Although the United States foreign policy concerning terrorism has changed and results can be seen, it is often agreed upon by politicians and citizens alike that terrorism, especially Islamic terrorism, is still a major threat to the United States. However, after the most successful terrorist attack on American soil was carried out on September 11th, 2001 the United States strayed away from the ideals of our founding fathers and has become much more of an aggressor. I believe that many of the flaws with our current policy to fight and win the war on terror lies with moving away from the United States of America’s traditionally isolationist policies. Our current policy is in stark contrast to President George Washington’s belief which he stated in his farewell address in 1796: “The great rule of conduct for [The United States of America] in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible” (Avalon Project). To defeat terrorism, the United States must move back to ideals that kept us safe and free for so long by reestablishing moral authority and the ideological appeal of the American way rather than by force with our military.
The attacks against innocent civilians on September 11th, 2001 were a clear act of terror and those responsible needed to be brought to justice. I believe that the use of Military force to destroy al Qaeda was just and tracking them to Afghanistan was necessary. Al Qaeda’s Osama Bin Laden orchestrated slaughter of innocent men as well as women, children, the elderly, and the ill was even condemned by fellow jihadist’s including the co-founder of al Qaeda, Dr Fadl. Dr Fadl claims the attacks on September 11th were immoral and goes on to blame Osama Bin Laden for “every drop of blood” spilled in Afghanistan and Iraq (Islamopediaonline.org).
Although it is necessary to bring justice to terrorists and terrorist organizations such as Osama Bin Laden and al...
...Given the growing global threats of terrorism, it is significant that an understanding of the history, nature and mechanism-premises under which terror operates is obtained. This is significant as it would shape the perspective of policy makers when addressing issues of this nature. Terrorism, as it is understood is the action of none-state weak actors, individual or groups, who for some reasons feels suppressed, marginalized and, or denied what they may view as the basic human right. All terrorism has political objectives, even though the perpetrators may use religious relics to appeal to a wider existing audience, and invoke a response through violent act to prove or propagate their point. Yoram Schweitzer in "Suicide Terrorism Development &ump; Characteristics," Mark Sedgwick in "Al-Qaeda and the "Nature of Religious Terrorism," and Dr. James Armstrong, all demonstrates that suicide terror attacks are politically motivated even though the perpetrator may use religious symbolism to justifies their acts.
Observing areas in the world where terrorism is frequent, especially in the Middle East, it can be argued that groups that engaged in terrorists' activities are those that feel suppressed and taken advantage of by a much greater power. Thus, terrorism, particularly suicide terror is prevalent in areas where systems of gross injustice seem to exist....
...including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense), leading to a partial collapse in its western side. The fourth plane was targeted at Washington but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, 2,996 people died in the attacks, including the 227 civilians and 19 hijackers aboard the four planes. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.
The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by U.S. forces in May 2011.
Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York, the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in Pennsylvania.
On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014
2. The Moscow theater hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, was the...
Ryan M. Faught
Arkansas Tech University
Terrorism has been a major topic of research for many years. We’ve learned a lot about terrorism and terrorist groups, but there are still major questions to be answered. What exactly is a terrorist? What causes ordinary people to become terrorists? What attracts people to terrorism? How do terrorist groups in the Middle East recruit and radicalize people from all over the world? In this paper I will discuss these questions and more according to the knowledge I’ve gained from reading these five research papers.
Terrorism is the use, or threat, of action which is violent, damaging or disrupting and is intended to influence the government or intimidate the public and is for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause (De Zulueta, 2006). This or any definition of terrorism is still subjective depending on the “terrorist” and the situation. For instance, most Americans don’t consider the founding fathers as terrorists, but freedom fighters. In the same way, radical Muslims may look at al Qaeda as freedom fighters, although most of the world would view them as terrorists. The deciding factor that separates freedom fighters from terrorists appears to be the intentional murder of innocent people. Terrorist groups, such as al Qaeda are well known for such murders. Rather than merely fighting for freedom, they wish to create a...
...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...
