A Model of Project Knowledge Management
Stanislaw Gasik, Sybena Consulting, Warsaw, Poland
Knowledge is the most important resource needed for project management. The aim of this article is to present a full, consistent model of project knowledge management. There are two basic types of project knowledge: microknowledge, needed for performing a single task (or its part), and macro-knowledge (in other words, all the knowledge possessed by people from a given organizational level). Project knowledge is managed at four distinct levels: individual, project, organization, and global. The article describes the micro-knowledge life cycle and macro-knowledge life cycles from each organizational level, as well as the processes of vertical knowledge flow between organizational levels. KEYWORDS: project knowledge management; micro-knowledge; macro-knowledge; knowledge life cycle; vertical knowledge flow; organizational knowledge; global knowledge; individual knowledge; project knowledge.
roper knowledge is a basic prerequisite for effective project management. According to Sankarasubramanian (2009), all projects have one thing in common—knowledge. The Japanese project management standard recognizes knowledge and experience as the main sources of project value (Project Management Association of Japan [PMAJ], 2005a, p. 86). Projects may be seen as knowledge management processes (Sauer & Reich, 2009). Project knowledge management, especially in complex projects, is one of the main success factors in project management; lack of project knowledge management is one of the main reasons for project failure (Desouza & Evaristo, 2004). Knowledge about project management, explicit as well as tacit, plays a decisive role in understanding this discipline (Morris, 2004). Systematizing the area of project knowledge management is the main goal of this article. This area, which developed in parallel to other areas of knowledge in project management like risk management, quality management, or communication management, has up until now not been as systematized as those areas, which are described in detail in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide). The relatively short period in which practitioners and researchers have been interested in project knowledge management is probably the main reason for this situation. The first papers about project knowledge management date back to 1987 (Boddie, 1987; Gulliver, 1987) and have attracted the attention of practitioners and researchers since that time. Many articles, some books (Love, Fong, & Irani, 2005; Milton, 2005; Sense, 2007a), and special issues of professional journals devoted to project knowledge management (DeFillippi, 2001; Lampel, Scarbrough, & Macmillan, 2008; Love et al., 2005; Reifer, 2002; Susman & Majchrzak, 2003; Sydow, Lindqvist, & DeFillippi, 2004) have been published. Project knowledge has been collected in bodies of knowledge (e.g., Association for Project Management [APM], 2006; Project Management Institute [PMI], 2008a), standards (e.g., International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2003), competency standards (e.g., International Project Management Association [IPMA], 2006), methodologies (e.g., Office of Government Commerce [OGC], 2005; PMAJ, 2005a, 2005b), and maturity models (e.g., PMI, 2008b; Software Engineering Institute [SEI], 2006). In order to systematize the area of project knowledge management, we first have to understand the main approaches to the definitions of knowledge management. These definitions may be divided into two main groups; the first focuses on processing the single knowledge element and enumerates functions of its life cycle. The following definitions may be mentioned here: • Knowledge management is a process of systematically and actively identifying, activating, replicating, storing, and transferring knowledge (Probst, Raub, & Romhard, 2003).
...1. Problems Identified
1.1 Structural Strategy
1. No proper project structure - this made the execution and management of the project very ineffective.
2. Project over budget – The project estimated cost overrun of atleast 20%
3. Poor leadership/no leadership commitment - the customer requested the Divisional GM and his team to present the status of the project. However the DGM instructed Reichart to go with any other 3 or 4 functional managers
4. No Balanced Scorecard with critical success factors, including continuous review and appraisal processes.
5. Lack of a sufficient Guiding Coalition - no support from other functional managers
6. There is no control over functional managers - Reichart did all the work himself due to the lack of communication and the imbalance of power between the project managers and functional managers.
7. There are no policies and procedures in place - Top management failed to implement processes and policies based on programme and projectmanagement principles. This indicate a poor leadership approach
8. No proper resource allocation - Reichart did not have adequate resources(people) that could have stay at required pace or make up for the time already lost in the projectmanagement
9. There was a lack of projectmanagement in the organization -...
Colorado Spring Welcome Home Parade
January 24, 2015
This project charter is planned to help O’Donnell & O’Donnell LLP who will lead the projectmanagement team take place the parade smoothly. This parade for welcoming home troops will be organized in Colorado Spring which has a long history of military. This project charter’s goal is making sure projectmanagement team and sponsors understand all details and tasks of this parade and getting an agreement between these two parties. Some important tasks can be directed with the project charter. For examples, raising fund, arranging thousands of soldiers and planning a lunch for people are some necessary tasks during this parade.
