Operation Enduring Freedom 2001
Afghanistan is a landlocked country that is located approximately in the center of Asia. It is located within Central Asia, and South Asia, and the Middle East. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the south and west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast. The geography of Afghanistan is considered to be extremely important strategically. Afghanistan being a crossroads between the East and the West, and has been an ancient focal point of trade and migration and with the passage of time the geostrategic location of Afghanistan has made it even more important. It has an important geostrategical location, connecting South and Central Asia and Middle East. Even though it does not have vast treasures of oil and mineral but its close proximity to middle East and Central Asian oil rich states makes it a prime state. Afghanistan has been bearing the brunt of not only the intrastate tribal and civil wars but also suffering from foreign interventions starting from 1979 Soviet invasion and recent US invasion of 2001 carried out with the aim of trampling the Taliban regime and to exterminate Osama Bin Laden and his cell based organization Al-Qaeda.
In order to analyse the military geography of Afghanistan and impact Afghanistan’s geography had on the progress of Operation Enduring Freedom, a closer analysis of Afghanistan’s climate, geography, terrain structure, environment and human interaction, topography, weather challenges, environmental discrepancies should be looked at in detail.
Afghanistan is a landlocked nation in south-central Asia. Strategically located at the crossroads of major north south and east-west trade routes. Afghanistan is almost the size of Texas. Afghanistan is bordering Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north; China to the east; On the eastern and southern border of Afghanistan lies Pakistan and Iran to the west. It has total area of 250,001 sq mi (647,500 sq km).
Mountains dominate the landscape, forming a terrigenous skeleton, traversing the center of the country, running generally in a northeast-southwest direction. More than 49 percent of the total land area lies above 2,000 meters. Although geographers differ on the division of these mountains into systems, they agree that the Hindukush system, the most important, is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakorum Mountains, and the Himalayas.
Greatest part of Afghanistan is dominated by mountainous range. Mostly areas lie at the highest elevation point. The eastern mountainous peeks elevates up to 7000 meters. The Pamir mountains, which Afghans refer to as the 'Roof of the World," extend into Tajikistan, China and Kashmir. The Hindukush Mountain stretches west word to the middle near Kabul. The average altitude of Hindukush is 4500 meters. Transecting the mountains are the high passes, proves to be strategically important network for caravans, including Kotal-e-Salang having the height of 3878 meters, linking Kabul to Northern Afghanistan. A tunnel was constructed in 1964 to reduce the distance between Kabul and Northern Afghanistan. The Salang tunnel constructed with the help of Soviet assistance. This tunnel is at 3363 meters. Before the Salang road was constructed, the most famous passes in the Western historical perceptions of Afghanistan were those leading to the Indian subcontinent. They include the Khyber Pass (,1027 meters), in Pakistan, and the Kotal-e Lataband (2,499 meters) east of Kabul, which was superseded with the construction of road within the Kabul river gorge, the Tang-e-Gharu. This helped in reducing the distance between travel time between Kabul and Pakistan. These roads turned out to be very significant strategically during recent military conflicts and were used for the movement of...
...Geography exists throughout our everyday lives, where we live, where we work, what we eat, and what we believe in. It plays an essential role in understanding why, where, or how something exists. For example, an introduction to geography gives the knowledge of understanding how certain landforms were formed, or why certain bodies of water exist. This further leads to how certain weather patterns form, thus creating different types of biomes and substantial agricultural productions. Geographers ask the basic questions that answer much more complex questions. This leads to the “My Country Profile Assignment,” for which I have been assigned the country of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s radically different seasons, political geography, and its involvement in recent world affairs makes it a great country to geographically analyze. I will spend the next segments of this country profile report describing the basic concepts of Afghanistan’s geography.
Plate Tectonics and Diastrophism
Plate Tectonics is describes as a large-scale change, especially if you consider the landscape of the earth during its Pangaea phase. The shifting of plates over millions of years has sculpted the geography of the earth, as we know it to be today. Plates are forever (slowly) moving and grinding however and it is important to understand how they will affect the future. The vast majority of...
...parahon called tunbun. They often wear a short vest or jacket over their shirt as well. The shoes recommended to wear can range from a variety of shoes, sneakers, boots, sandals, or even dress shoes. Afghan men also were a piece called a pato. A pato is a shawl like blanket
used for a number of purposes such as a cover for sleeping, a prayer rug, or a cover for their laps and feet while they are sitting down on the ground.
Men that live in Afghanistan also wear something on their head like the women but instead of a burqa the wear a cap or a turban. They wear these pieces daily. The caps that the men wear come in many different colors and patterns to set them apart in the many ethnic groups. Usually the young boys only wear caps while the older men wear caps or turbans. The cap that the men wear usually identifies their social class while there clothing does not. Men and women alike dress the way they do so that they can maintain a level of spirituality and modesty.
Another interesting piece about Afghanistan is the jewelry aspect of their everyday dress. Typically women are the only ones in the culture that really wear jewelry. They do not wear jewelry as a vanity statement piece they wear it to protect them. Afghan women usually wear jewelry based on what it means and what metal it is made out of. Sterling silver is one of the most popular metals to have because it means something very important. Sterling silver...
...The Great Storm of 1987
The British Isles weather patterns
Air masses and the British weather.
