The Role of Non-state Actors in International Relations
International relations (IR) is like a stage where actors are needed to put on a show. Actors are any person or entity which plays a role that is attributable in international relations. There are two kind of actors in the world of International Relations which are states and non-state actors. States are territories run by a government and have a permanent population. Although states are the most important actors in IR, they are strongly influence by non-state actors. Non-state actors will be discuss in more detail in the following section.
Definition & Characteristics
Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. According to Pearlman and Cunningham, non-state actors are define as “an organized political actor not directly connected to the state but pursing aims that affect vital state interests” . Other than having characteristics such as having power and the ability to influence, non-state actors have a base or headquarter in a certain state but their activities will not only be operating in the state itself but will also be operating beyond the borders of the state.
Types of Non-state Actors and Their Roles
Sub-state actors are groups of people or individuals with similar interests not beyond the states that are able to effect the state’s foreign policy. They are also known as domestic actors. An example of sub-state actors is the automobile industry and the tobacco industry in America. These industries have unmistakable interests in the American foreign economic policy so that these industries are able to sell cars or cigarettes abroad and reduce imports of competing products made abroad. They are politically assembled to influence policies through interest groups, lobbying, donating to political candidates or parties, swaying public opinion on certain issues, and other means. Some examples of sub-state actors are the trade union (British English) / labour union (Canadian English) labor union (American English). Trade union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. They are able to influence the decisions made regarding their state’s laws in order to protect the rights of employees.
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) are one of the International Organizations (IOs). IGOs are organizations whose members consist of three or more nations-states. IGOs are created and joined by states to solve shared problems which give them authority to make collective decisions to manage problems on the global agenda. In these organizations, the states’ representatives gather to discuss issues that are of mutual interests to the member states. There are two main types of IGOs, the global IGOs and the regional IGOs. Global IGOs are organizations having universal or nearly universal membership which means every state is a member like the United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and many more. Regional IGOs are a subset of states as members based on a particular interest or region, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), European Union (EU) and many others. Why do states form IGOs and work through them? According to liberal institutionalism, states form IGOs because it is in their interest to do so. With IGOs, certain problems can be solved easily and cheaper than without them. Liberal institutionalism particularly focuses on collective problems, such as the security dilemma, the appeal to execute competitive tariffs, and the...
...Non-StateActors: Have an ability to affect InternationalRelations
By the Peace of Westphalia ended the thirty years war, began the world politics and began the establishment of political system. There are global organizations controlled by states like United Nations (UN) and regional organizations which are the members from the nearest area with the same ideologies and take same principal of the organization like European Union (EU). Other side there are informal organization or also called Non-StateActors (NSA) that controlled by people from the states. Together they increase the world politics. NSA influenced the political systems also affected in the InternationalRelations.
In this essay I would divided into three topics: (1) Non-StateActors, (2) Non-StateActors in the InternationalRelations. With these cases, I would explain about Non-StateActors, the background and the types of NSA. Find and connecting NSA case with the InternationalRelation. The case will be explain by describing the issue and give some samples.
The choice of these two cases are significant because they are related each...
...address on January 20, 1961 are the personification of the agenda towards foreign relations for the United States of America and her Western allies. As champions of peace and servants of liberty, the nations of the ideological West have swiftly rationalized the mobilization of peacekeepers, implementation economic trade sanctions, and forcefully removed government regimes that were deemed violators of human rights, tyrannical, and/or agitators of world peace. Yet, as the world becomes a smaller place due to enhanced communication, lowered trade barriers, and mass media; nation-states tend to plan their actions more tactfully than before in the 1960s to maintain their global reputations and popular sovereignty. Takastand`s problematic relations internally and externally symbolize the importance of efficient security, popular sovereignty, political liberties, and human rights functioning completely to acquire a civilized state. By chronicling statehood decisions of the following nation-states; France, Great Britain, Russia, and China, the purpose of this paper will be to highlight political and social factors associated with the Takastand crisis. Additionally, it is imperative to analyze the governmental frameworks of these countries as the influential basis behind responses that impact surrounding communities and the internationalrelations process.
...Is the state still the most important actor in InternationalRelations?
