: The role of Art, Architecture, and Women in the Islamic World
In many countries, Islamic women are educated, socially active, and pursue careers of their choosing, whereas other Muslim women are oppressed and denied not only basic human rights, but also the rights accorded to them by their faith and holy teachings. Islam came into being in a world where the most basic needs of women were consistently subjugated. Prior to the introduction of Islam, women were subordinate to men, in almost every way, regardless of the region or faith. The Quran condemned female infanticide, required that women give consent to marriage and rights to divorce and provided women with the right to own and manage their own property. The Quran also expresses two main views on the role of women. It both stresses the equality of women and men before God in terms of their religious duties. The roles and rights of women as set out in the Quran were innovative, providing clear legal protections for women and setting out guidelines and responsibilities for their spouses, including fair treatment, adequate financial support and even sexual compatibility. Moreover, the two genders were clearly equals in the eyes of Allah, both in the creation story and elsewhere in the Quran. While men and women have different roles within Muslim society, they are not inherently unequal ones. The introduction of the Quran brought about revolutionary changes in the daily lives of women. While motherhood and the role of women in the home are respected, women in Islam have often had very public roles. The Quran requires that daughters be educated, and historically, Muslim women have been political leaders, scholars, teachers and doctors. The local culture may have more impact on the roles of Muslim women in public than their faith.
There is a saying of the Islamic "God is Beautiful and Loves Beauty". The architecture and visual arts of the populations that adopted Islam from the 7th century. Islamic...
IslamicArt and Architecture; Influence and Effects
During the reign of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughal rulers, architecture and art took on more meaning than it had in the past. The types of architecture and manuscript writing have had both symbolic significance and influence on the people of these empires. The architecture can be said to have had the greatest impact on the presence of power and devotion to Islamicarts of all of the empires, while manuscripts were held privately until trends influenced their spread over greater distances and people.
The Ottomans, in their quest to expand their lands and influence, conquered Constantinople in 1453, which sparked a major period of construction in the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. This large building initiative took place in order to encourage a repopulating of Istanbul, as well as the revitalization of the economy in this declining city.
The buildings and complexes the Ottomans built shed an interesting light on their concerns and ideals. For example, while the complexes were mainly built as places of worship, they took on other roles, such as, centers for education, commerce, and hospital care. One complex is clear in its intentions to the public, as can be seen by the endowment deed, which read “ to elevate matters of religion and religious sciences in...
...chitectureIslamic ArchitectureIslamicarchitecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.
What is Islam?
* The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission.“
* Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed.
* The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting.
* The Moslem faith flourished in the countries of Southern Asia and North Africa.
* Other important communities include Zanzibar, Madagascar and China.
* In the 20th century mobility, Islam was brought throughout the world as far as Sydney and South shields.
* The spread of Islam has been frequently associated with military conquest, racial movements and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established populations.
* The most important were the Arab expansion northwards and westwards out of the Arabian peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish and Mongol groups South, Southeast and Southwest of Central Asia.
* The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in...
Islamic calligraphy and arabesque.
Islamicart is intellectual, refined and decorative; it contains no strong emotions and pathos but exhibits serene harmony. The term Islamicart covers a broad range of traditions, from metal work, carpet weaving, calligraphy and arabesque to architecture. It includes religious art as well as art made by and for Muslims and object made for Muslims by artists of other faiths.
Islamicart can mean different things to different people. To a Muslim it may be an expression of religion, of faith and a sense of closure to the divine. To a non-Muslim it tends to evoke rich and mysterious decorations applied to objects which often have obviously practical purposes and for a tourist it may first present itself in form of distinctive shapes, the noble swell of a dome hovering over the city skyline or the slim and tall minarets against the sunset, but one thing is for certain, it is difficult to see any form of artwork depicting humans or animals.
Although the Koran does not ban images, there’s an active tradition in many Islamic countries to avoid religious imagery whenever possible. Some societies strictly adhere to the prohibition, others allow floral designs and other motifs, still others disregard the ban but they are...
Many times when feminists looked at Islamicwomen they criticized the man for not treating women properly. However, as Jane I. Smith states, women of Islam are not really offended by that fact, on the contrary, they believe that it is better for them. The Holy Koran is the basis for the Islamic believers. It has many interpretations, however there are certain facts that are sure to be clear as to the position of women in an Islamic society. Koran did introduce very significant changes as to treatment of women. Certain women did play powerful roles in societies. However, whatever the earlier realities for women in terms of marriage, divorce, and inheritance of property, it is clear that Islamic men believe that they are above woman. However, they are supposed to support them and make sure that they have everything that they need to help raise their children and praise the god. In Islam, marriage is not a sacrament, as it is in other religions. It is a contract that man and woman sign and in which the woman can clearly includes her own clauses and negotiate terms. It is rare however possible for a man to have more the one wife. However, when that happens the man is responsible for caring and supporting both of them. In order to marry another woman however, the man must...
