November 17, 2014
HPA 057, Section 001
Panic Disorder Essay
Panic Disorder is classified as a heightened version of anxiety. With this disorder, a person will have severe episodes in which they feel a sense of being threatened and lose control of their thoughts and extreme bodily responses take over. An attack could occur at any time without a trigger and without warning. In most cases, the situation the person experiencing the attack is in does not in any way call for a response so intense. Due to lack of warning and fear of reoccurrence, panic disorder often takes over the person’s life and effects everyday activities (Anxiety & Panic Disorders Health Center).
This disorder affects roughly six million Americans each year with women having a higher likelihood of experiencing attacks than men. In most cases, people experiencing panic attacks will not seek any form of medical intervention or turn to others for support considering the stigma that comes with any mental disorder. It’s important for these individuals to know that the attacks they are experiencing are legitimate issues that can be treated by medication and other treatment (Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia). Like many mental diseases and disorders, panic disorder usually occurs alongside another disorder such as depression or anxiety and in extreme cases may be linked to things such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or other traumas from earlier life. Because this disorder is often associated with issues from prior life experiences, attacks usually happen to young adults but may still occur in children and elderly individuals.
In a number of situations, the panic attacks may be further diagnosed as Agoraphobia. This happens because the individuals feel an extreme sense of fear when they are exposed to the same or similar situations they were in beforehand in which they had once experienced an attack. Due to the fear and anxiety, these people often will avoid the situations altogether in anticipation that the same sort of attack will occur. This is exactly what Agoraphobia is defined as, intentionally avoiding places or situations due to fear of being trapped or embarrassed because of another attack. Agoraphobia, like all serious phobias, is difficult to treat because in order to begin to overcome the fear, it is necessary to face the situation head on, which is the exact opposite of an Agoraphobic’s intensions. In the most severe cases, Agoraphobics will refuse to leave the house due to lack of support or overwhelming fear (Agoraphobia).
Treatment for mild cases of panic disorder as well as for Agoraphobia depends on the severity of the case. Both can be addressed through medications and therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most common and effective form of therapy in which the anxiety will be faced in time given the patient is willing, and various methods of relaxation to prevent attacks as well as to ease oneself out of an episode. These skills can help reduce the symptoms and build the individuals’ confidence that they can maintain the disorder. For Agoraphobics, therapists/counselors are aware of the issues associated with leaving home and a number are willing to accommodate the patient by meeting with them at their home or in an area in which the individual feels safe. If travelling to the person’s home is not an option, they may offer to make phone calls, email back and forth or do video calls. Professionals understand the disorder and will often try to best accommodate someone with the phobia to the greatest of their ability. As far as medications go, sedatives such as antidepressants and antianxiety drugs are often administered. Medications such as Paxil and Prozac are given to treat depression and Xanax and Klonopin are for the treatment of anxiety just to name a few of the more well-known drugs. Though anxiety and depression are not exactly what panic disorder is caused by, these factors often worsen the symptoms so...
Substantial research has aimed to elucidate the most effective method for practitioners to formulate a patient’s diagnosis. Engel (1977) proposed a bio psychosocial model to be used by a practitioner to investigate the many dimensions of a mental disorder and arrive at a fully comprehensive approach to treat the patient. Engel proposed that in order to properly diagnose mental disorders, practitioners should consider biological, social, psychological and behavioural dysfunction of the presenting illness. Additionally, Nurcombe and Fitzhenry-Coor (1987) direct practitioners to address all facets pertaining to the patient, in order to ascertain a detailed picture of the patient and the disorder, and improve the formulation of the patient’s diagnosis. Specifically, assessment of the patient should include the patient’s health history, underlying personality constitution, collection of symptoms and perpetuating factors as well as prognostic potential. Clearly the process of correctly identifying a presenting mental health issue in a patient includes ascertaining its cause, and involves the health practitioner developing clear diagnostic and reasoning skills (Vickery, Samuels & Ropper, 2010).
Nurcombe and Fitzhenry-Coor’s (1987) method incorporates the biopsychosocial elements of the patient, and can be referred to as the seven P’s; predisposition, precipitation, pattern, perpetuation, presentation, prognosis,...
...given to this client?
PanicDisorder with Agoraphobia
Please outline the major symptoms of this disorder.
According to the DSM, the major symptoms of PanicDisorder with Agoraphobia are recurrent panic attacks with anxiety about experiencing another attack. Also present is anxiety being in a public place where escape will be difficult or embarrassing or where it will be difficult to receive assistance in an emergency.
Briefly outline the client’s background (age, race, occupation, etc.)
The clients name is Annie and she is a 24 year old Caucasian woman. She has held a variety of jobs but has consistently had trouble holding on to a job for any length of time. Both of her parents are still living but they do not get along. She currently lives with a group of her friends.
Please describe any factors in the client’s background that might predispose her to this disorder.
In Annie’s interview, she states that she remembers her childhood as being normal but later in the interview, reveals that she experienced abusive experiences at a young age. Also, women are 3 times more likely than men to be diagnosed with PanicDisorder with Agoraphobia. Furthermore, Annie remembers having night terrors at age 4 and of her parents trying to calm her down. Finally, Annie was also diagnosed with major depression and Obsessive...
...Living in Fear of Panic Attacks
Paul Valery once said, “ Two dangers always threaten the world, order and disorder.” This is the truth for 2.4 million adults in America who suffer from an extremely serious disorder called panicdisorder. They live in fear of having panic attacks, everyday they might feel as if their world is crashing around them always worrying about having an attack.Panicdisorder has very specific symptoms and is characterized in one simple way, it can be treated with success in two main ways, there are many support groups that offer hope, and there is even a movie that depicts the struggle of this disorder.
