In the second half of the nineteenth century, there were many factors that changed the American city. As urbanization and industrialization developed simultaneously, cities were provided with supply of labor for factories and improved transportation. There was an obvious shift in population from rural to urban and there was an increase in immigration. Because of the industrialization, cities in the late 19th century went through significant changes not only in their size but also in their architectural designs such as the skyscrapers with their newly invented designs.
A number of improvements in urban transportation made the growth of cities possible. Cities gave way to streetcar cities because people had little choice but to live in walking distances. By the 1890s, both horse-drawn cars and cable cars were being replaced by electric trolleys, elevated railroads and subways, which could transport people to urban residence. These improvements in urban transportation made it possible for more people to immigrate into the cities making it even bigger. Large factories also had an effect because large factories soon made up a urban city along with skyscrapers.
As cities expanded outward, they also soared upward, since increasing land values in the central business district dictated the construction. Skyscrapers had replaced church spires as the dominant feature of American urban skylines and the buildings mostly had electric lights for commercial purposes. In addition, when landlords divided up inner-city housing into small, windowless rooms, the tenement apartments could cram over 4,000 people into one city block. The tenements allowed for more immigrants to move in.
The second half of the nineteenth century was times where factors changed the American city from rural to more of an urban. As immigrations increased, industries were growing with improvements in transportation of railroads and streetcars and these factors all contributed to the changes in the...
...During the late-nineteenthcentury, Americancities grew drastically and rapidly. The introduction of technologies like the elevator and steel frame of skyscrapers blended together in a perfect recipe for expansion. Major cities beginning to develop and flourish during this time, including Chicago, New York City, and Boston, not only influenced the development of American society, but were also influenced by several factors of American life. The key areas of immigration, transportation, and popular culture influenced, changed, and developed Americancities between 1865 and 1900.
A number of “new immigrants” arrived in America post-Civil War through the end of the nineteenthcentury and ultimately helped shape Americancities. The vast majority of these 16.2 million immigrants came mostly from southern and eastern Europe, from nations like Italy, Greece, Croatia, Slovakia, Poland, Russia, and additionally, China. Most immigrants were impoverished and fleeing totalitarian governments, and therefore did not bring with them much wealth. Lack of wealth pushed most immigrants into the poorer neighborhoods of large cities like New York. This led immigrants to be forced to live in confined space trying often unsuccessfully to live comfortably,...
...American Imperialism In The
Professor Kevin Owens
February 27, 2010
Imperialism is a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Imperialism is the control of one or a number of countries by a dominant nation. The control may be political, economic or both. It indicates a degree of independence in the subordinate nation. This discussion will cover why the policy was adopted, how it was rationalized, some of the major events of this time, and what countries did the United States become involved with. Imperialism was promoted by monopolizing the external trade of the subordinate nation. The imperial power takes raw materials from the colony and sells its finished goods in return, discouraging the development of any manufacturing company that may compete with its own. The Anti-Imperialist League did not agree with the way the United States controlled the other nations.
The American Anti-Imperialist League was founded in 1899, after the United States occupied Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Island. The Anti Imperialist League was founded “in order to campaign against the annexation of the Philippines.” (Carl Schurz 1913) There were many policies that the League was trying to put in place. The league protested and stated that, “the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends towards militarism.” (Carl...
...The secondhalf of the nineteenthcentury was the height of the American Industrial Revolution. The United States was looking to become one of the largest industrial powers in the world. This would eventually transform the lives of millions of working Americans, as many of the American industrial workers' lives were impacted by technological advancements and immigration in the time-period between 1865 and 1900.
The atmosphere and working conditions that these industrial workers worked in were constantly changing and were profoundly affected by technological advances. Technological advancements, like the train, linked states together far and wide. Managers could now ship across the nation with ease; this opportunity called for a more efficient production rate, as an assembly line would be put into place in many factories. As the growing demand for products increased, so did the number of workers. The only thing that was not increasing however was wages. It wasn't uncommon for children to work in factories, though it was men who mainly compromised the field of blue-collar labor. With the invention of typewriters and telephone switchboards, millions of stenographers and "hello girls" discovered economic opportunity. The machines that were introduced to factories made work for the American industrial worker much easier, albeit tedious and tiring. Their lives...
