J Bus Ethics (2014) 121:315–328
Roche’s Clinical Trials with Organs from Prisoners: Does Profit Trump Morals?
Received: 17 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2013 / Published online: 17 April 2013 Ó Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013
Abstract This case study discusses the economic, legal,
and ethical considerations for conducting clinical trials in a controversial context. In 2010, pharmaceutical giant Roche
received a shame award by the Swiss non-governmental
organization Berne Declaration and Greenpeace for conducting clinical trials with organs taken from executed prisoners in China. The company respected local regulations and industry ethical standards. However, medical associations condemned organs from executed prisoners on
moral grounds. Human rights organizations demanded that
Roche ended its clinical trials in China immediately. Students are expected to review the economic and ethical issues regarding the outsourcing of clinical trials to controversial human rights contexts, and discuss how to make business decisions when there are conflicts between making profit and ethical considerations. Was Roche complicit in the human rights violations that were related to its
clinical trials? Future patients might benefit from these
clinical trials. Do profit and the greater good, in general, trump morals?
Keywords Human rights Á Roche Á China Á Clinical
trials Á Organ transplantation
In 2010, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche received the
Public Eye Award. Unfortunately, receiving this shame
award was nothing to be proud of: The Public Eye Award
J. Schrempf-Stirling (&)
Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173, USA
e-mail: [email protected]
was given to corporations for their irresponsible behavior
that had negative social, ethical, and/or environmental side effects on stakeholders such as workers, local communities,
consumers, the environment, or society at large. Previously
awarded corporate actions included exploitative working
conditions, environmental disasters, human rights violations, or corporate greed. The Swiss non-governmental organization (NGO), Berne Declaration and Greenpeace
justified Roche’s nomination for the 2010 Public Eye
Award as follows:
China proudly proclaims that roughly 10,000 organ
transplants take place annually in its clinics. However
because of Chinese culture, there are few voluntary
organ donations from the population. Where do all
the transplanted organs come from? At the end of
2008, the Chinese vice health minister admitted in a
medical journal that more than 90 percent of all
transplanted organs come from executed prisoners.
The World Medical Association and other international organizations unanimously oppose the transplantation of prisoner organs on ethical grounds. Even when a prisoner supposedly consents to an
organ donation, such consent while imprisoned cannot be considered of one’s own free will. The drug CellCept, from the Roche pharmaceutical firm, prevents the rejection of transplanted organs. Roche markets the drug in China despite the country’s
unethical transplantation practices. The company has
even been producing CellCept in China for several
years. Furthermore, Roche is currently studying the
drug’s effects in two studies with some 300 transplanted organs in Chinese clinics. Roche claims to have no information regarding the origins of the
transplanted organs. The firm must therefore
immediately halt these studies since it cannot ensure
that none of the organs come from prisoners (The
Public Eye Awards 2010).
Despite an invitation, none of Roche’s representatives
attended the award ceremony. Roche, however, anticipated
information requests from its stakeholders (e.g., shareholders, employees, and patients). The key question was how to respond to this negative publicity.
It was true...
...Philippine Journal of Science
134 (1): 31-37, June 2005
ISSN 0031 - 7683
Merlyn S. Mendioro
Maria Genaleen Q. Diaz
Maria Theresa B. Alcantara,
Oscar J. Hilario, Patrocinio Mateo
Reycel D.M. Maghirang
: cytological studies, iron-acetocarmine squash technique,
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Plant products are widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics
and food industries. Many pharmaceutical companies in the
Western world depend on many plants for their medicinal
properties. Pharmacopoeias have developed from ancient
herbs (de Padua et al. 1977; de Padua 1996).
Willd. or poinsettia (Fig. 1a),
which is commonly cultivated for ornamental purposes
has curative properties, too. Decoction of the bracts and
flowers are taken as galactagogue by nursing women
to increase milk flow although the practice is said to be
Cytological Studies of Selected Medicinal Plants:
Willd. ex Klotz.,
Genetics and Molecular Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines
Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines
Meioses I and II in young flower buds of
Willd. ex Klotz. (poinsettia),
Lam. (malunggay), and...
...1) Why is Roche seeking to buy the 44% of Genentech it does not own? From Roche’s point of view, what are the advantages of owning 100% of Genentech? What are the risks?
Roche is looking at this acquisition as a source of internal growth; the advantages are for research reasons, cutting cost creating a synergy by eliminating duplication of efforts and having easily access to Genentech’s free cash flow optimizing tax issues.
Some analyst are concern that Genentech would lose its independence for pursing its own projects, allocate enough amount of money to Research and Development, and its key Scientifics and top management might leave the company.
2) As a majority shareholder of Genentech, what responsibilities does Roche have to the minority shareholders?
Obtain approval of a majority of the minority of Genentech shareholders voted at the meeting concerning the merger, if not satisfied Roche should pay the fair value for Genentech stock determinate by independent investment banks
Also Roche could not share in Genentech’s intellectual property if it didn’t own 100% shares; the merger would facilitate product development and research between the two companies.
3) As of June 2008, what is the value of the synergies Roche anticipates from a merger with Genentech? Assess the value of synergies per share of Genentech. Please use a 9% WACC in your analysis
...Roche Holding AG: Funding the Genentech Acquisition
March 5, 2015
1. Statement of the Problem
In the case Roche Holding AG: Funding the Acquisition, Roche and Genentech are interested in an acquisition. Roche is acquiring about receiving all outstanding shares of Genentech. Roche Holding AG is a Switzerland-based pharmaceuticals and diagnostics company. It discovers, develops and provides diagnostic and therapeutic products and services from early detection and prevention of diseases to diagnosis, treatment and treatment monitoring. The Company has two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics. It operates worldwide containing the United States, Western Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific, among others. Diagnostics include five areas: Applied Science, Diabetes Care, Molecular Diagnostics, Tissue Diagnosis and Professional Diagnostics. It operates in five geographical regions: Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA); North America; Asia-Pacific; Latin America, and Japan. Genentech is an American biotechnology corporation.
