The preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) proclaims that the rights discussed in the document are "a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations." This document, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) as well as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), are meant to be global agreements that span all cultures and traditions. These documents however do not live up to their intent. In fact, the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights prove this unrealized and unrealistic expectation of the earlier universal' and international' treaties.
Theoretically perhaps, there does exist a set of universal human rights, but in this diverse world any set of human rights that is to be recognized internationally must be more of a universally accepted set of human rights. This Declaration of Universally Accepted Human Rights' would be a document focused on overlapping consensus of many cultures. In order to accomplish this, first, an all inclusive document must be drawn up that deals with those rights that fall under an overlapping consensus of the many different cultures of the world. Specifically, more input from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern cultures must be included in this consensus. Second, the legacy of imperialism and slavery must be acknowledged and addressed. Many African and island cultures have suffered and continue to suffer because of these practices. The novels Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, and A Small Place, by Jamaica Kincaid, deal with many of these issues. The purpose of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was to establish a standard of human rights that is universal. Unfortunately, shortly after the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948 the United States found itself politically and ideologically at odds with the Soviet Union and China, the latter falling to the Communists in 1949 (Donnelly 7). As a result, human rights issues became just another political outlet for the world superpowers to attack each other (Donnelly 7). Much work for the advancement of human rights was put on the back burner because of cold war politics. The ICESCR and ICCPR were put off for over a decade and split into two separate entities as a result of ideological conflicts between the US and USSR (Donnelly 8). This weakened their effectiveness as universal' treaties. The political arm wrestling between the US and Soviet Union also shows why building an overlapping consensus was so difficult during the cold war. Additionally, many African and Asian countries were under Western colonial rule during the initial drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Donnelly 8). This left many voices unheard. As a result, documents such as the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam and the Banjul Charter have been drafted and signed by Islamic and African nations, respectively. The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam was signed by the Organization of the Islamic Conference on August 5th, 1990. In the preamble it states a wish to "protect man from exploitation and persecution, and to affirm his freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari'ah." Article One of the Cairo Declaration states that "All human beings form one family whose members are united by submission to God and descent from Adam." These religious references to the Shari'ah, God, and Adam are all aspects of the Islamic viewpoint that are obviously not in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights because in the UDHR's attempts at universality it can not embrace one religion openly. Some articles in the Cairo Declaration could be interpreted at odds with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 6a of the Cairo Declaration specifies that women are equal to men...
...The Creation of the
Universal Declaration of HumanRights
Though humanrights as a whole (or for most of history, the idea of humanrights) have been present since the beginnings of civilization, its prevalence as a “normal” and “obvious” component of international relations did not emerge until much recently, with the ratification of the Universal Declaration ofHumanRights (UDHR) in 1948. The Universal Declaration of HumanRights was created by the United Nations in order for all people in all nations to recognize each individual’s humanity, and the equal rights that are given to them on the basis of that humanity. As the UDHR’s preamble articulates, the Document aims for the “recognition of inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family”, grounded by the “foundation of freedom, justice, and peace”. 1 In other words, no human is excluded from possession of humanrights; regardless of age, sex, gender, ethnicity, religion, or class, so long as one is a member of the human race, they are inherently entitled to the rights listed in the UDHR.
Today, the UDHR, legitimized by the United Nations in 1948, is widely regarded as one of the...
SSC 102 – Global Perspective
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights
“THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMANRIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.”
The above statement was pulled directly from the declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948 in Paris, France. The declaration was created due to the disadvantages learned during World War II. It was the first deposition created concerning the rights of all human beings across the globe. The declaration is comprised of 30 articles which “elaborate in subsequent international treaties, regional humanrights instruments, national constitutions and laws.”...
The evolution of humanrightsDeclaration of Humanrights of man and of the citizen 1789:
This document emerged as a part of the enlightenment movement in France with the intent of changing the continuous violations of the humanrights that were happening in that period.
In this paper I'm going to speak about the social context in which the declaration of humanrights was written and explain why it was unsuccessful and there was a need to write the "universal declaration of humanrights" 140 years after.
The "Declaration of humanrights" was written during the enlightenment period.
The enlightenment movement raises from the necessity to change the situation in France during the 13th century where everything was regulated by feudalism and religion and slaves couldn't even think about changing their social position because that was in their mind God's plan for their life.
