TRADITIONAL SECURITY VS HUMAN SECURITY 2012
This report has been drafted as individual term paper for the subject International Relations at Rangsit University. Its purpose is to explain the differences between traditional security and human security. Furthermore it is supposed to illustrate why human security is an essential component of international relations today.
The paper begins with a short introduction; the 2nd chapter continues with an explanation of traditional security followed by an explanation of human security. The chapter ends with a comparison of traditional and human security. In the 3rd chapter, the importance of human security in terms of international relations is going to be analyzed.
TRADITIONAL SECURITY VS HUMAN SECURITY 2012
2. TRADITIONAL SECURITY VS HUMAN SECURITY
Basically traditional security can be defined as a state’s ability to defend itself against external threats. Often the terms national security or state security are used instead of traditional security. The theory of traditional security is a realist construct of security and basically the only referent for security is the state. Security was seen as protection from invasion and executed during conflicts by using technical and military capabilities. During the Cold War, major world powers still believed that the security of their nation mainly derives from a balance of power among states and that created national security would automatically be followed by the security of its citizens. During these times, the propagation of this traditional security concept had its peak; however towards the end of the Cold War, people realized that security of citizens was not only threatened by external aggressors but also by internal state activities and other events.
Human security is a developed concept of security which focuses on the individual and its human dignity as referent for security. The political concept connects aspects of human rights, human development, peacekeeping, and conflict prevention. After the end of the Cold War, it became clear that the main threats of security of an individual are not wars between nations; they are much rather civil wars, crime, despotism, eviction, climate change, hunger, poverty, and terrorism. According to the UNDP’s (United Nations Development Program’s) 1994 Human Development Report, the scope of security should be expanded and from then on include threats in seven different areas: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security and political security.
As there is no single definition of human security, its definitions vary from a narrow view that sees it as...
...Humansecurity is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities
whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the
proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Humansecurity
holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global
The concept emerged from a post-Cold War, multi-disciplinary understanding of security
involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations,
strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994
Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of humansecurity, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all
persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity.
Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has
become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it
does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision
makers to formulate good policies. In order for humansecurity to challenge global inequalities,
...Q. Why is HumanSecurity becoming so important? Explain in your own words.
A. According to Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to security of persons is a fundamental human right, to gather with a right to life and liberty. Humansecurity emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of humansecurity requires a global political cultural that is funded on shared values of human dignity and human rights. Hence important issues in humansecurity like children in wax, lord mine and ethnic conflicts should be discussed from a broad human rights perspective. In essence, humansecurity means freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety or even their lives.
A humansecurity perspective asserts that the security of the state is not an end in itself. Rather, it is a mean of ensuring security for its people. In this context, state security and humansecurity are mutually supportive. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is a central strategy for promoting humansecurity.
The term “human...
...Do international norms have an impact on security issues? Why?
Norms can be understood as rules for standard behaviour. Norms are a common belief or understanding usually shared by a majority. International norms are determined by the international community and they usually set the stage for the behaviour of individual countries. These norms shape international as well as domestic security issues. These norms shape inter-state behaviour, they also shape thesecurity policies of nation-states and they also serve to set certain normative standards about how the world should be. In this paper we will look at how the emergence of certain norms, taboos and international laws have contributed to international security concerns and sometimes also problems of mistrust.
The major schools of international relations theory such as neoliberalism and neorealism have not satisfactorily confronted the evolution of norms of interstate behaviour. However the constructivist literature draws on a variety of theoretical texts and empirical studies to argue that norms have illustrative power independent of structural and situational constraints.
The belief that all norms are created by the powerful can be challenged. As international norms have come to be shaped by a number of factors such as newer democracies, pressure groups, international and humanitarian organizations. Humanitarian values, global security,...
