“ To what extent is Humanitarian Intervention an abandoned project? “ Humanitarian Intervention is military intervention that is carried out in pursuit of humanitarian rather than strategic objectives. This term is controversial and therefore often debated, as it is an evaluative and subjective term. The common use of the term itself is the desire to come in help to other people, however according to some other opinions, it is the outcome of the intervention that defines it. Firstly, it is essential to define what is meant by the word abandoned in this context. As HI has been happening throughout history, abandoned would imply an on-going lack or diminishing numbers of interventions. In humanitarianism, the most relevant key concept is human rights, which is illustrated as rights to which people are entitled by the virtue of being human. Human rights are universal, meaning they apply to everyone regardless of their gender, culture or religion. In this essay I will mention key terms including violence, conflict and justice, as these are at the heart of humanitarian intervention. Power, which is not meant to be of much importance when discussing humanitarianism, is in reality, crucial. And this leads on to my first point. As interdependence is rising in today’s world, power is too. This implies that countries, usually not democratic, have more state sovereignty on their people and therefore are likely to have an army, which makes it increasingly difficult for other countries to intervene. Unfortunately nowadays the effectiveness of HI is underestimated when a conflict comes, as “universal rights” and state sovereignty come face to face, state sovereignty usually wins the confrontation. Economic power also affects the number of interventions. The Chinese government, for example, violates human rights in some parts of the countries, especially near the borders of Tibet, and no military intervention from other countries is planned because of China’s well known...
...international economic arrangements to maintain colonial control over African countries. This can be witnessed in the military intervention by western countries which is to some authors is done for humanitarian purposes or to expand neo-colonialism. “Neo-colonialism entails the domination in social, economic and culture of countries from the developed world that is the western countries in the respective internal affairs of the countries of the developing world that is African countries” (jean Paul: 2001). Intervention is a term which covers a wide variety of situations where one actor intervenes in the affairs of another (Evans 2008:146). “A state’s foreign intervention can be non-violent involving the threat or use of economic, diplomatic, or other sanctions, or violent, involving military intervention” (Holzgrefe and Keohane: 2003, p.18). “Strategically intervention aims at fostering national security of the intervening state that is undertaken to achieve territorial security regional stability, restoration or consolidation of democratic government, and regime transformation” (Amstutz 2005, p139).
• Western military intervention in Libya (2011)
According to Libya live blog (19-03-2011) “on the 19th of March 2011, a lot of western countries began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, the...
...HumanitarianIntervention as a World-Wide Controversy
The issue of humanitarianintervention has become increasingly prominent in worldwide debates regarding its role in ethics and legitimacy in international relations. Uncertainty arises as to whether there are any moral obligation for humanitarianintervention and the concerning justifications of the violation of state sovereignty. In viewing the matter ethically and applying Immanuel Kant’s principle of cosmopolitan law from his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Essay, humanitarianintervention can be established as a conflict between a cosmopolitan responsibility, which is to protect and promote human rights because of their universality, and an obligation to respect state sovereignty as a crucial basis for moral and political international order. Inevitably, fulfilling one set of responsibilities can involve the violation of the other in situations for example where governments are actively abusing the fundamental rights of their own citizens. Many Third World leaders consider the concept of humanitarianintervention to be potentially destabilizing for the international system, and view it as an excuse for more powerful nations to undermine and threaten their state sovereignty. By using the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) as a reference...
...What to do and what not to do? Comparative analysis of two peace enforcement operations in Somalia (1992-1993 and 1993-1995).
Peace operations have become the most widely used tool for conflict management, therefore, a vast range of different military operation types was invented, e.g. observer mission, peacekeeping, peace enforcement. The last type of operations became widely used due to the fact that there is no consent of the belligerent parties needed to conduct a mission, for instance, the humanitarianintervention in Libya is the most recent and prominent example, plus, in general it is considered to be effective - according to Virginia Page Fortna, peace enforcement is effective in 58.33% of cases1 (post-Cold War period). However, the question of factors contributing to the success\failure of such type of interventions was not addressed so far in the literature; consequently, it will constitute my research question. The sub-question tackles the importance of certain variables in the affect on efficacy of the operation. For this outcome controlled and interfering variables as the number of soldiers in the contingent, amount of resources, external actors involved, sanctions, composition of contingent, cooperation with INGOs and local NGOs will be assessed.
To be able to answer the question mentioned above, the research will be structured in a following way: firstly, definitions of...
Essay Question: HumanitarianIntervention is one of the key features of post-Cold war international politics. What exactly is it? What are the arguments for and against it? Discuss your answers in the context of a recent case, such as Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan or East Timor.
Hypothesis: That despite the incidents where humanitarianinterventions have proved seemingly unsuccessful, they are, nonetheless, a vital tool in alleviating the human suffering that so plagues contemporary society.