What is panicdisorder? Panicdisorder is the sudden and repeated attacks of fear that last several minutes. This disorder is characterized by a fear of disaster or loosing control even when there is no danger. Many times people with panicdisorder dread the possibility of having another attack. Panicdisorder can develop in the late teen years or early adulthood, but it has been seen to develop in the late thirties. Some symptoms of panicdisorder is sudden attacks, feeling of being out of control, avoidance of places, racing heart, weakness, dizziness, chills, numb...
...and sometimes people get so overwhelmed, they go into a state panic. Anxiety is actually a normal human reaction to stress. However, in severe cases, anxiety and panic can become disabling and interfere with everyday living. For an adolescent, life is already stressful enough. How does an adolescent, then, live day to day with one or both of these conditions? This paper will take an in depth look at what anxiety, specifically generalized anxietydisorder (GAD), and panicdisorder are, signs and symptoms that show severe anxiety and/or panicdisorder is present in an adolescent, treatment methods for both GAD and panicdisorder, and two websites offering advice and treatment for families with a diagnosed adolescent.
While there are several types of anxiety disorders including GAD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), phobias, and panicdisorder, this paper will focus on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panicdisorder in the adolescent population. Before we can discuss any aspects of GAD or panicdisorder, we have to understand exactly what these two metal disorders are. Anxiety is the less severe disorder of the two. In general, anxiety is...
...Panicdisorder is a real illness that can be successfully treated. It is characterize by sudden attacks of terror, usually accompanied by a pounding heart, sweatiness, weakness, faintness, or dizziness. Panic attacks usually produce a sense of unreality, a fear of impending doom, or a fear of loosing control. Have had a panic attack before. For me, a panic attack was almost a violent experience. I felt disconnected from reality. I felt like I had lost control. My heart pounded very hard and I felt like I could not breath. I had an overwhelming feeling that things were crashing down on me.
Panicdisorder affects about 6 million American adults and is more common in women than in men. People with full-blown, repeated panic attacks can become very disabled by their condition. Some people lives become so constricted that they avoid normal activities, such as grocery shopping or even driving. Some people start to avoid places or situations where panic attacks have occurred. For example, if a panic attack happened in an elevator, someone with panicdisorder may develop fear of elevators. This fear could affect the choice of a job or an apartment, and restrict where that person can seek medical attention or enjoy entertainment.
Panicdisorder is one of the most treatable of all...
...Introduction to Psychology
Research Paper: PanicDisorder
Karina August Cano
“It started at the onset of puberty, when I was 11 years old. I was at school, watching
my older sister load the school bus to be taken away to 6th-grade camp. Suddenly a
wave of panic overcame me. I don't recall my physical symptoms other than a racing
heart and nausea.My father is an alcoholic who would physically abuse my sisters and
me, including providing little food. He didn’t want to work, so my mom did and was gone
most of the time. He did not allow us to have friends or any kind of social interaction
outside our home. It was his decision to homeschool us but I retained little, if anything, he
taught us.When my mom finally had enough of my father, she left. She tried to take
us with her, but my father intervened. It felt like pure abandonment when she went
to live with her parents, even though she was fighting desperately to gain custody of
us. When she was finally awarded full custody, we ended up living with her and my
grandparents, and our world was a thousand times better. But the damage stayed with
me—and has to this day.”
Panic is the state of feeling fear, uneasiness and worry of an unpredictive outcome according the
Merriam Webster Dictionary.
According to Anxiety Depression Association of America, PanicDisorder is diagnosed in people ...
...Theoretical Approaches to Treating PanicDisorder
22 May 2011
Trembling limbs, pounding heart so frantic that a heart attack is certain to commence, sweat dripping from the forehead as fate seems lurking around the corner. PanicDisorder is so traumatic that the intense fear one suffers can make them feel they are going to die, or their experience of other physical distress result in not being able to cope with living. Those that suffer from panicdisorder experience anxiety that affects its victims emotionally, physically as well as mentally. While many people are affected by it in one way or another, anxiety and panicdisorder is far more serious and detrimental to the well-being and ability to function in the lives of those affected by the disorder. There is a great deal of research on the subject of panicdisorder, and in order for panicdisorder to be effectively treated, a number of variables must be considered and put into practice. As the research presented in this written work will support, it is the education opinion of this writer that empirical research supports that when there is a positive, productive relationship between patient and therapist, and research is conducted under standardized criteria, that naturalistic psychotherapy is...
...Having a panic attack is the body's normal reaction usually happening at inappropriate times. It is a chain of events that occur inside the body in which adrenalin fires up the body. "Breathing becomes rapid, increasing the amount of oxygen in the blood, which enables the muscles and brain to burn glucose more efficiently. The heart begins pumping faster, sending blood to priority portions of the body. As the skeletal muscles tense, blood is diverted from the stomach which can cause nausea. The brain is preparing for violent physical action, "fight or flight" - one reason thinking is muddled. The sweat glands perspire. The blood decreases in the arms and legs, gathering in the head and trunk." (Kernodle, pg 12).
The symptoms include:
"1. shortness of breath,
3. accelerated heart rate,
4. trembling or shaking,
7. nausea or abdominal distress,
8. feeling unreal,
9. numbness or tingling sensations,
10. hot or cold flashes,
11. chest pain,
12. fear of dying, and
13. fear of going crazy or losing control." (Kernodle, pg 10).
Before being treated for a panicdisorder, you need to rule out all other possible conditions that are commonly mistaken for as a panic attack.
"Anxiety becomes a problem, and a disorder should be considered when:
· It is of greater intensity and duration than expected,
· It leads to impairment or...