Which Terror Is Greater: Secular or Religious?
Alexandra C. Zuñiga
Mr. Scott Thompson
Secular terror is anything that does not have to do with religion; however, religious tactics can be used to get ahead in secular terrorist organizations. Religious terror is based on the protecting, converging, and maintaining beliefs of a religion upheld by a religious terrorist group. Although different tactics are carried out by each different group of terror, they have some core features in common, such as emotionally evocative symbols, rituals, and myths (Alcorta, Phillips, Sosis, 2012). With their differences and similarities, the question at hand is which terror is greater? Religious terror is a greater threat because it is more widespread and brutal than secular terror. Secular terror remains a threat but not as big a threat as religious terror.
Which Terror Is Greater: Secular or Religious?
There is much perplexity about where to draw the line between secular and religious terror. Secular terror is distinct from religious terror in many ways. Religious terror is done in the name of a “God”, whereas, secular terrorism is anything but to do with religion. With diverse definitions and goals sought after by each group, a question poses; which terror is greater: secular or religious? A Vague Definition of Secular Terror
Secular terror, as stated before, is anything but to do with religion. Secular groups are more likely to carry out discerning attacks to realize a political objective. They mainly target individuals and political dignitaries. “They do not kill on a massive scale, but on a more individual basis,” (Garcia, 2011). Casualties in such attacks must remain at a minimum to be able to achieve their goal. It is imperative that attacks be carried out this way to avoid repercussions that could wreak havoc on the organization itself. Secular groups are also very careful that the world around them...
Secular art in Europe can be put into three overarching categories: Still life, Landscape, and Genre Painting. For this question, I will be focusing on the development of Still Life, specifically “Vanitas”, and Genre.
Denial of access to life classes and the nude figure to women until the 19th and early 20th century, led a young aspiring Italian artist by the name of Sofonisba Anguissola to turn to other figures for inspiration and artistic education, her family and everyday life. Little did she know, that just by painting “her brothers and sisters engaging in everyday activities” she would be stumbling into a new form of portraiture, Genre Painting. As evidenced by The Chess Game(pictured below) painted in 1555, Anguissola is credited with the invention of Genre Painting, receiving credit after her work was “rediscovered” during the Feminist Movement of the 1970s.
Although Genre Painting was “invented” in the 16th Century, the category did not fully develop and become popular until the 17th century in the Netherlands. Some examples of Dutch Genre paintings include Johannes Vermeer’s “Woman pouring milk”, Pieter de Hooch’s “Courtyard”, both pictured below. As you can see, these painters used lighting and vivid colors to change normal people and everyday life into something special.
Another category of secular art that developed during the 17th century was Still Life, specifically Vanitas paintings. Vanitas paintings are...
...contrast the aims of a secular' and a religious' school.
A school is a place where children go to be educated.'( Collins Dictionary 1991 pg 892), therefore is there any difference between a secular or a religious school, as surely, the main aim is to educate the children in accordance with the national curriculum and not in an accordance with a religion. However, if you are being educated with the concepts of a religion is this a negative thing? And is there any real difference between the set up of both schools as surely education itself derives from a religious background. All these ideas I will endeavour to explore in my following discussion.
I looked at two schools in the local area, both were girls schools, one being a religious school of Roman Catholic origin, named Notre Dame School for Girls', and the other being a secular school known as Devonport High School for girls. Initially, I didn't imagine that there would be an awful lot of difference between the two schools, however this wasn't the case. The first thing that I noticed, was the drastic difference in the results for GCSE students and A level results. DHSG had a 98% pass rate of pupils getting A-C grades whilst Notre Dame only had 63% of their pupils attaining A-C grades in their GCSE examinations in year 2004. There could be a number of reasons for this contrast, one of which could...
...and his religious verse have an extremely close relationship and this manifests itself in the presence of religious imagery and reference in his love poems, the presence of imagery in his religious poems that is more akin to that from courtly love, and in his style and technique. It is this sense of Donne's individuality that creates two types of poetry that, for all their differences, are strikingly similar.
The holy sonnets refer to the old love poet characteristics of Donne, such as in I am little world' when he remembers the fire of lust', or his words to his profane mistress' in what if this present'. However now he regrets and repents' his tears wasted on his past idolatries of women, as he now feels such sensual love is far inferior to his present love for God, and even feels that such a past was, 'my sin' (Oh might these sighs'). But Donne does not render his previous courtly love completely devoid of significance, as in Since she whom I lov'd', a sonnet about his devotion to God now his wife has died, he claims that his amorous' soul was led to divine love by his experiences in secular, earthly love; admiring her my mind did whet to seek thee God'. In what if this present', Donne's former persona and present one merge when his imagined picture of Christ in...
