Pages
John Locke outlinect - 795 Words
Professor kasiano Paul
EN 108 Intro to Philosophy
21 April 2015
“Rationalism is the thought that appeals to reason or intellect a primary or fundamental source of knowledge or justification.” “It is typically contrasted with empiricism, which appeals to sensory experience as a primary or fundamental source of knowledge or justification.” John Locke argues that, “We come to this world knowing nothing whatsoever.” (Warburton 74). He believes that experience...
795 Words | 3 Pages
Descartes Argument for the Existence of Corporeal Things
Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes, which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and divinity. This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist.
1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of sensing and I use it involuntarily.
2. If there exists a passive...
1,886 Words | 5 Pages
Plato Essay - 2049 Words
1. a) Explain how Plato’s epistemological assumptions shape his metaphysics (Why does he think that there must be Forms? Hint: Plato says (in effect): “Since knowledge is certain, therefore the objects of knowledge must be unchanging.”).
b) Define Plato’s Forms and present the theory of Forms by explaining the “divided line.” (You can use the visual image, but explain it.)
Plato was extremely devoted in answering the sophists’ skepticism about reason and morality. To do so, he spent...
2,049 Words | 6 Pages
Certainty vs. Doubt - 543 Words
Some people believe that life depends on either the concepts of certainty and doubt. With certainty comes a sense of confidence. When you are certain about everything in life, you will know with absolute truth your capabilities, responsibilities, and consequences for your actions. However doubt engraves a feeling of the unknown. If you are uncertain about life, then how will you ever be restrained by boundaries? Doubt may be the only certain undeniable truth.
We cannot know with certainty what...
543 Words | 2 Pages
PHIL201 Study Guide Lesson 10
Study Guide: Lesson 10
What is Epistemology? & What is Knowledge?
With this lesson, we begin a new unit on epistemology, which is the philosophical study of knowledge claims. In this first lesson on epistemology, Dew and Foreman discuss some of the basic issues raised in the study of epistemology and then discuss the nature of knowledge itself. They consider questions such as, “What do we mean when we say we know something?” “What exactly is knowledge?
View and take...
731 Words | 3 Pages
Critical Thinking in 21st Century America
The intellectual roots of critical thinking date back to the teachings of Socrates, who discovered a method of analytical questioning; known today as “Socratic questioning,” establishing that one could not rationally justify their assured claims to knowledge. Socrates established that people cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that individuals may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the...
1,088 Words | 3 Pages
Community and Family Studies - 405 Words
Unit Title: Resource Management
Task type: Case Study
Due Date: Week 8 Term 1 2011
P1.1 describes the contribution an individual’s experiences, values, attitudes and beliefs make to the development of goals
P1.2 proposes effective solutions to resource problems
P6.1 distinguishes those actions that enhance wellbeing
P4.2 presents information in written, oral and graphic form
405 Words | 2 Pages
Since There Is No Way of Telling Whether We Are Dreaming, We Can Have No Knowledge of the External World. Discuss.
“Since there is no way of telling whether you are dreaming, there is no way of knowing anything about the external world.” Discuss.
The radical sceptical hypothesis cited in the question above has been a source of epistemic frustration since the time of Plato, and has gripped philosophical interest through Sextus Empiricus, Michel de Montaign, up to Descartes whose Method of Doubt employs the most famous formulation of the Dreaming Argument, which goes from an unexceptional premise to the...
3,613 Words | 10 Pages
AP ENGLISH CERTAINTY AND DOUBT ESSAY
Being certain about something can sometimes be misleading or misunderstood. You either assure certainty or question doubt. You can easily be a cocky football player, think you have the best team, and go into the game knowing you’re going to win and have no doubt that the other team is better than you, but end up losing. But as soon as you have doubt and get intimidated by the other team you instantly try your best to win the game, no matter the obstacles and...
577 Words | 2 Pages
The Ultimate Truth - 434 Words
Dr. Elizabeth Mitchell
Soc. 313:04-05: Fall 2012
September 16, 2012
The Ultimate Truth
Truth by definition as according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary is a judgment, proposition, or idea that is true or accepted as true. But how as individuals do we know if something is true? Our knowledge of what is true in my opinion comes from multiple aspects. For example, by using the mind we rationalize and logically think out situations we observe through our senses to...
434 Words | 2 Pages
Journal Analysis - 1567 Words
Journal Article Analysis
University of Phoenix
Douglas Gurney, MBA
Constructing Meaning PHL717
December 17, 2012
Dr. Kathy Kelly
Journal Article Analysis
Current views of the world, desires, dreams, goals, and the demands placed upon society are constantly transformed by present epistemological beliefs. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter (2002) investigated the relationship between an individuals’ belief about knowledge, learning or epistemological beliefs and how this relates to average...