COLLECTIVE SECURITY DURING THE
Collective security during the interwar period
The term ‘collective security’ can be defined as a security agreement in which all states cooperate directly, collectively, and and every state accepts that the security of one is in the concern of all. In other words, when one of the states part of this agreement violates the rights to freedom of other nations, all other member states will have to join forces to restore peace, penalizing the aggressor state. This model is based on participation and compulsoriness. An agressor state is about to meet a united opposition of the entire world community. The concept of collective security is based on the consent of all or the majority of states to act against any state that unlawfully violates peace. The main idea of collective security is the assumption that no state will want to change the power and order of world community, and if so, all other states will act together against the aggressor state in order to reestablish the global equilibrium. An ideal collective security organization assumes a very high degree of congruent interest among its members.1 Interstate rivalry and power politics and effectively elliminated.2
As a legal form of states’ cooperation, a collective security system differs from any...
...A Reference Security Management Plan
for Energy Infrastructure
Prepared by the Harnser Group for the European Commission
Under Contract TREN/C1/185/2009
A Reference Security Management Plan for Energy Infrastructure
The European Union is developing its policy on critical energy
infrastructures in relation to the European Programme for Critical
Infrastructure Protection (“EPCIP”) which considers measures that
will enhance, where necessary, the level of protection of certain
infrastructures against external threats.
The integrity of energy infrastructures and their reliable operation are key factors in ensuring
the supply in energy, vital for the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the economy.
For this reason energy infrastructure is considered as a priority for the implementation of the
EPCIP, hence the policy adopted in December 2008, under Council Directive 2008/114/EC on
the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the need to improve
their protection, has the energy sector in its scope. As one of a number of requirements, this
Directive included the creation of an Operator Security Plan for all infrastructures designated
as European Critical.
The European Commission’s Directorate General for Energy tasked an external contractor to
prepare a non-binding Reference Security Management Plan. This is intended to be a useful...
1. Security, definition and nature, comprehensive security
2. Introduction to strategic studies, definition, nature and scope of strategic studies
3. Development of modern strategies and its various dimensions
4. The phenomena of war
5. Military alliances in IR
6. Deterrence, conceptual analysis
7. Nuclear deterrence (Nuclear Doctrine)
8. Problems of Disarmament and arms control
9. Nuclear proliferation and nuclear strategies (Nuclear Doctrine)
10. Defense and policy of Pakistan
• The state of being from a danger or injury
• Freedom from fear, anxiety
• Security is the degree of protection against danger, loss and criminals
• Security is a negative term
Concept of security:
There are two categories or school of thoughts
Traditional concept of strategy and non-traditional concept of securityTraditional concept:
1. The traditional concept is that giving stress on the importance of state security
2. state is a main actor in international relations
3. traditionalists give stress on the attainment of more and more military power
4. they believe that war is only solution to any international conflict
5. they believe on hard politics
1. Concept of security is the social security
2. They believe that...
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• Introduction ·······································································································································492
• What is humansecurity? ················································································································492
• Debates about humansecurity······································································································494
• Dimensions of humansecurity ······································································································496
• Promoting humansecurity ·············································································································502
• Conclusion ··········································································································································504
This chapter examines the origins of the concept of
humansecurity, debates surrounding its deﬁnition
and scope, some of the threats to humansecurity
in the world today, and international efforts to promote humansecurity. It proceeds in four parts. The
section, ‘What is human...
...State security basically entails the tendency of a nation adhering to its own set of demands in regard to the issue of security policies (Baylis, J.2010, p.233).Traditionalsecurity also involves a host of other aspects that are defined by virtue of subordination. Describing the matter further reveals that state security is primarily the protection of available institutions, ethics or values within a nation, and above all human beings living inside its boundaries (Brauch, 2003, 204). State security is therefore judged by virtue of how well a particular state can stop attacks, and at the same time defeat external threats. An example of this is Australia white Defense paper policies that were aim to build Australia’s defense strategies to protect their border for future external threats after seen terrorist attack on America September 2001 followed by other terrorist attack in other part of the World (Department of Defense 2009,p.16). State Security is Australia concerned ensuring the country is freedom from potential attack and to protect their border from asylum seekers. Therefore Defense is essential to secure and manage the country security.
The state remains the main the center of activities and the main player; whereby focus is obviously directed towards national stability. Australia main interest in White Paper Defense is to against the...