Reading achieves a whole person. Almost all of us are conducting the reading process in our daily life, but seldom do we know about how our brains function to understand the text. It is through background knowledge (schemata) that we combine the given text and what we should obtain from it together. That is to say, the more we know about the information in a text, the better we will understand it. The question is, how does our background knowledge work in reading comprehension? Does this effect matter so much that if we nothing about the information in a text, it is hard for us to understand it? This paper will tell you the answer. 1. Definition of Title Variables
1. Definition of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension has been defined in many ways over the years. C.Nuttall suggests that the overriding purpose to reading is to get the correct message from a text------the message the writer intended for the reader to receive. R.Day and J.S.Park state that the idea of reading has changed and moved from what was considered a receptive process to what is now an interactive process. Reading can be done using a number of processes that can be divided into two main categories: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing refers to the reader obtaining meaning from the letters and words of a text and reconstructing the intended message that way. Top-down processing refers to the readers’ ability to look at a text as a whole and to connect and relate it to his existing knowledge base. Both processes are needed to obtain a message from a text. 2. Definition of Schema
Background knowledge------also prior knowledge------is supposed to consist of two main components: “our assimilated direct experiences of life and its manifold activities, and our assimilated verbal experiences and encounters” (J.M.Swales, 1990:25). Schemata are accepted as interlocking mental structures representing readers’ knowledge of ordinary events (H.Nassaji, 2002:439). In the reading process, readers integrate the new information from the text into their preexisting schemata (C.M.Swales, 1990:25). Not only do schemata influence how they recognize information, but also how they store it. According to J.Harmer, only after the schema is activated is one able to see or hear, because it fits into patterns that she already knows. The notion of schema is related with the organization of information in the long term memory that cognitive contracts allow. Schemata is the plural form that refers an individual’s background knowledge. A schema is the singular form that refers to one “chunk” of knowledge. A schema is made up of subordinate parts called nodes. R.C.Anderson and P.D.Pearson explain the basic processes of reading comprehension and develop the notion of schema and its relation to language reading. Anderson and Pearson maintain that “a reader’s schemata, or knowledge already stored in memory, function in the process of interpreting new information and allow it to enter and become a part of the knowledge store” They stated that “a schema is an abstract knowledge structure” and that it “is structured in the sense that it represents relationships among its component parts.” 3. Schema Theory
Schema theory deals with the reading process, where readers are expected to combine their previous experiences with the text they are reading. Since each reader has different background knowledge, it is culture specific. Schema theory was developed by the gestalt psychologist Bartlett “…who observed how people, when asked to repeat a story from memory, filled in details which did not occur in the original but conformed to their culture norms” (G.Cook, 1987:56). P.L.Carrell formalized the role of background knowledge in language comprehension as schema theory, and claim that any text either spoken or written does not itself carry meaning. He also claimed that “a text only provides directions for readers as to how they...
...Theories of Reading
So far, there are three main theories which explain the nature of learning to read. First, the traditional theory, or bottom up processing, which focused on the printed form of a text. (2) the cognitive view, or top-down processing enhanced the role of background knowledge in addition to what appeared on the printed page. Third, the metacognitive view, which is based on the control and manipulation that a reader can have on the act of comprehending a text, and thus, emphasizes the involvement of the reader’s thinking about what he is doing while reading.
1. The traditional bottom-up view
The traditional bottom-up approach to reading was influenced by behaviorist psychology of the 1950s, which claimed learning was based upon “habit formation, brought about by the repeated association of a stimulus with a response” and language learning was characterized as a “response system that humans acquire through automatic conditioning processes,” where “some patterns of language are reinforced (rewarded) and others are not,” and “only those patterns reinforced by the community of language users will persist” (Omaggio 1993, 45-46). Behaviorism became the basis of the audio-lingual method,...
...Readingtheories Of the two approaches mentioned in reading research and literature, the bottom-up approach focuses on language elements such as grammar, vocabulary and cohesion, while the top-down approach includes a focus on background knowledge about content and organization, generally referred to as content and formal schemata respectively. A combination of these two approaches is generally known as the Interactive Model ofReading. The pedagogy in this study was based on the Schema Interactive Model of Reading (Simonsen and Singer, 1992).7 able 1: Approaches and strategies Approaches Top Down Strategies # Generating questions from title Skimming questions Bottom Up for content, based generated# Skimming # on for
writer’s thesis # Guessing meanings of words from context (vocabulary) use of modals, tenses Schema discourse) Interactive (text as # Concepts of cohesion and coherence and connections between paragraphs Text purpose and purpose at paragraph level # the # Understanding how language functions in context. E.g.