...Global TerrorismTerrorism is a big issue all around the world. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of coercion. Also are violent acts which are intended to create fear, are perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal and deliberately target or disregard the safety of civilians. Terrorists use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombing to pursue a political agenda. Terrorists are not just subject in the United States, it happens all over the world.
Primary reason for terrorist’s actions is to force a change in their nations’ government. If terrorists are not pleased with their government political positions they may consider taking the issue into their own hands. In which can cause harm to many people. Also terrorists may cause harm because the difference in race, nationality, or religion. Major terrorist groups are the Palestinian Liberation Army, Hezbollah, and Al- Qaeda. Al- Qaeda is best known from being under leadership of Osama Bin Laden. Osama Bin Laden was behind the hijacking of the planes that flew into the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 and also the attack on the USS Cole. Many innocent lives were taken on that horrifying day, people lost their mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, and friends. It was an emotional time for everyone and till this day it still causes pain to people’s lives that were affected by it.
The terrorist’s main objective...
...Peace and War
December 11, 2014
The Morality of Terrorism
People tend to use violence in order to resolve disputes; we deal with violence on a daily basis, from local criminals to wars overseas to fighting non-state actors such as terrorists. The way on how we should respond to terrorists and terrorist’s acts often brings up several ethical questions such as: is terrorism ever justified? Or whether or not is it ethical to use torture and preemptive war as a technique to prevent suspected attacks on a state? These are controversial issues that are constantly being debated from all perspectives. In this essay we will explore this questions from different viewpoints in order to get a broader perspective and be able to make educated judgments towards this issue.
Terrorism is often defined as those activities that i) involve violent acts towards human life that violate the law and ii) appear to be: intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; influence policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; and finally affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, murder or kidnapping. From the just war theory point of view, terrorism is always an impermissible tactic, since it involves the killing of innocent civilians. After 9/11 the U.S. launched a military campaign to destroy the perpetuators, at first Osama Bin Laden’s and Al-Qaeda network of terrorists where the main targets, however the war on...
...The Global Network Essay
War on Terrorism and the Human Condition
Since the atrocious September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States of America, and along with the ongoing threat of terrorism, officials have reinforced their efforts to identify and capture suspected terrorists in not only the United States but Canada as well. Some of these antiterrorism measures have alarmed many advocates who uphold their own civil liberties, and who contend that some of these actions are unconstitutional. The constant depth of fear engraved within each and every society arouses serious psychological impacts and the correlating effect of the inability to reach a state of equilibrium due to the heightened sensitivity of fear. This failure to understand and identify the reasons why individuals and/or groups inflict violent acts that are solely intended to create terror within societies on the basis of political and emotional grounds, furthermore instills the concept of concern and dismay. Overall the correlating effects of terrorism are disastrous to the human psyche and the psychological state of society, advancing and encompassing everything that entails the human condition. Throughout the essay individuals will be able to experience in-depth examination of the psychological implications on society, and an understanding of why the terrorists must inflict fear and terror.
...Esposito’s Unholy War Book Review
Islamic expert John Esposito mainly focused on the topic of Islam and terrorism while trying to answer some questions, how to make a modern terrorist, what is the definition of Jihad, how does Islam used in the sense of terrorism, by giving historical experiences, and events as examples to enable better understanding.
John L. Esposito’s Unholy War Book includes 4 chapters; The Making of a Modern Terrorist, Jihad and the Struggle for Islam, The Armies of God, Where Do We Go from Here? The history of Islam, Western views of Islam, misunderstandings of Islam in the West, the increase of militant Islam, the alternative applications of Islam, and finally the future of Islam are the main topics that Esposito’s book covered.
In the chapter “The Making of a Modern Terrorist” Esposito mainly focused on Osama Bin Laden’s life, how he became a preeminent ideologue of Jihad International from an educated and shy person. Did his character and/or surroundings affected his terrorist attempts and September 11, 2001 tragedy, what are the reasons of this terrorist attacks? As Islamic expert, Esposito gave importance to history of the Islamic extremism because he knows that a leaders/terrorists don’t appear over night. It is a product of long history of both religious and political ideas because both past and present are joint in the Muslim world. Past is key for terrorist’s...