CGS 1023F: Introduction to Global Development
Research Paper Proposal and Critical Annotated Bibliography
Topic: The Influence of Freedom of Expression on the Development of a Country As a member of North American society, I have the privilege of being able to express my opinions, beliefs, and religious ideologies to those around me without any repercussions. I am able to think in whatever manner I choose and express my opinions without having any fear of reprisal or persecution. The value of this fundamental human right is often underestimated. However, the right to freedom of expression is arguably the most important fundamental human right because it lays the foundation for the other freedoms outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In order to fully understand the issue at hand, we must first understand exactly what the freedom of expression entails. As outlined by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights created by the United Nations, “everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.” As the Index on Censorship contends, freedom of expression “underpins most other rights and allows them to flourish.” It also plays a vital role in perpetuating the healthy development of society. Many countries struggling to reach the status of “developed” are doing so as a result of the suppression of the beliefs of their people. Governments are censoring the opinions of the masses in order to facilitate the policies and actions that they deem to be “beneficial” for society as a whole. It is understandable, however, that there must be limitations to freedom of speech to allow society to progress in a positive manner and to prevent hateful speech, among other things. My research paper will draw on a range of scholarly sources to argue that the development of a country...
...Freedom of Expression:
All people in the United States are guaranteed this right by the Constitution. Students, however, do not have this right to the same extent as adults. This is because public schools are required to protect all students at the school. The major aspects of this right are speech and dress. Both the right to speech and dress are not absolute in public high schools. According to the American Civil Liberties Union: "You (students) have a right to express your opinions as long as you do so in a way that doesn't 'materially and substantially' dirsupt classes or other school activities. If you hold a protest on the school steps and block the entrance to the building, school officials can stop you. They can probably also stop you from using language they think is 'vulgar or indecent'("Ask Sybil Libert" ACLU 1998). Public schools can also restrict student dress. In 1987 in Harper v. Edgewood Board of Education the court upheld "a dress regulation that required students to 'dress in conformity wit hthe accepted standards of the community'"(Whalen 72). This means that schools can restrict clothing with vulgarities and such, but they cannot restrict religious clothing: "School officials must accommodate
student's religious beliefs by permitting the wearing of religious clothing when such clothing must be worn during the school day as a part of the student's religious practice"(Whalen 78).
Back to Student Rights in Public High...
...FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
‘Freedom of expression’ is an amalgamation of several concepts and rights that includes freedom of speech and choice of what a person is allowed to say, do, hear, feel or express. If we break down the words and analyse them from their core, the simple meaning according to various dictionaries of freedom is ‘the power to determine action without restraint’ or ‘exemption from external control, interference, regulation, etc’ this implies that freedom is liberty without constraints, whereas expression is nothing but the act of putting forth things in words or describing or expressing current emotions through multiple means at different levels, for example spiritual, mental, physical or social.
Since we are discussing ‘Freedom of expression’ in regard to social media and in specifics to social networking websites like Facebook and Wikileaks who assimilate multimillion threads of information and personal data every day, what they do with it and how it can affect various functional groups in the society like the (3 tier spread):
Freedom of speech is not generally seen as an absolute right, but a prudential right. An absolute right is a right that cannot be interfered of overridden, no matter what the public interest in doing so may be. Keeping the...
...Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one's own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode. The freedom of speech is regarded as the first condition of liberty. Accepted that the right to freedom of speech is the essence of free society and it must be safeguarded at all time. Liberty to express opinions and ideas without hindrance, and especially without fear of punishment plays significant role in the development of that particular society and ultimately for that state. The freedom of expression includes all forms of art including cartoon, media-print and electronic etc.. The freedom of speech and expression do not confer an absolute right to express one's thoughts freely. Clause (2) of Article 19 of the Indian Constitution enables the legislature to impose certain restrictions on free speech such as security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, defamation, incitement to an offence, and sovereignty and integrity of India. Freedom of speech and expression are guaranteed not only by the constitution or statutes of various states but also by various international conventions like Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European convention on Human Rights and fundamental...
...Amendment I of the United States Constitution states, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances" ("Bill"). Many Americans believe that online content should be regulated. However, internet censorship violates our rights to freedom ofexpression, association, speech, and press. The U.S. Constitution protects those rights, and as Americans we should make sure to hold on to them at any cost. Government regulation of the Internet would threaten its very existence. In addition, if an attempt to censor the Internet was made, the system would be so problematic and error-prone that it would most likely fail.
