Professor Van Doorn
20 February 2015
The first podcast centers around Mark Schapiro’s book about toxic chemicals that people are exposed to on an everyday basis. He explains some of the medical problems that can result from the chemicals being in a person’s blood—breast cancer, reproductive issues, endocrine issues, mutations in fetuses, etc. One chemical in particular that is talked about is phthalates. Phthalates, he explains, are found in several plastic items such as IV tubes in hospitals, plastic bottles, car dashboards, plastic shower curtains, and even children’s toys. As the phthalates break down, harmful chemicals are released into the air and are then inhaled, causing a variety of medical problems. Also brought up in the discussion, is the fact that the European Union has banned more of the harmful chemicals that the U.S. still allows. The U.S. also does not require business to minimize or list the dangerous chemicals on products that the European Union does require. He researched the economic impacts of banning phthalates and found that making plastics without the chemicals would have no negative economic impact whatsoever. As a result of products with banned chemicals still being produced, products that cannot be sold in Europe are being brought to the United States and being sold anyway. Overall, Schapiro explains how the European Union utilizes a precautionary principle when it comes to avoiding the use of harmful chemicals and toxins in plastics, cosmetics, electronics, etc. while the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Association, although beneficial, are still not as effective in preventing the use of harmful chemicals in everyday products.
In the second podcast, The Dose Doesn’t Always Make the Poison, what is emphasized is the fact that a large number of household products contain chemicals that are potentially harmful to human health, even in low...
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1. Assign the marked asymmetric centers with R or S designations.
2. Rank each of the following sets of substituents (highest priority substituent = 1; lowest priority substituent = 4). Place the number in the blank below the substituent.
3. Determine the relationship between each of the following pairs of structures (enantiomers, diastereomers, constitutional isomers, or identical).
3. Which of the following structures is different from the other three? Explain.
4. (a) Place asterisks at all of the asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecule shown below (prostacyclin).
(b) Based on the number of asymmetric carbons, how many stereoisomers of prostacyclin are possible?
5. Hydrogenation of an alkene will yield an alkane. The alkane formed by hydrogenation of (S)-4-methyl-1-hexene (I) is optically active, while the one formed by hydrogenation of (S)-3-methyl-1-pentene (II) is not. Explain.
6. Draw and label a stereoisomer of this compound that is chiral, and draw two that are achiral.
7. Draw the formula for an unsaturated alkyl chloride (C5H9Cl) that shows:
(a) neither geometric isomerism nor optical activity.
(b) both geometric isomerism and optical activity.
(c) geometric isomerism but not optical...
The goal of this experiment was to form 2-chloro-2-methylbutane by addition of HCl, causing a Sn1 reaction to occur.
1. Full sleeved shirt, pants, shoes, gloves and goggles worn at all times
2. Neutralize acid spills with saturated sodium bicarbonate
3. Chlorinated carbon is toxic, targets liver and kidneys
4. Do not breathe any chemical, or get on skin
5. 12M HCl highly corrosive
6. All parts of experiment done under hood
The procedure for this experiment appears on pages 4 and 5 on hand lab #6 Preparation of 2-chloro-2-methylbutane-An Sn1 Reaction . In this experiment, the instructor requested that 4 ml diethyl ether be added to the solution in the conical vial after step 4 to help better see the difference between the organic and aqueous layer. During step 4, NaCl(aq) was also available, and was used instead of water. The last test involving NaI was not performed.
A volume of 1.54 ml of 2-methyl-2-butanol was used for this experiment, and mixed with 2.0 ml of 12M HCl. The mass of HCl was calculated using the density to prevent over handling of the product resulting in breakage of equipment and injury.
1.00 ml of water, 1.00 ml of sodium bicarbonate and 1.00 ml NaCl(aq) and 4.00 ml diethyl ether were also all measured using a 10 ml graduate cylinder and put into the 2-chloro-2-methylbutane separately to remove any water....
...Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)jnjfdfnjnfdjkfdnvjfffffffffffffffjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj-
jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjBased on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your rBased on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)esearch and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do you think pure (distilled) water does not conduct electricity but tap water usually does? (2 points)Based on your research and observations, why do...
