Rapid urbanization began in the 1870s as people flocked to the cities. These urban centers quickly overcrowded, and many were divided into business, residential, social and ethnic centers. Among this chaos, corruption thrived as political bosses ran the city for their own personal gain and power. It appeared as if the nation was modernizing too fast because they were unable to deal with problems of urbanization. The changes in urban America in the late nineteenth century therefore are viewed to be mostly negative.
The rapid increase of urbanization was partly due to the number of immigrants that flooded America. People from rural America also migrated to the cities during this period. They gave up farms to move to cities, hoping to make a better life. Most of all, the cities owed most of their population growth to the expansion of industry. As industry kept flourishing, more workers were needed. These jobs provided long and hard work for low wages to desperate immigrants. Conditions were horrible in the industry world and corrupt political officials were the only people who benefited, which was what separated the rich from the poor entirely in American society.
Jacob Riis was a social reformer who wrote a book that described the conditions of immigrant ghettos in New York City. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. He viewed the urbanization conditions for immigrants negatively. He described the tenements as rundown, filthy, and very overcrowded. In addition to the horrible conditions, the crime rate grew in those slums and many people became immoral.
Another problem that faced the cities was the traditional laissez-faire. Richard T. Ely opposed it because he believed that government interference in national economics was not harmful but helpful sometimes. He believed that turning away from the government completely had only harmed the people because they have allowed them not to help them at all.
Urbanization seemed very compatible to the...
...History of Terrorism
Where do we start to address the origin of terrorism? David Rapoport a religion Scholar and political scientist published a 2004 essay outlining forms of terrorism, these forms are known as the “ four waves ” of modern terrorism: the “ Anarchist Wave, ” stretching from the 1880s through 1914; the “ Anti-Colonial Wave, ” spanning the 1920s through the 1960s; the “ New Left Wave, ” from the 1960s through the 1990s; and the “ Religious Wave, ” which began with the 1979 Iran hostage crisis and persists to this day (25).
Anarchist terrorism was the first wave, when the United States was well known as a haven for revolutionaries fleeing persecution in Europe (26). It is similarly true of the latter half of the twentieth century, when the United States emerged not only as a victim but also as an architect and financial supporter of transnational terror. The history of terrorism deals yet one more blow to American exceptionalism, showing that the United States has never stood entirely alone on matters of violence, rebellion, and political conflict (26).
Terrorism is not only generic to Muslim extremist. It is safe to say terrorism in America started before we became a nation. Many earlier types of violence lend themselves to an intuitive link with the concept of terror. Massacres of Native Americans, for instance, were violent, political, planned, communicative, and carried out beyond the auspices of the formal state, the basic...
...In the late 1800's, farmers believed that the railroad companies were strangling away their profits and the government was in favor of big business thus justifying their feelings of discontent.". The farmers had every right to be upset about their situation because the government saw a need for reform which alludes to the fact that problems existed, the railroads had a monopoly on shipping which raised costs and affected profit margins, the value of crops had deflated, and big business was hostile towards farmers.
Documents A-H reveal some of the problems that many farmers in the latenineteenthcentury (1880-1900) saw as threats to their way of life. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, (a) explain the reasons for agrarian discontent and (b) evaluate the validity of the farmers' complaints.
Part of Paper 1:
Agrarian Discontent and the 19th Century
America, like any other nation, has always relied heavily on agriculture. Differing from other nations, however, is the problems that agriculture has created through America's brief history. It can be argued that the Civil War was started by agriculture; the South developed as an agricultural dependent region, while the North developed as a manufacturing region; creating two distinct, almost separate cultures. Some twenty years after the Civil War, new problems were arising; that of agrarian discontent. Farmers of the 1880s and 90s...
...The latenineteenthcentury was a very difficult time for farmers to make a substantial living. Because of the economy, many farmers found themselves going into large amounts of debt that they were not able to pay, and as a result they were treated unfairly and being taken advantage of. There were many threats to farmers during the latenineteenthcentury, the most common were railroads, trusts, monopolies, banks, and a great deal of money problems, but not all of these were valid. In the belief that banks and railroad companies were threats to their way of life, the farmers were right about having discontent. Even so, the beliefs that money problems, trusts, and monopolies were threatening to them are not valid.
The introduction of the transcontinental railroad was a large step for America, even so, the railroad industry hurt farmers and other small businesses. All the railroad companies were extremely competitive with each other and took every step necessary to get ahead. This included the railroad companies giving large discounts to businesses that shipped goods very far or in large quantities. Although it would help some, it hurt the farmers specifically a great deal. Since farmers did not need as much transportation, they were charged very unfairly to ship their small amount of goods short distances. Even though the railroad companies understood they were hurting the small farmers,...
