One significant person in the history of Islam is Rabi'a al-Adawiyya. Rabi’a was a woman born in 717 CE in Basra (modern day Iraq). According to legend, Rabi’a was orphaned when she young and sold into slavery. She was then freed when her master found her praying and shrouded in divine light. Rabi’a lived all her life in Basra as an ascetic, fasting all day and praying all night. She provided spiritual guidance and advice to Islamic people, men and women alike, and is known as one of the most famous Islam mystics, who had a significant contribution on its development.
Rabi’a al-Adawiyya was living during a time of great turbulence after Prophet Muhammad’s death. There was an increasing focus on accumulating wealth, and move away from the core of Shari’a law. However, there were some Muslims who rejected this materialism and corruption; Rabi’a was one of these people. In her life as ascetic, Rabi'a had only four possessions: a reed mat, a screen, a pottery jug and a bed of felt that doubled as a prayer rug. This life of poverty inspired many others to reject the materialistic lifestyle of the time. Rabi'a gathered these people and encouraged them to a life of prayer and devotion, towards the way of mahabbah (Divine Love) and uns (intimacy with Allah. In addition to her poverty, Rabi'a possessed a spirituality that was based on a binding trust and love of Allah. She believed that spirituality was to be integrated into daily life, not merely stated. She loved Allah for his sake, a love not “from fear of hell” or “hope of Paradise” as she wrote in one of her many poems. This idea had a profound effect on the emergence of mystical Islam, and she contributed to the Sufi movement through this concept and her life of poverty as she modeled the qualities of self sacrifice, devotion, kindness and integrity through her writings and teachings.
...Shia Sect in Islam: History and Beliefs
Written By: Alan Mooney #23
Spring Semester 2014
Dr. Majed Khader
Table of Contents
Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahimic religion that came to fruition by the revealing of the The Word of God, (known in Islam as the Qur’an), through the archangel Gabriel to the prophet Muhammad. Muhammad in Islam is known to be the last Prophet of God and the Qur’an the “complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times beforehand in the world to prophets such as: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.” They also believe that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted or altered over time (Michael A. Cook).
The Shia represents the second largest denomination of Islam and adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i individually. Shi'a is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali, whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the Caliphate. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. Shia Muslims...
...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...
... Also, by the time you read this
it’ll probably be incomplete still, but I’ll try to get in as much as I can while y’all are still in
Rise of Islam Vocab:
A word used to describe the collective community of those who believe/practice in
the Islamic faith. Important because _____________.
The successor of the prophet Muhammad; important because caused the religion
to split into two factions based on who they believed should become the next Caliph (Sunni
A faction of Islam that believed the next Caliph should be the most qualified
Muslim to take the position; larger of the two factions. Important because since Islam is
divided into 2 groups with different beliefs, instead of 1 empire, there are many empires
with different ways of life, innovations, ways of ruling, and interpretations.
A faction of Islam that believed the next Caliph should only be a direct descendant
of the prophet Muhammad himself. Important because since Islam is divided into 2 groups
with different beliefs, instead of 1 empire, there are many empires with different ways of
life, innovations, ways of ruling, and interpretations.
faction of Islam that broke away from the Shi’ites. Most radical believed if
...Islam is the second most practiced religion in the world with 1.5 billion followers worldwide. With six million people practicing Islam in America, it is one of the fastest growing religions in this country. However, since the September 11th terrorist attacks of 2001 the Islamic religion has been under much scrutiny publically in America. Many people who practice this religion have been subjected to discrimination as well as verbal and physical attacks by fellow Americans. However a high level of scrutiny is not a foreign concept to Muslims in America as they have struggled for acceptance in this country for centuries acquiring many highs as well as lows. In this paper I will analyze the image of Muslims in America’s history and how it affected their religious practices as well as their identity within their own communities. I will also be discussing the political and social effects Islam carries today particularly after the events of 9/11.
Some scholars believe an Islamic presence was in America over 200 years before Columbus set sail in 1492 to discover the new land (Smith, 1999, p.50). Muslim explorers sailed from Spain and Northwest Africa and had business and social transactions with early Native Americans inhabitants. It is also argued that Columbus even had Muslim members of his crew when he set sail back in the late 1400s although this theory is only hypothetical without proper documentation to...
Out of the many interesting religions, Islam has uniqueness to it. The name, Islam stems from the word “Salam” that means peace. The word “Muslim” which means a follower of Islam refers to a person who submits him or herself to the will of God. Muhammad founded Islam in the year 622CE. This particular religion started when the angel Jibreel supposedly read the first revelation to Muhammad. The Muslims believe in the “one true God” which they call Allah.
Islam is totally based on the word of Allah, and Muslims believe that Islam was revealed to the prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was born in 570 in Mecca, a great trading city on the Arabian Peninsula. He became a successful merchant and he was famous for his honesty, but found himself unfulfilled and concerned that his society lacked a religious ethic. In search of spiritual fulfillment, he started to spend long hours in a cave on nearby Mount Hira (Known as Gare-Hira). It was in this cave, Muslims believe, that he received initial messages from Allah through the Angel Gabriel. Messages received by Muhammad were recorded and written by scribes and compiled into the Holy Quran. Muhammad received revelations from Allah for twenty-two years. All Muslims believe that there have been many prophets, including Jesus, and that Muhammad was the last prophet.
When Muhammad started preaching and gaining followers, the rulers of...
During the eleventh Islamic year, the six individuals who had come from Madina and converted to Islam in a place called Aqaba, promised our Holy Prophet (PBUH) that they would return the following year and meet at the same place.
When it was time for the next hajj, which came a year after their first encounter with our Holy Prophet (PBUH), the six individuals set off in a caravan of twelve people towards Mecca. One night they met with our Holy Prophet (PBUH) in secret in the small and narrow valley named Aqaba. At the end of this meeting, they pledged their allegiance to Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) on the following conditions:
a) To not associate any partners with Allah,
b) To not steal,
c) To not commit adultery,
d) To not kill their children,
e) To not slander anyone,
f) To not oppose an auspicious cause.
Furthermore, these Muslims made the following agreement with our Holy Prophet (PBUH):
“Obedience and submission come first and foremost during times of distress, pressure, prosperity, and happiness. We are under your command. We will not disobey you in any way.” (3)
The above-mentioned issues that those who were present in the first Aqaba Pledge promised not to do are the things that form a peaceful community life. There would definitely be no law and order in a community where those ugly deeds were prevalent.
Islam, which came to make humanity attain peace and bliss and to base the...
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Today one of the most cherished ideologies of America is the fact that everyone is and should be created equal. With this cherished ideology bringing a sense of pride and diversity to America we must keep in mind that this cherished ideology did not always exist. Since 1865 various individuals and groups have not been able to receive and express their rights to full equal status in the United States. These different individuals and groups have seemingly fought for their rights in equality and have become pioneers in the fight for evolution for equality.
In 1865 African Americans in the United States under the 13th amendment were freed from the terrible burden of slavery. Through the 14th amendment they were given the right to citizenship and the right to equal protection. The 15th amendment gave them the right to vote regardless of their skin color race or any other type of servitude. These amendments were meant to be enforced and make a serious change in the everyday life of the average American.
With these amendments passing in 1865 they were meant to make a serious change towards the evolution of equality. These changes did not seem to happen right away and African Americans were still not being treated with equality. The average African American at this time were being denied there newly given rights every day making life extremely hard to stay...