The definition of privacy refers to one’s freedom of thought and expression, the right of private property and also protects their personal information. According to the article of the right to privacy (1890) written by Warren and Brandeis, privacy is the right to be let alone and believe it is the right inviolate of personality. Therefore, there are some ordinances in Hong Kong’s common law and the Hong Kong bill of right are used to protect the citizen’s right of privacy. The protection mainly reflects in the Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance which included the data protection principles.
However, the changes made by the government of the restriction on public access to company information in The New Companies Ordinance which passed by Legislative Council on 12th July 2012 and to become effective in 2014, had become the most controversial issue. Company Registry, the responsible department of the government, claims that the aim of the government to rewrite the companies’ ordinance is for the modernization of Hong Kong's company law and the further enhancement of Hong Kong's status as a major international commerce and economic centre. However, someone fears that businesses could harbor corruption under the law and question about the necessity of this amendment. Although the change might reduce the risk of distress and harm and maintain the protection of the privacy of company directors, implement the change will increase the difficulties in verification of the identity of the directors, damage the freedom of the press, information and weaken the citizen’s ability to protect their rights. Both sides will be examined in detail by considering the bills of privacy right, The Harm Principle and the view points in Utilitarianism and Paternalism.
Due to the change of the restriction on public access to company information, the public cannot see the details of corporate directors anymore which include their ID numbers and...
The right to privacy means controlling your own personal information and the ability to allow or deny access to others. As Americans, we feel it's a right not a privilege to have privacy. IT technology and the events of September 11, 2001 are diminishing that right, whether its workplace privacy or personal privacy. From sending email, applying for a job, or even using the telephone, Americans right to privacy is in danger. Personal and professional information is being stored, link, transferred, shared, and even sold without your permission or knowledge. IT technology has benefited mankind tremendously in so many areas, but its also comes with a price. Advancements in technology make all individuals vulnerable to unwanted probing and monitoring.
Privacy is a fundamental right. According to Supreme Court Justice D. Brandeis (Olmstead v. U.S. 277 U.S. 438 1928):
The makers of our Constitution...sought to protect
Americans in their beliefs, their thoughts, their emotions,
and their sensations. They conferred as against the
Government, the right to be let alone; the most
comprehensive of the rights of man and the right most
valued by civilized men. The principle...
...Right To Privacy Under Article 21 and the Related Conflicts
A very fascinating development in the Indian Constitutional jurisprudence is the extended dimension given to Article 21 by the Supreme Court in post-Maneka era. The Supreme Court has asserted that Art. 21 is the heart of the Fundamental Rights. Article 21 has proved to be multi-dimensional. The extension in the dimensions of Art.21 has been made possible by giving a extended meaning to the word ‘life’ and ‘liberty’ in Article 21. These two words in Art.21 are not to be read narrowly. These are organic terms which are to be construed meaningfully.
The Supreme Court has asserted that in order to treat a right as a fundamental right, it is not necessary that it should be expressly stated in the constitution as a Fundamental Right. Political, social, and economic changes in the country entail the recognition of new rights. The law in its eternal youth grows to meet the demands of society.
Right to privacy is one such right which has come to its existence after widening up the dimensions of Article 21. The constitution in specific doesn’t grant any right to privacy as such. However, such a right has been culled by the Supreme Court from Art. 21 and several other provisions of the constitution read with the Directive Principles of...
...Title: Right to Know & Right to Privacy
1. Constitutional and Civil Rights
A constitutional right is a right granted by a country's constitution, and cannot be legally denied by the government. Civil rights are the protections and privileges of personal liberty given to all citizens by law. Examples of civil rights and liberties include the right to get redress if injured by another, the right to privacy, the right of peaceful protest, the right to a fair investigation and trial if suspected of a crime, and more generally-based constitutional rights such as the right to vote, the right to personal liberty, the right to life, the right to freedom of movement, the right to business and profession, the right to freedom of speech and expression. As civilizations emerged and formalized through written constitutions, some of the more important civil rights were granted to citizens. When those grants were later found inadequate, civil rights movements emerged as the vehicle for claiming more equal protection of law and equality before law for all citizens and advocating new laws to restrict the effect of discriminations. Some civil rights are granted in written...
...gain …... associated with the
expectation of housing occupation” (Levin and Wright, 1997). To counter the activities of
speculators, there are a number of possible solutions for the government. Increasing the
supply for first-time users, however, is the most comprehensive method to solve this
problem. The following paragraphs will first analyze the seriousness of housing
speculation. Then, it will introduce three-fold possible solutions and discuss the best
solution to curb the speculation.