Colorado Spring Welcome Home Parade
The scope overview is the project in a nutshell: a high-level description of what needs to be accomplished and how it will be done. (Kloppenborg,2012).
This projectmanagement team lead by O’Donnell & O’Donnell LLP will create some plans about how to carry out the parade according to interdepartmental suggestions. These plans will contains fund...
...is a Project Manager?
1.What skills does he/she require to become a good project manager?
A project manager is an inventive problem-solver, team-builder and steady leader in the organization. Project Manager should have technical as well as management skills. Project Manager is responsible for the administration of the contract within the agreed terms and conditions. He has overall responsibility for completion within time and budget. A single point of contact for formal communication between Organization and Client, he is responsible for ensuring that the organization remains responsive to the Client’s requirements.
2.What are Hard & soft skills? Name at least 10 of each?
The best Project Manager would have the deep understanding and ability to accomplish the following:
Structured Project Plan
Work Breakdown Structure
Define resource requirements
Manage and monitor Budget
Manage and monitor project plan
Preparing of various achievement reports
Establish, implement and manage Configuration management, documentation management, product management,.
Establish and implement team culture within his assigned project
Should identify communication channels and have excellent communication skills
Should establish mutual...
International Journal of ProjectManagement 27 (2009) 435–446
Analyzing projectmanagement research: Perspectives from
top management journals
Young Hoon Kwak *, Frank T. Anbari 1
Department of Decision Sciences, Funger Hall 411, School of Business, The George Washington University, 2201 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA
Received 7 June 2008; received in revised form 10 August 2008; accepted 14 August 2008
This paper examines projectmanagement research from the perspective of its relationship to allied disciplines in the management ﬁeld
and provides a view of the progress of projectmanagement as a research-based academic discipline. This study which is partially funded
by the ProjectManagement Institute speciﬁcally investigates projectmanagement research in allied disciplines from 18 top management
and business journal publications and categorizes it into eight allied disciplines. The evolution and trends of projectmanagement
research are analyzed by exploring, identifying, and classifying management journal articles on projectmanagement in the allied disciplines. The analysis of projectmanagement...
...Assignment 4: - ProjectManagement Aims
This assignment allows the student to apply projectmanagementmodels. This assignment enables the student to understand how popular projectmanagement techniques are applied and implemented.
A project defines a combination of interrelated activities that must be executed in a certain order before an entire task can be completed. Projectmanagement has evolved as a field of study, with the development of two analytical techniques for planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. These techniques are the project evaluation and review technique (PERT) and the critical path method (CPM). The purpose of this exercise is for the student to appreciate project planning issues and the application of PERT\CPM techniques. Please answer the following questions.
1. Hamilton Country Parks is planning to develop a new park and recreational area on a recently purchased 100-acre tract. Project development activities include cleaning playground and picnic areas, constructing road, constructing a shelter house, purchasing picnic equipment, and so on. The PERT/CPM network shown below is being used in the planning, scheduling, and controlling of this project. D
9 1 6
...Higher School of Economics
National Research University, Perm
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses (on the base of the book «Rosatom is Sharing Knowledge»)
Executed by the students:
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………..3Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses…………...4
For the past several decades knowledge has become extremely important asset of a company. Nowadays large organizations and even small companies have to address the issues of KnowledgeManagement in order to increase flexibility and efficiency, reduce lead time and involve people as much as possible. As it was mentioned in 1996 by McKern [1; 13-18], the major forces of change are the following: globalization, higher degrees of complexity, new technologies, increased competition, changing client demands, and changing economic and political structures. So companies are starting to understand that the core and sustainable resource of competitive advantages are their employees. In other words all the...
...Compare and Contrast Scenario Planning and ProjectManagement
Scenario Planning and ProjectManagement have different perspectives and procedures. General planning method, projectmanagement, has been widely used for decision making. However, this tool is pointed out that this has limitations to predict changes in the external environment, especially, in dramatically changing and more complex environment. This means that people and institutions may overlook their opportunities and threats. Scenario planning is a method designed to deal with their uncertain future. In the book, the Art of the Long View, Peter Schwartz explains scenario planning based on his own experience in Royal Dutch/Shell. What is projectmanagement and scenario planning? What is difference between scenario planning and project manager?
1. ProjectManagement – The Art of the Short View
Project is related with activity to produce a unique product, service or certain goal. Projectmanagement is suitable for accomplish a singular goal in short-term or one-time project which has a limited beginning and end in time, and therefore need defined organize resources, both human resources and financial capital, for specific task. This has the following series of procedure; manager or team members...