During this period the landlords had the right to abuse of the wives and children of the people who were working on their lands.
In fact especially women had no rights in comparison to man and were treated like inferior beings.
So during this time there was no respect for the humanrights of the...
...indeed follow this declaration, doubts and reason why they should not have to come in mind as well. First, I question what nation’s idea was it to create this declaration and did all nations on this planet agree to the amendments and rules put into it. I also ask if all nations swore to follow it. Because like the question says, the United States does not follow this document, which means that the United States does not respect; and I can think of other nations and peoples who do not follow the declaration as well, right off the top of my head. If the answer to those questions id yes, then I do believe that every nation, including the United States should have to follow it. However, that does not seem to be the case. So therefore, I do not think that any nation should scrutinize or punish another nation for not following the document if that nation does not as well. Furthermore, I think that if all, or most nations, do not follow the Universal Declaration of HumanRights then it was a pretty big waste of time and energy making it and since not respected it should become null and void, and just another piece of failed history.
First I am going to write about the Declaration in general; it’s history and what it consists of. The declaration was created and adopted in 1948. It arouse from the Second World War where people of the Jewish community...
...Universal Declaration of HumanRights
Article XXVI: Right to Education
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights was drafted in 1948 and one of the articles, article XXVI deals with protection of the fundamental rights, right to education:
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their
The right to education is a universal right and is recognized as a humanright. It includes the right to free, non biased and non political primary education for everyone, to make...
...Are all humanrightsuniversally applicable?
If this question were posed to the ancient Greek philosopher and pioneer Plato, his response would be something like: “Of course, truth and virtue are universal. They are above of any state law. Not for slaves though.” Since then, slavery has been almost eliminated and several declarations for humanrights have been signed in the name of a “better world.” The word ‘applicable’ indicates that this question is highly normative, as none would argue that the president of the United States has, at the moment, the same rights with a woman in Kabul. Some would however argue that ideally that should be the case and this essay will try to illustrate that the history of mankind can be seen simply as the pursuit of this ideal and thus humanrights are normatively universal. By taking into consideration the contentions of several philosophers and political theorists on how ‘humanrights’ can be defined and adopted by societies, the distinction between natural and positive rights and the way people have been trying to set the fundamental rights of their existence from the beginning of history, it can be depicted that, although this notion has taken many definitions and forms, a ‘natural’ trend is followed in the chase for what Plato would suggest as...
...Saint Leo University Core Value on Community as it compares to the Universal Declaration of HumanRights
Saint Leo University maintains its core value of community which is comparable to the universal declaration of humanrights. Saint Leo University, a catholic based institution was created to promote an environment for everyone to be incorporated in a spirit of “belonging, unity, and interdependence which is based on mutual trust and respect.” Within the explanation of St. Leo’s core value of community it goes on to state that by “mutual trust and respect to create a socially responsible environment that challenge all of us to listen, to change, and to serve.” When observing how that is similar to the universal declaration of humanrights the same expressions can be followed. Within the preamble of the declaration it states that all people and all nations shall “strive by teaching and education to promote respect and effective recognition and observance.” Respect for others is fundamental values for both St. Leo as well as the declaration.
Article one of the declaration reads “humans are born free and should be allowed to remain free, equal in dignity and rights.” There are reasons and conscience that all should respect and coexist with each other in the spirit...
...After reading the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UNHDR), I can see how many countries and private institutions use the UNDHR as its basis. I can also see how the UNDHR has taken many of its articles from other Countries’ declarations or constitutions (specifically the United States).
The UNDHR was adopted on 1948 and arose directly from the World War II. It represents the first global expression of “rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled”. During his State of Union speech in 1941, President Roosevelt addresses the Four Freedoms (which the allies adopted), freedom of speech, and freedom of religion, freedom from fear and freedom from want as their basic war aims.
In the community section of Saint Leo’s Core Values, it states; “Saint Leo University develops hospitable Christian learning communities everywhere we serve. We foster a spirit of belonging, unity, and interdependence based on mutual trust and respect to create socially responsible environments that challenge all of us to listen, to learn, to change, and to serve.”
In the UNDHR, there are thirty (30) articles that lay out the basic rights that every person is entitled to. Although, this is not a legal document and has no standing in court, this is more of a covenant that the member (most) agreed upon. In the United States, some of these articles are the basic freedoms...