Housing speculation has become serious since 2009 in when people overcame the
financial tsunami. In fact, average residential properties prices increased by around 24%
in 2010 following a 30 percent up in the previous year (Yung, 2011), but HongKong
average income rate only rose by 3.3 percent from 2009 to 2010 (the Census and
Statistics Department, 2011). Comparing the two figures, it is unaffordable for many
Hongkongers below 40 years of age to buy their own houses or apartments because
their salary increment may not correspond to the rapid increase in housing price. If
housing speculation continues to deteriorate continually, the benefits of real users will
be harmed as well as social stability.
Tsang Ka Lam
First, the government can collect Special Stamp Duty (SSD) from speculators to
curb the speculation but it cannot counter the activities of large speculators. Conpa CPA
...the Individual Visit Scheme have been entirely debated. While some businessman welcome the scheme that likely enhance the economy in HongKong, normal citizens complain that mainland tourists handicap their daily lives and deteriorate the tension between HongKong and mainland.
A number of economists advocate the economic strength of The Individual Visit Scheme. Tourism is of utmost importance in HongKong since Tourism is one of the four pillar industries in HongKong along with financial services, trading and logistics, and professional services (Fan & Yim, 2011) and Tien (2013) remarked that tourism is only pillar industry in the city with sustained growth, being increased average percentage of 5.7% per year, compared to a 2.2% growth of the overall economy. In term of mainland sightseers, in 2010, the number of mainland visitors who arrived into HongKong hit over 20 million, accounting for 60 percent of all tourists, which is threefold Hong Kong’s population (Chan, 2011). Also, Mainland travelers are the biggest consumers. Mainland Tourist spent about HKD165 billion in 2010, which accounted for 69% of the total visitors spending in 2010.To be more surprise, Mainland tourists expended HKD7, 453 per person per trip in 2010, 10.8% above the average (Fan & Yim, 2011). Therefore, the Individual Visit Scheme is...
...In this report I am going to talk about the rights people have to privacy and about the laws that go with privacy. Privacy is the thought that information that is confidential that is disclosed in a private place will not be available to third parties when the information would cause embarrassment or emotional distress to a person.
The right of privacy is limited to people who are in a place that a person would reasonably expect to be private such as home, hotel room and even a telephone booth. People think they should be protected by privacy when the conversation is private and should not be heard by others, and the same with going through a persons person things.
In the history of privacy laws legal concepts like ownership of real property and contracts originated many years ago now are in law. The right to privacy has now gotten legal recognition and is an evolving area of law.
Early invasions of privacy could be treated as trespassing, assault, or eavesdropping. A reason that privacy is not seen as a fundamental right is that most modern invasions of privacy are with new technology. Before they invented of certain things a person could be certain that their conversation is in private. Before the invention of computer databases, a person might invade another...
Civil liberties are vital and valuable for the American society. The right of privacy is one of the most important rights that a person can have as an individual. The bill of Rights does not have an amendment that mentions a right to privacy, however “the first Congress had the concept of privacy in mind when it crafted the first 10 amendments” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 131). “Today, one of the greatest debates concerning American’s civil liberties lies in the emerging area of privacyrights” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 130). Abortion is a topic of controversy, and I decided to write about abortion because abortion is the perfect example to describe a civil liberty. As a couple has the right to family plan, they also have the right to whether have a baby or practice an abortion. Abortion means the interruption or termination of pregnancy.
“The idea that the Constitution guarantees a right to privacy was first enunciated in a court case in 1965, in which a family violated a Connecticut law by disseminating a birth control device” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 132 ). Pro-life believes in one of the most important American values, which is life and their opinion is that abortion should not happen because that means talking someone’s...
August 5, 2013
Justin Ellsworth was a Marine that gave the ultimate sacrifice for his country. Many service men and woman would agree that the fight continues even after death. For the deceased the fight may be over and they could finally rest in peace, but what is left behind when a death is so sudden and not expected. Justin Ellsworth left many wondering what might have been his last words, his last eventful moments perhaps a significant other left behind. His parents wondering this requested for Yahoo to release Justin’s privacy to them. As a company that is protected by laws Yahoo decided not to release Justin’s email credentials to his parents. Only after going through court did Yahoo receive a court order to release Justin’s email information to his parents.
The Right to privacy by definition “is the human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals.” The right to privacy protects us from others invading our space. Americans especially are fond of their privacy, and are proud of the power of allowing others into their space when one feels ready. Human beings are naturally defensive when their privacy is being violated, and will quickly close all doors when...