...IslamicArtIslamicart is perhaps the most accessible manifestation of a complex
civilization that often seems enigmatic to outsiders. Through its brilliant use of
color and its superb balance between design and form, Islamicart creates an
immediate visual impact. Its strong aesthetic appeal transcends distances in time
and space, as well as differences in language, culture, and creed.Islamicart not
only invites a closer look but also beckons the viewer to learn more.
"The term Islamicart may be confusing to some. It not only describes the
art created specifically in the service of, but it also characterizes secular art
produced in lands under Islamic rule or influence, whatever the artist's or the
patron's religious affiliation. The term suggests an art unified in style and
purpose, and indeed there are certain common features that distinguish the arts
of all Islamic lands."1 Although this is a highly dynamic art, which is often marked
by strong regional characteristics as well as by significant influences from other
cultures, it retains an overall coherence that is remarkable given its vast
geographic and temporal boundaries. Of paramount concern to the development
of this singular art is Islam...
...Women in the ArtWorldWomen have always been seen as an object to define the meaning of beauty. For centuries now women have been seen as the art piece and not the artist. There aren’t many women contributions to art from back then because women were seen as human beings just meant to cook, clean and be nice to gaze upon. Women weren’t recognized for their intelligence and if a woman was outspoken about it, she was either shot down or considered to be that of a manly nature. As Aristotle said, “…between male and female, the former is by nature superior and ruler, the latter inferior and subject”(Adadevoh). The quote by Aristotle shows us well of what man thought of woman back in that time. There has been a drastic change in the view of women as artists, as equal rights for women made itself more prevalent in today’s society.
Women were always looked down upon as only being useful for housework and making items that can be of use. Women were only seen as objects of beauty and never for how smart they really are. It was hard for women to establish themselves as artists because of the gender bias that was so prevalent back in that time and still a little prevalent in today’s society as well. Since women were only seen as put on earth for mans...
8 Nov 2010
Option 2 – IslamicArt
In traditional Islamicarchitecture the Gibla was the wall facing in the direction of the Mecca, and contained a Maqsura, the place where the emir or caliph would pray. The Mihrab was usually a concave niche in the Gibla, indicating it as the Mecca-oriented wall of the mosque. However, the word Mihrab has been used to refer to a variety of architectural elements that vary in size, shape, and elaboration. This meaning of the word make the true origin and purpose of the Mihrab difficult to determine.
In early Arabic literature, Mihrab sometimes referred to the part of the palace where the king would sit, sometimes to a niche that held an image, and sometimes to a colonnaded platform. It is used to describe such a variety of architectural features, historians have had to trace the origins of the word. Mihrab could either be derived from the Ethiopic word Merkuerab meaning sanctuary (an obvious suggestion considering the religious role of Mihrabs), or the Arabic Harba, a form of authoritative lance (a valid proposal because the prophet would often define the boundaries of the prayer space by planting his lance). However, this latter theory is questionable because the Mihrab was such a focal point of Islamic mosques and the word Harba appears only five times in the Koran. Also supporting the former theory is the fact that each time it...
...Art, in its simplest definition, is the creation of images or objects. Islamicart has throughout history been mainly abstract and floral, portraying geometric shapes or Arabesque and calligraphic designs because of the strict injunctions against the depiction of living things. IslamicArt as a whole is comprised of visual arts produced 7th century onwards. This term not only describes art made in the service of Islam or by Muslim artists, but also secular art originating from those lands which were ruled by Muslims or where majority of the population was Muslim. Therefore, IslamicArt covers many people and lands over a period of 1400 years and with that the medium and type of art differ from place to place, too.
The most trivial problem of expression in Islamicart took root in the fact that the center of Islam, Allah, cannot be depicted visually [“All you believe Him to be, He is not.”] Hence, innovative techniques such as geometric patterns were used for this expression.
With the expansion of Islamic Empire came the influences of new civilisations and cultures that assimilated into Muslim art and culture paving way for a unique style of IslamicArt. Thus, over the period of 1400 years IslamicArt has...