The acquisition during a time period where dramatic declines in American real estate prices and an overheated credit market were taking place. World markets were also down by 45%. Also during this time governments were investing in financial institutions. Banks also lowered interest rates for a number of...
... UNIVERSITY OF GHANA
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (POLI 211)
1. Critically assess the dependency theory’s explanation of the lack of development in less developed countries.
2. Critically discuss the different conceptions of development. Does the basic needs theory (which adheres to a broader conception of development) have what it takes to propel the LDCs to development?
According to the Encarta Dictionary development is the process of changing and becoming larger, stronger or more impressive, successful or advanced, or of causing somebody or something to change in this way. In the light of this that Dennis Goulet defines development as liberation from poverty and from a stunted view of self.
The dependency theory prevailed in the 1960’s and came to reject the central assumptions of the modernization theory, which emphasizes that industrialization, the introduction to mass media and the diffusion of western ideas would transform traditional economies and societies. These impart would place poor countries on a path of development similar to that experience by western industrialized nations. Therefore the theory addresses the problem of poverty and economic underdevelopment throughout the world. Dependency theorists argue that dependence upon foreign aid impedes...
1. What, when, why, how, where you’re using the feasibility Study? Explain with your own word.
What is Feasibility Study?
Feasibility study is an analysis of the viability of an idea. The feasibility study is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of a proposed project. It is based on extensive investigation and research to support the process of decision making.
When to do astudy?
The decision to conduct a feasibility study should not be taken lightly. It is an expensive and time consuming process. However, not doing a feasibility analysis can be even more expensive in terms of the poor decisions you may make from not conducting the proper analysis. To help you understand when to conduct a feasibility study, you may want to review Information File C5-02, Idea Assessment and Business Development Process.
You need to be far enough along in the deliberation process of your business idea to make the best use of a feasibility study. So you need to have a clearly defined outline of one or more alternative business models or scenarios that you want to explore. And you want to have conducted sufficient initial investigation of these alternatives to determine if they have the potential of being viable. You don’t want to spend your feasibility money investigating ideas that you can determine are not feasible by just making a few...
MBA 5000 WEEK 6
Leadership at Roche
In this class we have learned that there can be many different leadership styles and many books have been written to describe these styles and to give advice to rising leaders. I chose to do my report on the leadership at the place where I am currently employed, Roche Diagnostics. I think that the current CEO of Roche North America, Jack Phillips, is a great leadership role model and in my paper I will explain his style of positive leadership.
Roche is a global healthcare company, headquartered in Basel, Switzerland. They began in 1896 and were one of the first pharmaceutical companies in the world. Today there are over 80,000 employees in 150 countries. There are different divisions based on products – one is the Pharmaceutical division that manufactures and sells pharmaceuticals and the other division is the Diagnostics, where they manufacture and sell a wide variety of instruments that range from large machines that measure components in blood to small hand held meters that individuals can use. On the Indianapolis campus we manufacture strips used for blood glucose testing Strips and are the North American headquarters for the Diagnostics division. The sales forces are trained here for all divisions and approximately 2900 people are based here.
The current CEO of North America is Jack Phillips. From the first day he came...
...Transforming Nursing Practice through Technology and Innovation. (2011). Retrieved from himss.org: http://blog.himss.org/2011/07/08/transforming-nursing-practice-through-technology-and-innovation/
Program of Study Form
Master of Science in Nursing, BSN Track
Based on the information that you provided, the following credits may be transferred into your program at Walden University. This information is unofficial until all official transcript(s), international evaluation, and course description or syllabus is received. Academic changes in the program you are considering may also influence the final review. For the most updated information once you start your program, please refer to your degree audit located on your student portal.
Name: Angelisa Lambert
Student ID Number: A00498136
Enrollment Date: 09/02/14 (full-time)
Program: Master of Science in Nursing
Specialization: Family Nurse Practitioner
Transfer of Credit Maximum: 25 Quarter Credits
Transfer Course / Term to be Taken
Core Courses: (All core courses must be completed before starting the specialization courses.)
Foundations of Graduate Study
Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health
Transforming Nursing and Healthcare Through Technology
...contribute for a better and more enjoyable school life experience and most pupils will definitely excel in life.
A school’s influence on children’s lives doesn’t end with just supporting them through transitions, it also extend to their health.
The case studies of Kate and Lakshmi (The Open University, Block 3, 2013) demonstrate how schools achieve this and how beneficial the influence of schools can be.
Regarding Kate’s case, she lives and attends a school in the UK. She comes from a not so wealthy family with no healthy eating habits. Being overweight runs in Kate’s family, as meals are based in filling foods like burgers, chips, and cakes with very little or none fruit and veg. Kate’s school offers a wide range of sports facilities and encourage children to exercise for 2 hours a week. As well as providing healthy meals that Kate can have as she gets school meal vouchers. In addition to all this, with the introduction of personal health subjects to the national curriculum in Kate’s school she is now gaining an awareness and an understanding of healthy eating and living. Which hopefully will follow her throughout her life and help her change her eating habits and encourage her to exercise.
Now looking at Lakshmi case study, the scenario is completely different she is from South India and comes from an extremely poor and uneducated family background, in fact she is the first to attend school in her family. The family living conditions make...