In 570 AD a man to be by the Islamic people as the last prophet was born into the world; his name was Muhammad. Muhammad was born into a poor family in Mecca, but spent most of his childhood being raised by Bedouin relatives in a different town after he was orphaned at the age of six. His uncle Abu Talib brought him under his wing and taught him to be a successful merchant. When Muhammad was about twenty years old he moved into Mecca and began trading for widow named Khadijah. Through the next five years Khadijah became aware of how reliable and resourceful Muhammad was and proposed marriage to him when he was twenty-five. Through his travels Muhammad became very aware of the clan rivalries and the undermining forces among the tribes. He soon became distracted and unsatisfied with his life. In 610 he retreated to a cave above Mecca to meditate and fast. While he was there the angel Gabriel appeared to him and gave him a message from God, “There is no god but Allah.”
Muhammad began teaching his revelations form God. His first group of disciples consisted of his wife, his servants, and just a few of his clan’s people. His first followers called themselves Muslims. As he taught his circle grew and he became a threat to other wealthy Meccans, the worshiping of the gods of their fathers, and the sacred Ka’ba. In 622 After severe persecution, Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina. The flight to Medina marks year one of the Islamic Calendar. In Medina he was thought of as a hero. In the mid 620s the Quraysh began launching attacks against Muhammad and his followers in Medina. The small Muslim army held off the imposing Quraysh forces for three years while the Muslims grew over 1,000 strong. They defeated the Meccan army and created the treaty with Quraysh in 628. The treaty gave Muslims permission to visit the shrine at Ka’ba. Through the truce Muhammad gained over 10,000 converts to Islam.
Muhammad’s teachings brought Arab a religion that...
The spread of Islam began when, around 613 CE, the Islamic prophet Muhammad began to share the revelation which God had, according to Muslims, started to give to him three years previously. During the rest of his life, the Muslim ummah was established in Arabia. The expansion of the Arab Empire in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area and conversion toIslam was boosted by missionary activities particularly those of Sufis, who easily intermingled with local populace to propagate the religious teachings. These early caliphates, coupled with Muslim economics and trading and the later expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in Islam's spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim world. Trading played an important role in the spread of Islam in several parts of the world, notably southeast Asia.
Muslim dynasties were soon established and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, Ajuuraan, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India and Safavids in Persia and Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. The people of the Islamic world created numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science with far-reaching mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters,...
...The Spread of IslamIslamspread throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of Spain within 140 years of the religion’s birth. The religion of Islam grew from its birthplace, Mount Hira near Mecca, to expand into a large empire in the fraction of the time as Rome. Islamspread quickly for a few reasons; such as military conquest, trade routes, and its appealing moral and political order.
One reason why Islamspread so rapidly was through Jihad, or holy war, only ordered by the Caliph. The Caliph was the ruler of the Muslim Empire. By 750 CE the Islamic Empire had grown, from what is today Western Saudi Arabia in 632 CE, to spread across Northern Africa into Spain. It covered the Arabian Peninsula, and it spread east to modern day Afghanistan. (Doc C) A major breakthrough for the Islamic spread came during the ghazus, “[raids against other tribes]”. The ghazus were non-religious attacks aimed to plunder neighboring areas. The Muslims lived in areas lacking in resources. To compensate they stole from the surrounding areas. (Doc D) Between 632 CE and 661 CE the Muslims attacked and raided areas in the Byzantine and Persian Empires. Both had been involved in constant war, and the Muslims encountered a power vacuum. The Muslims filled this void which caused most of the people to convert to...
...6.1 Outline – pg. 120-126
- Islam was the first global civilization taking its roots in the Arabian Peninsula
- It was spread by merchants, wandering mystics, and warriors across Africa, Asia, and Southern Europe
- After its birth in the 7th century, Islamic civilization provided key links and channels for exchange among Mediterranean, Asian, and African cultures
- Muslim works of philosophy, literature, mathematics, and the sciences elevated the Arabic language to the language of the educated and wise
Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam
- Much of the Arabian Peninsula is covered with inhospitable desert
- Bedouin, nomadic cultures developed based on camel or goat herding
- Agriculture and the size of towns were limited
- Mecca and Medina were two key towns
Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance
- Social organization fit nomadic lifestyles
- Bedouins lived in kin-related clan groups in highly mobile tent encampments
- These clans being organized into larger tribal groupings
- Survival depended on cooperation and efficiency of clan member
- There were wide ranges of wealth and status within the clan groups and between clans of the same tribe
- Rivalries between clans to control oases or fertile land kept clans closely knit
- Revenge or grudges would remain for hundreds of years in repeating feuds
Towns and Long-Distance Trade
- Small communities in the...
