How did the Al Qaeda (AQ) attacks on the US develop over time, and could the 9/11/01 attacks have been avoided? Were US intelligence and counterterrorist (CT) assets well organized to avoid the 9/11/01 attacks? To what degree was the Clinton administration's CT strategy a product of faulty presidential thinking -- or faulty intelligence? How did the 9/11 Commission recommend the US adapt its strategy to react to the 9/11/01 attacks? How did the 9/11 Commission recommend the US restructure its organizations after the 9/11/01 attacks? How can the historical approach to a commission's post-disaster report assist -- or hinder -- the effort for reform?
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Badey, Thomas J., ed., ANNUAL EDITIONS : Violence and Terrorism 05/06, Eighth Edition, 0-07-301259-9 UNIT 1. The Concept of Terrorism
1. An Essay on Terrorism, Marc Nicholson, American Diplomacy, August 19, 2003 In what sense is terrorism as a “tool of the weak"?
2. Terror as a Strategy of Psychological Warfare, Boaz Ganor, The International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, July 15, 2002 What is the significance of “terrorism’s psychological effect,” and how should it be countered? New! 3. Is Terrorism’s Threat Overblown?, John L. Scherer, USA Today Magazine, January 2003 Has the terrorist threat to the US diminished and has the US overreacted? UNIT 2. Causes of Terrorism
4. Ghosts of Our Past, Karen Armstrong, AARP Modern Maturity, January/February 2002 How is our understanding of Islamist terrorism enlightened by studying Islamic modernization and the effects of the “Great Western Transformation” on the Muslim world? 5. Understanding the Terrorist Mind-Set, Randy Borum, The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2003 How does the ideology of terrorists, shape the necessary design of counter-terrorism efforts? 6. The Terrorists in Their Own Words: Interviews with 35 Incarcerated Middle Eastern Terrorists, Jerrold M. Post, Ehud Sprinzak, and Laurita M. Denny, Terrorism and Political Violence,...
Ryan M. Faught
Arkansas Tech University
Terrorism has been a major topic of research for many years. We’ve learned a lot about terrorism and terrorist groups, but there are still major questions to be answered. What exactly is a terrorist? What causes ordinary people to become terrorists? What attracts people to terrorism? How do terrorist groups in the Middle East recruit and radicalize people from all over the world? In this paper I will discuss these questions and more according to the knowledge I’ve gained from reading these five research papers.
Terrorism is the use, or threat, of action which is violent, damaging or disrupting and is intended to influence the government or intimidate the public and is for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause (De Zulueta, 2006). This or any definition of terrorism is still subjective depending on the “terrorist” and the situation. For instance, most Americans don’t consider the founding fathers as terrorists, but freedom fighters. In the same way, radical Muslims may look at al Qaeda as freedom fighters, although most of the world would view them as terrorists. The deciding factor that separates freedom fighters from terrorists appears to be the intentional murder of innocent people. Terrorist groups, such as al Qaeda are well known for such murders. Rather than merely fighting for freedom, they wish to create a...
...Week 5 Case Analysis
December 4, 2011
Terrorism either international or domestic is an act to gain attention for a cause and to get a point across at the expense of innocent people. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (2011) proclaims that “Throughout its more than 100-year history, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has protected the American people from threats to our way of life. As some of our greatest threats—gangsters, public corruption, hate crimes, cyber attacks, white-collar fraud, and terrorism—have evolved, the FBI has changed to meet them head-on” (FBI, 2011, p. 1). Terrorism of the past has occurred in third world countries and not until recently have the terrorist come home to roost right here in America. Terrorism has become an international and domestic problem that has taken the lives of innocent people, destroyed property, and assets and an alarming rate. The media is a tool the terrorist use to publicize, their intentions, motivations, and philosophy whether it be religious, political, or ideological.
This assignment requires the assessment and case analysis of a domestic or international terrorist event. The event for the purposes of this paper is a bomb explosion outside the courthouse in the city of New Delhi, India. The Associated Press (2011) reported the event as “A bomb apparently hidden in a briefcase exploded Wednesday as people lined up outside a top court...
"Terrorism" comes from the French word terrorisme, and originally referred specifically to state terrorism as practiced by the French government during the Reign of terror. The Jacobins cited this precedent when imposing a Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. Although "terrorism" originally referred to acts committed by a government, currently it usually refers to the killing of innocent people by a non-government group in such a way as to create a media spectacle.
The definition of terrorism has proved controversial. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions of terrorism in their national legislation. Moreover, the international community has been slow to formulate a universally agreed, legally binding definition of this crime.
Among the various definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country.
Barack Obama, commenting on the Boston Marathon bombings of April, 2013, declared "Anytime bombs are used to target innocent civilians, it is an act of terror."
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry strong negative connotations. These terms are often used...