The five major air masses which affect the British Isles (Arctic maritime, Polar continental, Tropical continental, Tropical maritime and Polar maritime) are which contribute to the weather in the UK. When the air masses mover from their source region they change and are modified from the surface over which they travel, this alters there temperature, humidity and stability. For example, tropical air moving northward is cooled and becomes more stable, while polar air moving south become warmer and increasingly unstable. Each air mass brings its own characteristic weather conditions to the British Isles.
When two air masses meet, they do not mix readily, due to differences in temperature and density. The point at which they meet is called a front. There are two different fronts: warm and cold front. Warm fronts are found where warm air is advancing and is forced to override cold air. A cold front occurs when advancing cold air undercuts a body of warm air. The warm air is forced to raise, cool and condense producing rain clouds. The clouds are often followed by precipitation. This is a weather system known as a depression.
A depression is what occurred over the south west of England during October 1987. Depression is an area of low pressure. It causes unsettled weather, most famously clouds and precipitation. This is due to the centre of the...
...tried to land at The Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the intention
of overthrowing the Castro government. It was a ﬁasco and made the Soviet Union and
Castro even closer.
In 1962, Russia built-up bases in Cuba. The US had bases in Turkey, so they felt
vindicated. They had medium range missiles and threatened the lives of millions of
Americans. Added to this, 20 Russian ships were headed towards Cuba. We were now
at the brink of a nuclear war. Kennedy offered a way out and Khrushchev accepted.
This is one of the many conﬂicts of the Cold War, and the one that could have ended it
The “Rules of The Cold War” were to be neither side was to ﬁght the other. We and
they used “client states” as in the Vietnam and Korean wars. As for Afghanistan war, we
just supplied the rebels and this war would bring down the Berlin Wall and end the cold
war. It wore the Soviet out. And showed the world that they could now stand-up against
...approaches the conflict.
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...main religion in Afghanistan which is practiced by about 90% of the population. Their main tradition is the teaching of their religion. Muslims pray 5- times a day and that’s what they do through their daily lives. They religion of Islam has 5-Pillars: Pray, fast, Give Charity to those in need, go to Hajj (Which is in Saudi Arabia). Muslims should at least go there once in their life and the last one is to give Zakat which is giving 5-10% of the expensive things you own like jewellery, car. The people in Afghanistan are separated in to two main sects, the Shi-it and the Sunni. They live in different regions and have their own ways of practicing their religion.( Milivojevic,2010,p 30)
Afghanistan has dry rugged Regions and it stretches about 625,230 km^2, which is over two and a half the size of UK. Afghanistan has a low annual rainfall, and along the borders there is a 1100 km river called Amu-Darya. Along the northern Plains is Afghanistan’s most fertile Agricultural soil, and along the southern plains are mostly deserted. Due to the low annual rainfall, the people in Afghanistan used snow melted on mountains to grow their crops.
Afghanistan is rich in Mineral resources and soviets discovered natural gas in 1960, and they began expanding it and was exported around the world. Geologists believed that Afghanistan consists of large variety of: iron, copper, gold, and...
a. War on Terror - Afghanistan
a. War in Afghanistan – Lunch with the Taliban
a. The Economist.
a. This article talks about the state of affairs in Afghanistan. The Taliban is still very much around even though they are not in control of the government. The government is led by President Hamid Karzai, who is said to be very corrupt. There are also the forces of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and the US forces led by Commanding General David Petraeus. The Taliban is on one side, and on the other side are the government and the other forces. Each side seems to claim they have made headway and the other side is being dismissed as irrelevant. The Taliban is trying to spread the teachings of strict Islamic law and will not accept any government that is seen as led by foreigners. President Karzai is trying to walk a thin line between extremism and moderation. But he is riddled with accusations of corruption. The outside forces of the US and NATO are trying to bring the various tribes, the government, and Taliban leaders to the table, to negotiate terms for a peaceful democratic government. When the Taliban does not like what is happening in Afghanistan, they resort to arbitrarily imposing strict Islamic law in their areas of operation. They are extremely well-trained, have a huge bank of young recruits, with many more...
The Buzkashi Tooi
The book “Buzkashi” Game in Power in Afghanistan is written by G. Whitney Azoy is introducing the Buzkashi game in Afghanistan in details, but in the third chapter of this book which is about the the Buzkashi Tooi, he describes that how this game is held in the local places. First he explains the word Tooi, rite of passage, and marriage. Then he argues that the buzkashi tooi is a Khan’s activities. According to him, Khans are those who have some kind of influence on the people of the village. He writes that the Buzkashi game has three major sections, preparation, festivities, and after math. As he writes Preparation to the Buzkashi Tooi is one of the problematic parts of the Buzkashi Tooi. It concern with material resources, such as the procurement of goods necessary, the cooking of foods, and readying the guest houses. Tooi-wala, who is the festival responsible, involves some consideration, such as himself, his closest associates, his relatives, and the hosts. These responsible people are mostly the Khans. Because the Khans are related to more people, so they need to spend more money to have a successful Tooi. They need to invite more people from far distance places. These festivals mostly occur in the Khan’s son’s marriage, because the Khan is the leader a village so hundreds of people are invited. In such festivals, Buzkashi happens, which raise the name of the Tooi-Wala. While festivities begin with...