...It is hard to grasp the idea that something so holy and pure could cause so much death and destruction. Religious perceptions and values have resulted in terrorist activity. From the oppression of religious beliefs stems the formation of terrorist sects that carry out acts of terror against pro-western nations. The terrorist that the United States mainly focus on are the groups in the Middle East. The Islamic revolutionary regime in Iran has inspired groups of Islamic extreme fundamentalists. These fundamentalists are ready to wage Jihad against their enemies. Jihad is the Muslim form of warfare that focuses on a persons inner struggle. This type of force is supposed to be used to improve one’s self or society. With the west influencing much of the world it seems as though people in the Muslim community feel oppressed and will carry out Jihad in the name of their GOD, to purify “their world”. Each sect has a state sponsor which helps to fund and support the terrorist activity. The main sponsors of terrorism are Iran, Syria, Iraq and Libya. However, terrorism goes beyond groups and state sponsors. Their exists freelance groups that do not act under a sponsor or political organization. They carry out their terrorist activities for their own reasons, all inspired by the Islamic fundamentalists movement. The sole aim of terrorism is to eliminate the threat of western influence and to set up Islamic republics in the place...
...whose motivations have a predominant religious influence or goal. In the last 30 years there has been an increase in terrorist activity motivated by religious beliefs. The different forms of religious terrorism are communal, genocidal, nihilistic, or revolutionary. Religious terrorism can be committed by a person, large movements, organizations, or governments. Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher was quoted in 1980 as saying “that terrorist acts in the name of religion and ethnicity have become one of the most important security challenges we face in the wake of the Cold War.”. Religious terrorism is considered one of the most dangerous forms because ever since early history people have used religion to motivate people to fight and die for their beliefs. The world’s religions all have both peaceful and violent messages from which believers can choose. Religious terrorists and extremists use their interpretation of religion to justify their violence. This can even be seen back hundreds of years ago, during Christian Crusades in the Middle Ages, where Pope Urban II promised martyrdom for anyone who fought and died for the cross. The purpose of the Crusades was to take “the holy land” back from the Muslims; the church used their believer’s loyalty to the Christian religion to help them accomplish their own set goal. Religious terrorist groups...
...to look into the three major religions of Islam, Judaism and Christianity (including cults) and how that they all have a history of extremism and also extremist activity today. We would like to study why extremists believe what they do so we can better prepare for them.
Islamic history has been a product of culture and conflict. One strong root of this conflict comes from Jihad, which in its original and basic meaning translates to the struggle to be a good Muslim or the struggle to live by the codes of Islam. The Greater Jihad, which is the more prominent form in Islamic culture, is the internal struggle to improve one's soul. Then there is the Lesser Jihad which is the external and physical struggle of Islam. Under Lesser Jihad, Muslims would have the right and responsibility to physically defend the faith.
"Permission to take up arms is hereby granted to those who are attacked, they have suffered injustice, God has all the power to give them victory" (22:39, Qur'an). This form of Lesser Jihad would show one of its first faces during the period of the Crusades which began in the 11th century. It was only later in history during the 18th century that a radical interpretation of the Qur'an soon took hold of many Muslims. One such radical extremist is Seyyid Qutb, who wrote the book Milestones. In it he justified the armed struggle for Islam against those who stood in its way and he...
Religious Education, Formation, and Transformation
The term ‘religious education’ is a broader term than ‘Christian education’ since it includes Christianity as well as other religions. However, in this paper, it is primarily employed for Christian religious education. This paper will first define and explore the term ‘religious education’ and then continue to define and discuss the terms ‘information’, ‘formation’ and ‘transformation.’ Religious education must go beyond the delivery of biblical knowledge and solidify a person’s identity as a follower of Jesus Christ and help live a transformed life.
I. Religious Education
The term ‘religion’ includes Christianity as well as all other religions. There is no scholarly consensus regarding the definition of religion, but its concept should be distinguished from spirituality, theology, and worldview. There are a couple of key elements to be a religion. It should include belief/faith, believers (an individual and a community), and doctrine/tradition. The term ‘education’ comes from a Latin word educare, which means drawing out something from what people know. It is simply bringing knowledge out of a person.
Religious education has both conservative and liberal aspects. On the one hand, it can be said that religious education is conservative since it wants to conserve and pass on...
...Examine religious and secular views about human nature:
Human nature is that which makes us distinctly human. There is a vast amount of scripture which tells us about human nature in the bible; mainly found in Genesis.
Genesis 1 teaches that our nature as humans is 'God Like.' In Genesis 1:26-28 'God said "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." Because we are in Gods image, (imago dei) we have some understanding of him (although it is argued this is limited). This is our human nature as we are the only creature who can do this. Imago dei also means that we are loving. In John 4:16 it is described that 'God is love',' which tells us that it is in our nature to love. We see this through our common characteristics such as compassion, patience, justice and faith. Being in Gods image also means we have a number of other characteristics. For example, we have a spiritual capacity, which means we are connected with God. This allows for the possibility of an afterlife, where it is thought we are reunited with god. This is also due to the soul which we have, unlike any other creature. This adds another dimension to our existence which is unique to mankind. Humans are often described as 'sacred,' which is why Lactantius argues that humans should never be sacrificed. This disregards theories such as Utilitarianism whom aim to please the greatest...