The post-Cold war world is one that has been riddled with conflict, suffering and war. In the face of such times, the issue of humanitarianintervention and about who, when and how it should be employed, has become hotly debated. While some critics declare this kind of intervention to be a violation of national sovereignty, others believe that relief efforts aimed at ending human suffering are perfectly justifiable. (7) The key question here is, if internal wars cause unacceptable human suffering, should the international community develop collective mechanisms for preventing or alleviating it?(5) This essay will attempt to address such a question, by outlining the arguments for and against humanitarianintervention in the context of the Bosnian crisis of 1991....
...Debate on HumanitarianIntervention
Watanabe Koji When a massive and systematic violation of basic human rights is committed by the authorities of one state, can other states intervene forcefully to halt the violation? Since the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s (NATO’s) military intervention in Kosovo in 1999, the issue of what is now commonly called humanitarianintervention has become one of the most contentious subjects in managing contemporary international relations. Conspicuous in the argument on Kosovo has been the fact that most Asian countries were opposed to, or reluctant to endorse, the use of force by NATO against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Force, Intervention, and Sovereignty Project grew out of the recognition that there was a distinct need to clarify the positions of Asian countries to the extent possible, so that any future dispute between them and members of the Atlantic alliance on the matter of international intervention—albeit defined as humanitarian—would not develop into a situation affecting the peaceful global environment. The project was designed to promote a comparative analysis of the views held on intervention by China, India, Japan, South Korea, and member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). In the following pages, the...
...A reality for many countries is that intervention can be perplexing and taking accountability for the protection of humanity can mean that ‘the issue must be reframed not as an argument about the right to intervene but about the responsibility to protect’ (Evans and Sahnoun, 2002). ‘There is a duty of mutual aid, and the fact that one cannot do everything does not mean that one should do nothing’ (Smith, 2000). With this being said, the act of forcibleintervention is debatable, how does this type of act justify advocating the concern for civilians in other countries? Shouldn’t the countries involved be acting in their own defence? The forcible manner that is imposed on these countries could be damaging and perhaps risking the role of future interventions. The responsibility of the intervening country during a time of imminent threat needs to be examined.
To suggest that humanitarianintervention is black and white would be imposing a view that is simply not true, nor would it be providing a clear equation of the movement itself. A non biased definition of intervention is regarded, ‘a coercive action by an outside party or parties, in the sphere of jurisdiction of a sovereign state, or more broadly of an independent political community’ (Caney, 1997). ‘The responsibility to protect implies a duty to react to situations in which there is compelling need for human protection’, (Evans and...
...Crisis workers take on many different roles on a daily basis. Crisis workers also come in many different career fields; they are law enforcement officers, therapists, doctors, hospital staff, and many other careers. The responsibility of each individual is broken down into several additional roles. Similar to law enforcement, a crisis worker’s job is always to protect and serve the public.
It is clear that Cassandra has been though a lot in her life; her recent break down is of major concern as to what is really going on mentally and physically. Human crises are never quick and simple, they are and can be extremely difficult and time consuming. The Six Step Model of Assessment helps crisis workers weed through the situation. In Cassandra’s case the model first tells us we have to define the problem. With the information currently given from law enforcement and Cassandra, there are several problems present:
1. Apparent violent altercation with boyfriend (noticeable bruising)
2. Law enforcement suspects she may have murdered her boyfriend.
3. Witnessed father and grandfather physically and sexually abuse mother
4. Family substance abuse problems: dad abuses alcohol, brother abuses heroin
5. 3 past suicide attempts (most recent 3 months ago)
6. Mental state questionable
a. Thinks boyfriend still alive and wants to see him
b. Brought in talking to self
c. Unable to answer direct questions
d. Smiles when discussing negative information
...Humanitarianintervention: a liberal perspective
The moral legitimacy of states and the limits of sovereignty
According to Slocombe (2003, p.117) there is no question that has more preoccupied the discussion of international relations than that of the legitimacy and wisdom of the use of force. Sincere efforts to substitute international institution and diplomacy for military power, the costs of multiple terrible wars, and even the potential consequences of war fought with nuclear weapons did not change the fact that threat and use of force are still the ultimate ‘last arguments’ of international relations. One very compelling aspect of the use of force within international relations is the concept of ‘humanitarianintervention’. Whitman (2005, p. 259) argues that the debate about humanitarianintervention is so compelling because it involves the three most fundamental organizational systems of human social life: law, morality and politics. In this paper humanitarianintervention is defined as the use of military force by one state within the territory of another without the latter’s consent, to protect people who are not nationals of the intervening state from violence committed or permitted by the government of the target state (Nardin, 2009, p. 297). In 1999 NATO used force against Yugoslavia with the stated aim of averting a...