On February 1, 1996 the U.S. Congress enacted the Communications Decency Act. This act created criminal penalties for the "knowing" transmission over the Internet of material considered "indecent to minors." These provisions also made it a crime to make any computer network transmission with the intent to "annoy" or "harass" the recipient, and extended a criminal ban on discussing abortion devices and procedures to computer network communications ("Overview"). This was, in essence, a bill designed to censor the Internet. In response, several organizations were assembled to protest the act....
...fought for freedom of expression. Laws have been passed, wars have been fought, and lives have been lost over the right to express an idea publicly. Why should such a seemingly natural right have fomented controversy, even to the point of bloodshed? Why have societies, both past and present, found it necessary to restrict or even to prohibit the exercise of this right? Sometimes freedom of speech has been viewed as a privilege to be enjoyed. At other times it has been considered a problem to be dealt with by governments or religions. Freedom of speech today is understood as a multi-faceted right that includes not only the right to express, or disseminate, information and ideas, but three further distinct aspects: the right to seek information and ideas; the right to receive information and ideas; and the right to impart information and ideas (Schumpeter, 2008, pg. 128). Freedom of expression is so hotly defended in western culture by virtue of its implications in government, democracy and religion.
Past leaders of government, like Stalin and Hitler for example, were dictators in favor of freedom of speech for views they liked only. Noam Chomsky states that: "If you believe in freedom of speech, you believe in freedom of speech for views you don't like” (Maddox, 1996, pg.78). Western culture understands the importance of freedom and...
...Freedom of expression in the Philippines
By: ALDRIN C. BROSAS
“Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely
according to conscience, above all liberties. – JOHN MILTON
ndividual freedom and collective expression in the Philippines, I’d say, is the most exercised and an
unmistakable sign of this country’s democracy. Our individual rights and freedoms, the most basic, the
essential to the complex and critical ones define our identity as Filipinos, and the basic extension of our
humanity. That need to express, to communicate, and to reach out to one another without the fear of judgment
or even criminal prosecution. We have the freest press, the most uncensored and unrestricted provisions on
our freedom to express ourselves, to seek other people’s take on relevant issues and sometimes just so, because
we want to and because we can. And when these are stripped of us, we resist. We react, and to some extent
violently and rebelliously just so we can send that fierce message that as a democratic country, with the
collective freedoms and rights declared in our charter, no one has the right to deny us of those rights and
But sometimes, too much freedom can mean abuse of freedom. And restrictions or not, these freedoms
aren’t absolute. One is still liable to what he says,...
...FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION
Speech is God's gift to mankind. Through speech a human being conveys his thoughts, sentiments and feeling to others. Freedom of speech and expression is thus a natural right, which a human being acquires on birth. It is, therefore, a basic right. "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek and receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers" proclaims the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (1948). The people of India declared in the Preamble of the Constitution, which they gave unto themselves their resolve to secure to all the citizens liberty of thought and expression. This resolve is reflected in Article 19(1)(a) which is one of the Articles found in Part III of the Constitution, which enumerates the Fundamental Rights.
Man as rational being desires to do many things, but in a civil society his desires have to be controlled, regulated and reconciled with the exercise of similar desires by other individuals. The guarantee of each of the above right is, therefore, restricted by the Constitution in the larger interest of the community. The right to freedom of speech and expression is subject to limitations imposed under Article 19(2).
...articles in the constitution of India which are related to the freedom of the press?
Expression through speech is one of the basic guarantees provided by civil society. Freedom of speech enjoys special position as far India is concerned. The importance of freedom of expression and speech can be easily understand by the fact that preamble of constitution itself ensures to all citizens inter alia, liberty of thought,expression, belief, faith and worship. The constitutional significance of the freedom of speech consists in the Preamble of Constitution and is transformed as fundamental and human right in Article 19(1) (a) as “freedom of speech and expression”. Explaining the scope of freedom of speech and expression Supreme Court has said that the words "freedom of speech and expression" must be broadly constructed to include the freedom to circulate one's views by words of mouth or in writing or through audiovisual instrumentalities. Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one's own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode. It thus includes the expression of one's idea through any communicable medium or visible representation, such as gesture, signs, and the like....