The right to education has been universally recognised since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 (though referred to by the ILO as early as the 1920s) and has since been enshrined in various international conventions, national constitutions and development plans. However, while the vast majority of countries have signed up to, and ratified, international conventions (such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) far fewer have integrated these rights into their national constitutions or provided the legislative and administrative frameworks to ensure that these rights are realised in practice. In some cases the right exists along with the assumption that the user should pay for this right, undermining the very concept of a right. In others, the right exists in theory but there is no capacity to implement this right in practice. Inevitably, a lack of government support for the right to education hits the poorest hardest. Today, the right to education is still denied to millions around the world.
The right to education is a fundamental human right. Every individual, irrespective of race, gender, nationality, ethnic or social origin, religion or political preference, age or disability, is entitled to a free elementary education. This right is explicitly stated in the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted in 1948 CONTENT AND THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION.
Legal standards on the right to education encompass two broad components: enhancement of access of all to education on the basis of equality and nondiscrimination, and freedom to choose the kind (public/private institutions) and content (religious and moral) of education. Both aspects represent the spirit and cardinal essence of the right to education. The demanding nature of the obligations involved in ensuring the right to education is reflected in the number and variety of reservations, declarations and...
...The Right to Education – A Global Perspective
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”
This saying of Nelson Mandela reveals a lot about the importance of education as a mean of achieving the changes we want to see in the world. Realizing the importance of education is highly significant for the nation and the world as a whole; however, giving equaleducation opportunities to people within specific countries and around the world remains a challenge for the global society. In order to overcome, or at least ease, such challenges, the right to education has been a subject of matter of international law, as well as state constitutions. While a great number of countries have been signatories and ratifiers of international conventions that protect the right to education, many countries have failed to provide the essential capacities to assure this right for various reasons. The failure to protect this right, no matter the reasons, has been quite harsh for the most vulnerable groups of different societies; hence, leaving millions of people worldwide without the capacity to contribute to a better world. As such, this paper will firstly focus on the protection of this right by international law, and it will later focus on the protection of...
...Table of Contents
* INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………… 6
* RIGHT TO EDUCATION: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ………………………7-12
* PRE-INDEPENDENCE ERA
* SUPREME COURT ON THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION
* APPROACH OF VARIOUS COMMISSIONS
* INTERNATIONAL TREATY OBLIGATIONS
* THE 86TH AMENDMENT ACT
* THE RIGHT OF CHILDERNS TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009 ………………………………………………………………………..12-15
* HIGHLIGHTS OF THE ACT
* CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………….15-16
* BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………….17-18
Education is the most effective tool and medium for human development. Right to education has been judicially construed to fall within the guarantee of right to life in Article 21 and now it is being expressly included in Part III of the Constitution as a fundamental right. The right to education of every child is clearly a human right and its proper direction a human right issue.
Children’s right to education has close link to their right to development. India being a party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, is committed to support development of children so as to promote their right to life under Article 21...
...RIGHT TO EDUCATION
A new school year is yet to launch! Opening of classes will start on June 3. Everyone is busy enrolling, buying of school supplies and parents are on left to right moving its energy sourcing out money to send their children in school. This really proves that we Filipinos value education amidst against all odds. Thus, despite of chaos and crisis we don’t just take education as privilege of the few especially of those who belong to the higher socio-economic status in the society but we really exercise our right to education.
It is said that education is an essential treasure that, once acquired by a person, cannot be stolen or taken away from him even through violence, but can be shared by other people. Objectively, right means in Ethics what is just, reasonable, equitable, what ought to be, what is justifiable, something that is owed or due to others. It is the object of justice. Subjectively, right means a moral power or well-founded claim to do, hold or receive something from others.
Right to education is one of the human natural rights which every person should possess from childhood to old age. Human natural rights are fundamental privileges immediately derive from the rational nature of man and the natural moral law and guaranteed to all men for the...
...Education is a right or privilege
in life we need to learn more new things, why? Because it will help us to succeed
What is right to education?
Education is the most important thing in man life, it makes sense, it effect on mind, it change the character. The right to education is an inherent right. Right to education is the right which deals with the right to know and right to change their life and life style. The various types of right to education are primary education, secondary education, vocational education and higher education. Every child has the right to education of primary education. “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. …”. Education shall be free for development of human personality. The human rights are developing of understanding, gender quality and make a friendship among all...
...The right to education is a universal entitlement to education, recognized in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a human right that includes the right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondaryeducation, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education. The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to rule outdiscrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve quality of education.
International legal basis
The right to education is a law in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The right to education has been...
...A Women’s Rights to Equality in Canada
Every woman has the right to moral, legal and political choice. As we look to the past, women fought for the right to be treated the same as men and fundamentally to have the same rights as men. Prior to the turn of the century, women had little to no rights. World War I and II gave way to change, allowing women to work and eventually allowing them to vote. The feminist movement has made drastic progress since the war. Today women are seen as equal and have the right not only to vote, but to be educated. In 1977 the Canadian Human Rights Act ensured that women could no longer be discriminated based on their sex, race, religion or sexuality. The act specified that there must be “equal pay for work of equal value”. It is important to educate the youth on the historical struggles that women have faced. The women’s rights movement improved the lives of women in Canada and although women have made significant progress, there are still gender inequality issues that must be acknowledged and addressed.
During the 1800’s a woman would be considered the property of her fathers and eventually her husbands. A woman did not have property rights except for land that she might inherit. It was expected that once she married, all ownership of land and money would go to her husband. Education was...
History of Special Education Law
Michelle L. Johnson
Grand Canyon University: SPE- 355
June 15, 2014
History of Special Education Law
From the beginning of time until the end of time, there will always be students who require special education services. Throughout the 20th century, there have been many laws written to try and protect and help students with disabilities. Two in particular are theEducation for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 1990). Special education classes were available in the 1950’s, but the outcome for the students was not what parents expected. The students in these classes could not preform academically, and were considered unteachable. They eventually were sent to special schools that focused on teaching them manual skills. The programs may have been available, but clearly it was discrimination towards those students with disabilities. This is why the laws written for the handicapped are so important, especially in the school system. The chart above compares two articles covering individuals with disabilities; one is an overview of disabilities, covering the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, also known as Public Law 94-142, and the other is an overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of...
...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...