1,567 Words | 5 Pages
Gettier Problems - 463 Words
Knowledge is defined by the tripartite theory where it is defined as justified true belief. It generally means that in order to know something, we have to believe it that it is true and support it with justifications to prove that it is true. However, not all justified true beliefs can be knowledge as shown in the counter example - the Gettier problems by Edmund Gettier. The Gettier problems narrate a situation where a. justified true belief does not warrant as genuine knowledge.
Here is one...
463 Words | 2 Pages
How Is Certainty Possible?
How Is Certainty Possible?
Certainty is defined as being free of doubt. In philosophy is there such a thing that we know without any doubt? Do we know anything with absolute certainty? Although we may believe to have genuine knowledge in some cases, there are other cases in which we do not know, but only think we know. Now therein lies the problem, how do we distinguish what is absolutely certain and what is not? This is why the idea of knowledge and certainty is so important. Both...
1,089 Words | 3 Pages
Sidhartha Quote Analysis - 297 Words
“You have listened well to the teachings, O Brahmin’s son, and it is a credit to you that you have thought so deeply about them. You have found a flaw. Think well about it again. Let me warn you, you who are thirsty for knowledge, against the thicket of opinions and the conflict of words. Opinions mean nothing; they may be beautiful or ugly, clever or foolish, anyone can embrace or reject them.”
This is by far my favorite part of the novel. Even though the Buddha is seen as...
297 Words | 1 Page
Ccontemporary Epistemological Research in Education: Reconciliation and Reconceptualization of the Field
Contemporary Epistemological Research in Education Reconciliation and Reconceptualization of the Field
Authors: Theo Niessen, Tineke Abma, Guy Widdershoven, and Cees van der Vleuten, Sanne Akkerman
ABSTRACT. In this article the authors challenge contemporary epistemological research within educational settings. After a reconciliation of the current models which treat epistemological beliefs as static and mechanical, the authors present a teaching experience to illustrate their enactivist...
8,752 Words | 28 Pages
knowledge and reality - 1576 Words
The quest for knowledge remains a perplexing problem in the field of philosophy.Even nowadays mankind continue to seek to understand himself and the world around him he is thirst to know were exactly our knowledge comes from.The question of knowledge appears to be a battle between the empirisists who believed that knowledge is acquired through sense experience and the rationalists who believed that knowledge can only be required through reasoning.Although there are a lot of people who abides...
1,576 Words | 4 Pages
Philosophy - 323 Words
The issue of knowledge is definitely an essential part in philosophy. It forces us to question whether we are certain of the things we think we know, and whether we can justify the things we know are actually true. This theory or study of knowledge can be referred to as epistemology. All these views on knowledge can vary depending on how we view the world itself. We are able to perceive the world through the application of our senses, however, our senses alone can be very deceiving. We can never...
323 Words | 1 Page
On Locke - 2927 Words
2.1 Book I
At the beginning of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke says that since his purpose is “to enquire into the Original, Certainty and Extant of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of Belief, Opinion and Assent” he is going to begin with ideas — the materials out of which knowledge is constructed. His first task is to “enquire into the Original of these Ideas…and the ways whereby the Understanding comes to be furnished with them” (I. 1. 3. p. 44). The role...
2,927 Words | 8 Pages
K JTB Essay Final
Knowledge as Justified True Belief
The topic chosen for this essay was to critically discuss the claim that knowledge is belief that is true and justified. This model works by using three conditions that, when all present, are sufficient for knowledge. This topic has long been an area of controversy and debate within the study of epistemology. The purpose of this essay will be to delve deeper into the nature of the K=JTB model, explaining all three conditions with...
1,549 Words | 5 Pages
Explain the Platonic Concept of Forms
Explain the Platonic concept of Forms.
Plato believed that reality is more than what we sense around the world (e.g. taste, smell, hear, see and touch), he believed that behind these physical realities lies a perfect version of them in which he called Forms and that the greatest thing we can learn is to have knowledge and understanding of them. Plato’s theory means that what we can sense around us (for example a chair) is just a mere shadow of the perfect version which exists in the world of...
745 Words | 2 Pages
Descartes "I Think Therefor I Am"
-A statement by the seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes "I think; therefore I am" was the end of the search Descartes conducted for a statement that could not be doubted. In the beginning, Descartes was in the process of figuring out his nature, using reasoning instead of experience. He had to start with a first premise which was indubitable. He found that "I exist" is something that is certain, and what follows must be certain as well. In the meditator's search...
364 Words | 1 Page
Descartes - First Meditation - 974 Words
PHIL 220 Fall 2011 Prof. Sara Magrin Sarah Gabr 900-08-9073 Final Essay
In the First Meditation, Descartes presents his philosophical project, and he claims that, in order to complete this project, he needs to put into questions the truth of all his beliefs. Descartes shows that we can doubt of the truth of all our beliefs by two main arguments, the Dream Argument and the Evil Genius argument.