...The Global Network Essay
War on Terrorism and the Human Condition
Since the atrocious September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States of America, and along with the ongoing threat of terrorism, officials have reinforced their efforts to identify and capture suspected terrorists in not only the United States but Canada as well. Some of these antiterrorism measures have alarmed many advocates who uphold their own civil liberties, and who contend that some of these actions are unconstitutional. The constant depth of fear engraved within each and every society arouses serious psychological impacts and the correlating effect of the inability to reach a state of equilibrium due to the heightened sensitivity of fear. This failure to understand and identify the reasons why individuals and/or groups inflict violent acts that are solely intended to create terror within societies on the basis of political and emotional grounds, furthermore instills the concept of concern and dismay. Overall the correlating effects of terrorism are disastrous to the human psyche and the psychological state of society, advancing and encompassing everything that entails the human condition. Throughout the essay individuals will be able to experience in-depth examination of the psychological implications on society, and an understanding of why the terrorists must inflict fear and terror.
...Michael A. Radford
October 3, 2013
The War on Terrorism: How It Affects Us
We are at war with terrorism. Even though there are many people and corporations who are benefiting from it, the war on terrorism instantaneously impact the lives of many Americans because of its ability to create fear by hindering political and economical growth, devastating job marketing and corporate industries, and cultivating evolving governmental policies that make the most essential things in society very problematic like employment, traveling, or even security. As we all know, 9/11 is considered the most iconic event in modern history which stands as a symbolic commitment toward conquering the virtually endless war on terrorism. My personal experiences are a direct reflection on how the post-9/11 era has affected me in today’s society.
The War on Terrorism impacts the lives of many Americans because of the lack of control that we posses which potentially leads to anger, anxiety, or both. We often fear what we don’t understand and with that fear come economic chaos, unavoidable layoffs, political standoffs, and general feeling of being unsafe and unprotected without a timeline on when normality will to reveal itself again. Think about it…The United States is at war with terror. Not with an individual country, not with a specific terrorist organization, but with terror. So not only...
Jihad is a term that the West has come to know and fear. The Arabic word, Jihad, means struggling or striving and applies to any effort exerted by anyone. Jihad is really a struggle in life. Extremists misinterpret the religion into believing the religion implies that they should fight with anyone that is against Islam. Extremists use their religion as a scapegoat. Those who are involved with Jihad are a very small percentage of Muslims who are from the extreme, radical, and violent wing of Islamic Fundamentalism.
They are very passionate, religious, and anti Western. They tend to interpret Jihad in terms of personal struggle towards purity. What many people don’t know is that Jihad is not a declaration of war against other religions. The Quran specifically refers to Jews and Christians as "people of the book" who should be protected and respected. All three faiths worship
the same God. Allah is just the Arabic word for God, and is used by Christian Arabs as well as Muslims.
Jihad means struggle and that means any struggle, personal struggles, spiritual struggle, or more popular term for these days a political struggle. In Islam we have no right to fight anyone for any reason except for self-defense. The media plays a large role in the Middle East. It portrays hate back and forth by religious leaders who call death to Americans. Not only is the insidious nature of...
October 29, 2013
Terrorism has been around for a longtime, but for the past twelve years there's been a dramatic rise in activity. Terrorists use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombings to pursue a political agenda. These criminals are not just subject to the United States,terrorism happens all over the world, in every way, shape and form. There are many types of terrorism and terrorists with many different purposes. The primary reason for terrorist actions is to force a change in their nation's government. If terrorists are not satisfied with their government's political positions, they may end up taking the matters into their own hands. In recent years, terrorism seems to be at a new high and attacks are more violent than in the past. Many groups operate within a single nation or region. Others have branches and operations in many countries. Because terrorists usually cannot match the strength of conventional military forces, they often rely on guerrilla warfare. New groups are sprouting all over the place and terrorism being so secretive and having no forewarning, governments from all over the world have form alliances to combat terrorism and terror cells in hope of thwarting any...
...Question: Many people regard terrorism as the most important issue confronting our world. Is this the case or is there something else? What do you think? Support your arguments with evidence from reference to contemporary sources.
Since the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001 that shocked the world, people began to wonder how could possibly groups of people terrorized people for the sake of fulfilling their goals. Countries begin to strengthen their national defense through advanced weapons and intelligence to avoid a group of people from terrorizing their citizens, and researches about terrorism and how to eradicate terrorists have become very popular as to understand about terrorism would give benefits to anyone who reads it. It seems that the world’s focus is set on this threat and everyone forget that life is not just to get saved from terrorist attacks. This essay will give arguments that there are other important issues confronting our world than terrorism.
Before we study further about other important issues that confront our world than terrorism issues, we need to know what terrorism is. Terrorism can be defined as a reaction that is considered as a right thing to do by using repressive approaches and abomination which impacts physically and more importantly the psychological being of everyone who is terrorized. (What 2010, p. Online). It is no wonder that...