...With the development of the society, urbanization has become an international trend in which more and more people seek better opportunities in the cities. Currently, urbanization produces benefits such as economic progress, as well as better employment and business opportunities. However, it also brings social problems to the society which often leads to inequality in the access of resources and amenities. The term, “urbanization” can be defined as the expansion of cities or towns in country areas alongside the immigration of rural dwellers into urban areas. Furthermore, “equality” means a fair and impartial society where everyone is treated based on the same standard. Therefore, this essay will argue that urbanization does not lead to an equitable society. Firstly, housing problem caused by urbanization. Secondly, urbanization process leads to inequality of life quality.
Urbanization leads to the housing problem of inequality. In addition, not everyone can have a place to live. Firstly, urbanization process increases the population density in the cities, which leads to high demand on houses, but the land of housing is limited. According to Buhuag & Urdal (2013, p.2), urbanization stimulates more and more people to leave the rural areas and go to big cities to find jobs, and there is not much outflow of population from big cities. Therefore, the...
...APUSH Document Analysis and Questions Packet
The Growing Economic Crisis of the LateNineteenthCentury
1. What did John D. Rockefeller believe was the key to stabilizing the oil industry? He believed that centralizing the administration, hard-working people that applied themselves and work together, and a monopoly – owning as much as they can – would stabilize the oil industry.
2. What were the weaknesses of each of the following methods of stabilizing the industry?
a. Agreement: agreement was when each competitor agreed to certain standard prices and policies, but it was easily and quickly broken because people did not keep their promises ad people saw the chance to undersell the rival.
b. Pool: the pool was broken when a member saw the chance to grab off a large order or preempt a certain field, people only thought about themselves.
c. Interlocking directorate: interlocking directorate was cumbersome, but was the most successful of threats, and is still sometimes used today. But it was to complex.
3. Why did Rockefeller perceive a trust to be a solution to the weakness of less formal attempts at business organization? Rockefeller believed that if the industrial system in America was good, that other things would fall into place and be helpful to America. A written agreement was harder to break.
4. Explain why economists use the phrase “business cycle” to describe...
...Benefits and challenges of Urbanization
University Of Phoenix
In this paper I will be explaining the four factors that produce a change in the population as well as urbanization. Urbanization is moving from a rural area to a big city in hopes of better opportunity or employment along with many other benefits. Urbanization may seem like a good idea to those trying to better themselves but it has challenges in the city people may face. I will be providing you with current or historical events that may be a benefit or a challenge of urbanization.
Factors that may produce urbanization and a change in population are the birth rate and death rate. Emigration and immigration are the other two factors that produce urbanization and the change in the population. The reason birth rate produces a change in population due to a person added to the population size. This makes one more person to add to our population when a child is born. If the growth rate is more than zero than the population size increases (Hager&Hassenzahl, 2011, ch.7). Birth rate produces urbanization because people want to be able to raise their children with employment or a career you may find in urban cities. Death rate produces population change because it decreases the population size. When a person dies it takes from the...
...Urbanisation is what occurs when the rural character of a town is gradually replaced by housing and industrial developments, resulting in more suburbs.In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization; according to predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by 2035.Over the next two decades China will build 20,000 to 50,000 new skyscrapers and more than 170 cities will require mass transit systems by 2025.
Now I will move on my first cause . Many people move from rural to urban areas to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries in many large towns and cities.For example, the Yangtze River Delta which spans the borders of NanjingShanghai and Hangzhou.These clusters are situated either in deltas or on plains with abundant natural resources and a long history of development.They have a high density of population and abundant agricultural or industrial production.Clusters are China's important agricultural and commercial centres which further drives people to the cities.In developing countries, like China, the natural population increases and migration has been a big factor in urbanization.
The second cause is that urbanization occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation.For example, people, especially the elderly are often forced to move to cities where...
...Persuasive Urbanization Essay
Have you ever thought how urbanization is negatively affecting on our society? According to World Bank (2009a), in next 25 years, urbanization can make over two billion new urban people in many huge cities. A lot of rural people move to big cities, possibly lead to overpopulation, crime and pollution. There are some people who still consider the negative effects of urbanization, but I extremely believe that urbanization has brought a lot of benefits on many countries which are developing in over the world. This essay will explore some advantages of urbanization in the developing countries.
In spite of some advantages, there are some bad effects of urbanization over the world. World Bank (2009b) presents that gases or large quantities of carbon dioxide can be released to the air by industries and vehicles which make from the urbanization. For example, the acid rain which comes from the vehicle’s gases can destroy forests, buildings and animals. On the other hand, urbanization is a good reason for rural people who want to come to larger cities. Various job opportunities are offered by various business companies in the big cities. Furthermore, unemployed people and farmers in rural areas have the only one opportunity to get the better life by finding the jobs in some big cities then the result will be more and more...