Uddingston Grammar School
Nat4/Nat5 ChemistryEveryday Consumer Products: Homework 7
1. The grid contains the name of some chemical processes below.
a) Identify the process to separate alcohol and water.1KU
b) Identify the process in which chlorophyll absorbs light energy.1KU
c) Identify the two processes in which carbon dioxide is produced.1KU
2. Flowers produce a sweet tasting liquid called nectar. Nectar contains a mixture of sugars such as sucrose and fructose.
a) To which family of compounds to sucrose and fructose belong.1KU
Glucose can be broken down to form alcohol in the presence of an enzyme.
i. What is the chemical name for the alcohol produced.1KU
ii. What is an enzyme?1KU
iii. Give another example of an enzyme and its use.1PS
3. In the manufacture of malt vinegar, starch reacts with water to produceglucose. Glucose is converted to carbon dioxide and ethanol using an enzyme. Ethanol is oxidised, by bacteria, producing malt vinegar.
(a) Use the above information to complete the flow chart.
(b) The equation for one of the processes is:
C6H12O6 ® C2H50H + CO2
Balance this equation.1PS
1. Sweets, such as pineapple cubes, contain the artificial...
...Topics, themes and concepts that change over time
1) American expansion and the westward movement - Within existing borders
2) American foreign policy
b) America becomes world power
c) Cold war conflicts and events
d) America – The remaining super power
3) American literature that promoted political, economic, and social change or in some other way had a profound effect on the nation
-Thomas Paine’s ‘Common Sense’ is published – Jan. 10, 1776
-Declaration of Independence is adopted – July 4, 1776
4) American settlers and their relationship with Native Americans and their encroachment on Native American territory
-Bacon’s Reb – 1676
-Proclamation of 1763
5) Bill of rights and other 17 amendments and reasons for their addition to the constitution
-John Peter Zenger is arrested – Nov 17, 1734
-George Mason’s Bill of Rights is drafted – June 12, 1776
6) Creation of American holidays & Construction of American landmarks
-Plymouth Colony is Founded
-Declaration of Independence is Signed – July 4, 1776
7) Development of sports in America & Significant accomplishments or events in sports
8) Evolution of the arts and entertainment
9) Expansion or definition of America’s borders – Through diplomacy or war
-Treaty of Paris of 1783 – September 3, 1783
10) Growth of education
-Harvard University is founded – Oct 28, 1636
-Massachusetts Act is Passed – Lays Foundation for Compulsory Education –...
...The outside layer of the hair strand is the cuticle and it protects everything on the inside of the hair strand. The mantle which the hair and skin covers ranks 5.0 on the pH scale. This is very important because it helps humans keep moisture in their hair and skin even though it is acidic. This mantle also make the cuticle lie flat against the hair shaft. This results in smoother and shinier hair. The mantle could be destroyed by styling and other exposures but can be restored with pH-balanced products. These products can harden the outside layer of the hair and benefit the cuticles and diameter of the hair. This also helps make the hair from latching on to other strands which can cause split ends. These products also leave a glossy finish. Hair is at its maximum strength when it is close to a pH of 5.0. When dying use special products such as “Shampoos and conditioners that are mildly acidic” (3) because they have been known to keep the color lasting for a while longer. Alkaline products take the oils out of the hair strand which results in frizzy hair that could lead to breakage.
Lemon juice is used to give the hair a golden touch. Lemon juice does lighten hair color. It contains citric acid which has performs a bleaching action on the natural pigments in your hair. When used regularly, the juice will eventually lighten hair strands and give the effect of highlights. It does not turn dark hair to...
Calcium ion can be analyzed by precipitation with oxalate in basic solution to form CaC2O4.H2O The precipitate is soluble in acidic solution because the oxalate anion is a weak base
CaC2O4.H2O (calcium oxalate monohydrate ; MW = 146 g/mol)
Equation: Ca2+(aq) + C2O42-(aq) CaC2O4.H2O
Large, easily filtered, relatively pure crystals of product will be obtained if the precipitation is carried out slowly, which can be done by dissolving Ca2+ and C2O42- in acidic solution & gradually increasing the pH by thermal decomposition of urea, Co(NH2)2.
Equation : Co(NH2)2 + 3H2O CO2 + 2NH4+ + 2OH-
Methyl red indicator: [below pH 4.8 – red ; above pH 6.0 - yellow]
Sample experimental Data
Mass of glass funnel, initial (grams)
Mass of glass funnel + ppt. after drying (grams)
Mass of product (grams)
Moles of product corresponding to moles CaC2O4.H2O
2.74 x 10-3
2.94 x 10-3
% Ca2+ in the unknown sample
0.4384 = 0.44
0.4704 = 0.47
Calculations : moles of product = moles CaC2O4.H2O (mw = 146 g/mol)
% Ca2+ in the unknown sample : (atomic wt. Ca = 40 g/mol)
% Ca2+ (w/v) =
% Ca2+ =
=0.4384 = 0.44%
% Ca2+ =
= 0.4704 =0.47%
The Ca in a 200.0 ml sample of natural H2O was...