In the Dream Argument, Descartes discusses the senses and how it can deceive. Descartes then mentions...
974 Words | 3 Pages
Midterm - 1086 Words
Please type the responses;
One hour limit;
Put your name on the exam
1. State the four logically possible ways in which evidentialism could go about justifying its beliefs? Briefly evaluate each of the options. 
Evidentialism holds four logical possibilities in an attempt to justify their beliefs. There is historical evidence, negative apologetics, minimal evidence, and the Holy Spirit.
The first step is...
1,086 Words | 4 Pages
compare and contrast plato and decsartes
"Compare and contrast Plato’s allegory of the cave (in terms of the concern with the difference between appearances and reality) with Descartes’ systematic doubt of external reality in the Meditations."
Descartes and Plato are two of the most influential thinkers within philosophy. The allegory of the cave and systematic doubt are also two of the most famous concepts within philosophy. Plato at the time of writing...
1,528 Words | 4 Pages
Wikipedia - 737 Words
Is Wikipedia a reliable source of Knowledge? Information? Why or why not?
Knowledge is a justified true belief that are passed down from generation to generation. The ones who have passed down these knowledges and information are known as sources. However, not all sources are reliable nor are they all true. Wikipedia is a very worldly wide known website that is used to look up for informations on any matter. Even so, this website is also famous for its unreliable information that are given....
737 Words | 2 Pages
DOUBT - 2516 Words
ANNIE M. JUMAWAN BSAT-III
PHILO-102 MR.JOHAREL ESCOBIA
Regarding many things man is certain that he possesses knowledge. He is equally certain that there are far more things of which he is totally ignorant. He is conscious of the fact that he has made many errors in the past and that much of his present knowledge may be erroneous....
2,516 Words | 7 Pages
Bakit hangad ng mga bansang Asyano na magkaroon ng pambansang Wika?
René Descartes (1596—1650)
René Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy.” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all...
5,731 Words | 16 Pages
Spinoza - 403 Words
RELIGION 175, “Introduction to the Critical Study of Biblical Literature”
Critical Reading Exercise #1
Reading Spinoza on Studying the Bible
Instructions: The following questions are designed to help you discover some of the most important points in your reading selection. The questions follow the basic course of the article excerpts.
1) At whom, what category of persons, is Spinoza “mad?”
Spinoza is "mad" at those people in organized religions whose only aim is obdience and to...
403 Words | 2 Pages
Notes on Chapter Two- Does the Center Hold?
Truth Is Beauty, Beauty Is Truth
* Theory of knowledge; often provokes big questions on the meaning and justifications of conventional knowledge.
* Ex; What is knowledge? Can we know anything for certain? What are the limitations of what we know?
* Socrates began to question the usual perceptions of knowledge, advocating for a clearer picture than common sense allowed.
The Philosophy of Plato
* You cannot claim to know...
1,168 Words | 4 Pages
Humanities - 857 Words
Knowledge or Belief
Unit 2 Individual Project
American InterContinental University
Knowledge or Belief
When it comes to knowing or believing how do we decide what way to follow? There are two ways to look at it empirical or reasoning. Empirical being evidence based knowledge of a certain experience we have had in the past. Reasoning being based on logic, or innate (born with) knowledge. Is it possible that both could be right and combined with each other? When we...
857 Words | 3 Pages
Descartes Existence of God - 599 Words
The existence of God has been a question since the idea of God was conceived. Descartes tries to prove Gods existence, to disprove his Evil demon theory, and to show that there is without a doubt something external to ones own existence. He is looking for a definite certainty, a foundation for which he can base all of his beliefs and know for a fact that they are true.
Descartes overall project is to find a definite certainty on which he can base all his knowledge and beliefs. A foundation...
599 Words | 2 Pages
Plato theory of forms - 351 Words
Plato’s theory of forms is unconvincing discuss
Plato was a duellist and thus believed that there are two worlds; the material world and the world of ideas/Forms. The world of ideas or Forms is the true reality and the world of appearances is just reflections of world of Forms. Plato believed that our knowledge of the Forms was a priori which means that our souls knew the Forms before it was inside us, therefore we have knowledge prior to experiencing the objects with our senses. Plato...
351 Words | 1 Page
Plato's and Aristotle's Views on Knowledge
Plato's and Aristotle's Views on Knowledge
Plato and Aristotle view knowledge and the process whereby it is obtained. They both point out that many epistemological concepts which they believe where knowledge comes from and what it is actually. Most of them have been astonished me in certain ways, but I found that rationalism and "wisdom consists in knowing the cause which made a material thing to be what it is" make the most sense to me regarding the...