State is commonly referred to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity, such as a nation or a province. The state itself consists of the society, government as well as the people living there. Before the Second World War, State is often seen as the main actor ininternationalRelations as it can declare states of wars, control most of the economic influence within the region and larger states often dominant the role of internationalrelations within the region or even in the globe. However, after the Second World War, the impacts on state influence as an actor has become less important than before, regarding to this point, there is still a debate about whether it remains the most important actor or has been replaced by other actors. In this essay, I will be evaluating different actors in internationalrelations to find out if the state is still the most important.
The international system consists of not just the nation-state itself, but also international organizations such as NGOs and private...
...5. The Role of Non-StateActors
5.1 Introduction It is generally recognized that the process of building a capable state requires the participation of all the vital forces of a nation. A capable state is one that has all the attributes of a modern, strong, responsible and responsive state, a state capable of effectively discharging its duties of delivering security, peace, prosperity and other pubic goods to its people. Although the state has traditionally been considered as the focal point of this process, other sectors, including non-state ones, have an important role to play, and the importance of this role has grown significantly over the past couple of decades as the limitations of the post-colonial state in providing for the needs of its people have been made all too clear.1 It is thus important to identify these other actors and recognise those areas wherein they can contribute, and have indeed contributed, to the process, as well as to appreciate better their nature, their mode of intervention, the constraints hampering their action as well as to explore ways in which their participation can be rendered more fruitful and less problematic. But before we delve into the subject of non-stateactors...
...IDENTIFY THE WAYS IN WHICH NONSTATEACTORS ESPECIALLY NGO INFLUENCE INTERNATIONALRELATION
1. Civil societies or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have emerged as an important force on the world stage since the 1980s, to help in the process of decision-making. Many of these non-stateactors were established with the aim of influencing policy makers and shaping political perspectives. The arena of NGO action has expanded rapidly from local and national settings to the international level. The issues they are championing vary from education, public health provision, human rights abuses, relief work, welfare services and poverty to environmental protection. The role that these non-stateactors played had been very influential in creating a path to conclude multilateral agreements which legally bonded state parties to commit themselves according to their pledge. Thus, it is suffice to say that NGOs played a role in the global engagement and chart internationalrelation of states in the modern world.
2. The influence of these independent groups has been known to exist through an approach called the NGO diplomacy. It has become an international tradition in multilateral...
...and assess the role in internationalrelations of International trade:
International trade is simply defined as the exchange of goods or services along international borders or territories. The main distinctive factor between IT and domestic trade is that it international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade because of the additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border interruptions and costs linked with state differences such as language, the legal structure or customs. In internationalrelations, the focal point mainly is on the political, legal and institutional aspects of the global trading structure. It centers on policy, law, business and technology issues of global trade relations.
The main importance of IT is that it allows for a greater competition and more competitive pricing in the market. the competition results in more affordable products for the consumer. The exchange of goods also affects the economy of the world as dictated by supply and demand, making goods and services accessible which may not otherwise be obtainable to consumers worldwide. This trade also represents a noteworthy split of gross domestic product (GDP). International trade increases worldwide technology, and the readability of fast, effective communication and consumption of...
...the Second World War and 1989 which marked the end of the Cold War. The interaction of nation-states is center of politics on the international level, where the relationships of different nations dictates what events occur in regards to, but not limited to war, peace, economic agreements, and foreign aide involvement. These international interactions are becomingly progressively more distinguished by non-governmentactors such as the World Bank, and International Monetary Fund, a lesser need for military power and in the decline in the power of the state. The most effective foundation for international politics and the relations between nations and international institutions is to follow a liberal approach to governance with institutionalism as the most direct perspective.
At the end of the Second World War, the United Nations was founded, and began an era of the formation of many international organizations that connected nation-states together along with independent non-governmental organizations for the improvement and security of the global community. Though there has been international and regional conflict with many instances of human rights abuse, the overall quality of human life globally has enhanced as a product of the many international treaties,...
... 1. Processes of motivation. Intrapersonal, psychological processes lead to the emergence of the motives that trigger people to participate in the political-management process, taking up positions in it a master or slave.
2. Communication processes - is the exchange of information between the parties to the interaction. Breakdown in communication leads to inadequate response of the participants, which reduces the efficiency of the management process.
3. Structuring processes – is formation relatively stable that predicts the relationship between subject and object management. Structuring of the political process is expressed by the participants voluntary acceptance of obligations related to the implementation of specific social roles. This is manifested in the manifestation of the electorate consistently votes for a particular party in the organization of groups of active supporters of a political figure, etc....