Metaphorical models of reading
Specific models of reading
Bottom-up models Top-down models Interactive models
Interactive compensatory model( nature inner knowledge) if there’s lack u should compensate it Word recognition model Simple view of reading model Dual coding model (2languages) Psycholinguistic guessing game:...
...Reading is a dynamic, complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning. It involves the bringing of meaning to and the getting of meaning from the printed page. It is developed based on the background, the experiences and as well as the emotions each child possesses. The process of reading looks at a series of written symbols and getting meaning from them. When we read, we use our eyes to receive written symbols such as; letters, punctuation marks and spaces while we use our brain to convert them into words, sentences and paragraph that communicate something to us.
It is no doubt, that reading can be silent or aloud. It is a receptive skill through it we receive information. In fact, it also requires the skill of speaking, that we can pronounce the words that we read. Thus, it is referred to as the third language skill that we learn. It is a productive skill which allows us to both receive information and transmit it.
Reading entails different theories that help to encourage and promote reading in schools. Just like teaching methodology, readingtheory has their shifts and transitions. It is based on the control of the manipulation that a reader can have on the act of comprehending a text.
The theories of reading is 'inclusive of the tradition view', according to...
...Content and Formal Schemata in ESL Reading
PATRICIA L. CARRELL Southern Illinois University
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)
Content and Formal Schemata in ESL Reading
Author(s): Patricia L. Carrell
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep., 1987), pp. 461-481
Published by: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)
Stable URL: http://jstor.org/stable/3586498
Accessed: 22/10/2008 11:25
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at
http://jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless
you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you
may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed
page of such transmission.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the
scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon,...
...A REVIEW ON READINGTHEORIES AND IT’S IMPLICATION TO THE TEACHING OF READING
Universitas Kristen Indonesia
Opini dan masukan untuk peningkatan pengajaran membaca kepada pembelajar bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing, baik yang didasarkan pada hasil penelitian maupun pengalaman, tersedia sangat banyak dalam kepustakaan pengajaran bahasa. Tulisan ini merupakan sebuah rangkuman atas berbagai teori, temuan dan pendapat tentang pengajaran membaca. Pemahaman terhadap topik-topik tersebut, terutama tentang teori top-down, bottom-up, dan meta-cognitive, diharapkan dapat dijadikan landasan untuk meningkatkan teknik pengajaran membaca. Dengan demikian, kemahiran membaca para pembelajar bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing dapat ditingkatkan secara signifikan.
Kata Kunci: top-down, bottom-up, schemata, meta-cognitive, pre-reading, during-reading, after-reading
Among the four language skills, reading is possibly the most extensively and intensively studied by experts in the field of language teaching. The results of the researches conducted for many decades on nature of reading—how people learn to process textual information—have contributed contrasting theories about what works best in the teaching of reading. As a result, language educators can choose among a wide variety of...
...IMPROVING READING SKILLS
A Research Paper
The Class of Mrs. Irene SF. Canon
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements For the subject
Elaine S. Gayas
January 9, 2013
Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). It is a means of language, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community which is culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practice, development, and refinement.
Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding (to translate symbols into sounds or visual representations of speech) and comprehension. Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax and context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema (schematatheory).
Other types of reading are not speech based writing systems, such as music notation or pictograms. The common link is the interpretation of symbols to extract the meaning from the visual notations.
The history of reading dates back to the invention of writing during the...
...Notes for reading :
Deface your books. Have fun writing in them. Indulge yourself as you never could with your grade school books. The purpose of making marks in a text is to call out important concepts or information that you will need to review later. Be aware, though, that underlining a text with a pen can make underlined sections—the important parts—harder to read. As an alternative, many students underline in pencil or use colored highlighters to flag key words and sentences. Using a highlighter to mark key information can save lots of time when you are studying for tests.
Underlining offers a secondary benefit. When you read with a highlighter, pen, or pencil in your hand, you involve your kinesthetic senses of touch and motion. Being physical with your books can help build strong neural pathways in your memory.
Five smart ways to highlight a text
Step 5 in Muscle Reading presents a powerful tool: highlighting. It also presents a danger—the ever-present temptation to highlight too much text. Excessive highlighting leads to wasted time during reviews and can also spoil the appearance of your books. Get the most out of all that money you pay for books. Highlight in an efficient way that leaves texts readable for years to come.
Read carefully firstRead an entire chapter or section at least once before you begin highlighting. Don’t be in a hurry to mark up your book. Get to know the text first. Make two or three passes through...