1,414 Words | 4 Pages
Descartes - 1015 Words
Method of Doubt
Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher and mathematician, is best known for his Meditations of Philosophy. This form of philosophy is a body of work in which he attempts to wipe away all his presumptions, rebuilding his knowledge from the ground up, and accepting as true only those claims which are absolutely certain. It was essential that the foundations to his beliefs were solid; if any one of them were at all in doubt, he would lose credibility for his entire...
1,015 Words | 3 Pages
Philosophy 11 Exam - 1785 Words
Philosophy 11 Exam
1. I believe that the quote “Education makes music out of the noise that fills life” has a broader meaning to it than it first appears. People would first think of simply the context of it and conclude that it makes no sense, however, to me I think it means that through everyday life, knowing and really understanding what’s going on and knowing how to do things really makes everything flow...
1,785 Words | 5 Pages
Montaigne and Descartes on Doubting - 1571 Words
March 4, 2004
Montaigne and Descartes
Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use of doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things. Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne...
1,571 Words | 4 Pages
Nature of Knowledge - 618 Words
The Nature of Knowledge
True belief, justification and rationality
In the study of knowledge we distinguish between knowledge by acquaintance, in essence to know someone or know of something. Ability knowledge is for example to know how to swim or how to ride a bike. And, our main concern, propositional knowledge that is sentences or statements that can be either true or false. To have knowledge one needs to have a belief...
618 Words | 2 Pages
Deductive Argument - 1506 Words
In this essay I will be arguing against Plato’s theory of knowledge given in the Republic’s divided line. I will distinguish the differences and similarities in the epistemological concepts of Plato and Aristotle intending to explain how one comes to have knowledge and the process through which it’s obtained. As support, I will explain Plato’s theory of forms and Aristotle’s theory of essence because they are a direct correlation to their view of knowledge through reality.
Plato’s theory of...
1,506 Words | 5 Pages
Philosophy Sections 7.1 & 7.2
1. What are the requirements for knowledge?
4. What is Plato’s allegory of the cave supposed to demonstrate?
Plato’s allegory of the cave is supposed to demonstrate not only the human situation in general but Socrates’ life in particular. Socrates glimpsed the true nature of reality and tried to convince the inhabitants of Athens that they didn’t know what they thought they knew. The objects that cast shadows on the wall represent what Plato considers to be the truly real objects: the forms....
339 Words | 2 Pages
SKEPTICISM - 839 Words
The theory that certain knowledge is impossible.
the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain
Doubt or disbelief of religious tenets.
The doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible, either in a particular domain or in general.
A methodology based on an assumption of doubt with the aim of acquiring approximate or relative certainty.
doubt or unbelief with regard to a religion, especially Christianity.
Skepticism: from the Greek word...
839 Words | 3 Pages
Descartes methods of doubt - 931 Words
In this paper, I will be examining René Descartes’ reasons for doubting all of his beliefs. I will begin with Descartes’ first meditation, showing how he argues his reasons of doubt. Followed with Descartes’ second meditation, presenting the one piece of knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and explaining why he believes it to be so.
Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection,...
931 Words | 3 Pages
phi 7 - 364 Words
STUDY QUESTIONS 7.3
1) What is the Standard account of knowledge?
According to the standard account, true belief is not sufficient for knowledge. It states that knowledge requires, not only that our beliefs be true, but that we have good reasons for believing them to be true. In standard account, knowledge is justified true belief.
2) What is Gettier’s job seekers thought experiment? What does it reveal about the standard account of knowledge?...
364 Words | 2 Pages
The Move from Doubt to Certainty; a Look at the Theories of Descartes and Locke
Descartes is interested in the certainty of his existence and the existence of other people and things. Descartes' beliefs vary from those of Socrates. Descartes argues that knowledge is acquired through awareness and experience. Using this approach, Descartes moves through doubt to certainty of his existence. He asks himself various questions about the certainty of his existence and solves them through clear thought and logic. Using this method Descartes establishes doubts to be truths and by...
2,310 Words | 6 Pages
Tok Essay - 1312 Words
Question 5: “That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence.” (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree?
Theory of Knowledge Essay
Word count: 1269* words
10th of January 2012
Candidate number: 001368-068
*Footnotes not included
People’s choice of belief is possibly one of the most intriguing topics one can study. The journey of gaining knowledge in itself is so dynamic and full of factors that one couldn’t possibly be able to...
1,312 Words | 4 Pages
Certainty and Doubt - 400 Words
William Lyon Phelps stated an absolute certainty will make anything possible, but Bertrand Russell believed that our opinions should always have some sort of doubt. This conflict between optimism and doubt is most importantly meant to be kept balanced. This balance of doubt and optimism can be seen in the real world in many ways such as in sports or school.
When Phelps said that we need to have an “absolute sense of certainty,” he meant a setting your mind to it mentality. If you can imagine...
400 Words | 1 Page