Spread of Islam
Spread of IslamIslam is not only one of the three major monotheistic religions in the world today, it is also it is the fastest growing. Additionally, political conflict between Islamic groups and the West play out on the international stage like the latest of the Crusades. The message of the Prophet Mohammad has been distorted and misunderstood by those outside of Islam who see only a religion of hatred. Islam did, however, emerge in battle, conquering by force much of the Middle East and North Africa. The rapid spread of Islam, both politically and as a religion, is remarkable. It is therefore fundamental to understand Islam on its own terms, its creation and spread from the Arabian Peninsula in the Seventh century.
Esposito (1999) notes that although it was “distant” from the centers of power in the Near East, “Arabia was not isolated” (p. 4). The people who lived there were "aware of and affected by political, economic, and cultural developments” that surrounded them, including religion (p. 4). Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism were the main religions, in addition to “local animist cults” (p. 4). Mecca, where Mohammad first experienced Allah, was “unmistakably a pagan milieu” that had only small traces of the “religion...
...The Spread of IslamIslam started to spread when Prophet Muhammad received his first revelation at forty years of age when Angel Gabriel gave him the message from god. Prophet Muhammad first started preaching about Islam to his wife and closets friends in secret for three years. Later he started preaching openly in Mecca ten years and in Medina for ten years. Islam only really started spreading when Prophet Muhammad died. It was the four caliphs that were really determined to spreadIslam around the world.
The military also helped to spreadIslam around the world because when the Muslims fought in wars the had Rules of Conduct that they had to follow like how they cannot kill old people, girls and women. Also they were not allowed to poison water, kill animals, chop down trees and burn houses of god like temples. Those people who surrender against Islam became hostages and their families had to pay to set them free. If their families didn’t have money to pay then they would have to negotiate with their skills for example, the hostage is handy with medicine then he would have to help the hospital to heal the wounded for a certain number of years maybe five or six. Once they finish the five or six years then they are free to go. Then once the hostage is free some of them...
...I. A Prophet and His World
A. Muhammad and His Message
1. The Arabian peninsula
a. Nomadic Bedouin lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia
1. Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels
2. Organized in family and clan groups
3. Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan
b. Post-classical Arabia, active in long-distance trade
c. An important link between India/China and Persia/Byzantium
2. Muhammad's early life
a.Muhammad ibn Abdullah born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.
b. Difficult early life, married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595
c. Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths
3. Muhammad's spiritual transformation
a. At age 40, he experienced visions
1. There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
2. Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
3. The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad
b. Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing
4. The Quran
a. Followers compiled Muhammad's revelations
b. Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam
c. A work of magnificent poetry
B. Muhammad's Migration to Medina
1. Conflict at Mecca
a. His teachings offended other believers, especially the ruling elite of Mecca
b. Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants
c. Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the black rock at Ka'ba
2. The hijra
...IslamSpreads in Asia and Africa
1. Most Arabs are Nomads
• The Arabian Peninsula is mainly a dry, rocky plateau.
• Most of the peoples in Arabia were nomads called Bedouin.
• There was no written law among the tribes.
• Some towns became centers of trade.
2. Arabs Follow Different Religions
• Tribal gods
• Judaism and Christianity
3. Mohammed Established a New Faith
• He received his first revelation from God
• He rejected the many deities of the tribal religions
• He offered a new monotheistic faith
• Last of the prophets of God.
4. The Koran/Qur'an Outlines Muslim Beliefs
• Translations from Arabic are discouraged
• Muslims view Allah as the creator and ruler of heaven and earth, an all-powerful God who is merciful, compassionate and just.
• Muslims view Mohammed as entirely human, not divine.
5. Muslims have religious obligations
• The Five Pillars of Islam are the five religious duties expected of every Muslim.
• The five pillars are mentioned individually throughout the Qur'an and Muhammad listed them together in the Hadith when he was asked to define Islam.
• Fulfillment of the Five Pillars is believed to bring rewards both in this life and in the afterlife.
6. Mohammed flees from Mecca
• Community leader in Medina
• Persecution of Arabian Jews
7. Islam makes converts by force
• Mohammed began to preach a holy war against...
...Biography of Muhammad
“O Children of Israel! Surely, I am the messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Torah and giving the good news of a Messenger who will come after me whose name will be Ahmed” (Qur'an, 61:6). This was the prophetic announcement of the coming of the Prophet Muhammad by Jesus Christ. Muhammad was able achieve this status as a prominent leader through his ability to unify the Arab nation while in political power and also as a religious leader, led the nation of Islam to the knowledge of the one true God. Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam was one of the most prominent leaders in the Islamic nation, not only in a religious aspect but also on a secular one.
The Prophet Muhammad was born on August 29, 570 C.E. at Mecca. His birthplace is now designated as the origin of the Islamic religion. Muhammad spent his childhood in an orphanage after the death of his father (Kikim). On the return from a pilgrimage to Medina, Muhammad’s mother died when he was only six years old. He was then raised by his grandfather Abd al Muttalib. At the age of eight, his grandfather was killed by Muhammad’s own uncle Abu Talib (Kikim). Muhammad had a very turbulent childhood characterized by living in various homes, which made him the person he became in his later years.
During Muhammad’s adolescent years, there were no laws or order in...