January 17, 2011
American Imperialism in the NineteenthCentury was a very important era in our country. Imperialism is the acquisition of control over the government and the economy of another nation; usually by conquest. The United States became an imperialistic world power in the late nineteenthcentury by gaining control over the Hawaiian Island and after the SpanishAmerican War (1898), Guam, the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico. (Davidson, Delay, Heyrman, Lytle & Stoff, 2008) This policy was adopted to keep up with the world powers like Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, and Russia. Compared to the European-style imperialism the possession by conquest American imperialism was said to be more pure because it was done without conquest; it was completed with exportation of products, ideas, and influence. As countries became dependant on industrialism they needed the foreign trade to bring in the capital. Companies within the country could purchase products but that only moved the capital from producer to purchaser within our own economy. Securing the interests of trade was not an easy task as there were five other world empires trying to complete the same goal. Americans preferred the more indirect approach to imperialism, free enterprise. It was a win-win approach for America, everyone stood to gain by the...
...Describe how the second industrial revolution of the late nineteenthcentury differed from the first industrial revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenthcentury.
This paper intends to compare the first industrial revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries and the second industrial revolution of the mid-18th and 19th centuries. It will highlight the transformation from the first revolution to the second revolution, focusing on the presence of giant firms and role of science and technology in economic activities. Additionally, it will introduce the two worldly philosophers Karl Marx and Adam Smith on these issues.
The industrial revolution of 17th and 18th centuries saw the transformation of Britain from a Neolithic nation into an industrious nation. However, this spread quickly throughout the world, introducing the modernisation of agriculture, revolution in power and manufacturing of textile.
This revolution brought an enormous wave of success in both economic and technical advancement. The first revolution largely focused on the production of new textiles machinery, improved methods of coal production, iron manufacturing and agricultural techniques. However, by the second industrial revolution, a clustering of industrial inventions centering on steel, railroad and agricultural machinery, thus, a...
...Throughout history there have been many reform movements that have changed the country which they took place in. During the first half of the nineteenthcentury the reform movements in America brought lasting change by causing the citizens of America to rethink their views on many important issues brought about by the economic and social disruptions of the market revolutions. First of all, the Temperance Movement helped to make a lasting change on the dangerous amounts of alcohol that the average citizen consumed. Secondly, the Woman's Rights Movement gave women many rights which they had not previously had. Finally the Abolitionist Movement caused a division in the country that led to armed conflict. Through all of these reform movements the United States have been forever changed.
The excessive consumption of alcohol was becoming a national problem in the United States. The American Society for the promotion of temperance was founded in 1826 to try to combat this problem. They had their hands full. In 1830's the consumption of alcohol was 7 gallons per capita. Also by the 1830's The American Society for the promotion of temperance had 200,000 members. The large amount of alcohol consumption by American citizens led to many problems both with the consumer's social and family interaction and with their work. Many families were hurt economically because of the...
...The secondhalf of the 19th century introduced a new style of enterprise to America, Big Business. The 19th century values of work and of being an independent business man clashed with the modern 20th century values of extreme expansion with large work forces and of earning the most money possible. The rise of the robber barons and the captains of industry helped the economy by pushing America into first place in the production of several products and by creating many new jobs. Although these new opportunities appealed to the masses, not everyone was satisfied by his new occupation. The creation of labor unions was a reaction to the numerous complaints about working conditions, wages, and work hours. The first unions protested with peace and reason. Once they realized that nothing could be accomplished through negotiation, drastic measures were taken and violence was the answer to their problems. The clashes between management and workforce in the Great Railroad Strike, Homestead Strike, and Pullman Strike emphasize these crises that were resolved through force and destruction.
Economic depression in 1873 was the main factor in setting off the 10% wage cuts and shortening of work days in the railroad business. In 1877, Laborers took action by seizing control of the rails by sequestering the rail switches and by blockading freight trains, only letting passenger trains through....
...These early immigrants survived the harsh times and difficult American climate as well as the wilderness on primitive basic instincts. The early settlements were often ravaged by starvation and disease.
During the colonial era, doctors' education was informal. Most were literate, but some who were raised outside of New England were not. A man who wanted to practice medicine did not need any type of certification. Most did have a period of apprenticeship with an established physician, but even this was not a requirement. Up until the late 19th century, very few doctors had a college education.
Medical facilities were unofficial. Most patients were treated in their homes. However, even the smallest towns had poorhouses, where needy people could live and receive limited medical care.
The few hospitals that opened in North America during the colonial period were opened in places like Quebec and New Orleans. Public health was unknown in North America at this time. Towns and cities did not have boards of health except during times of epidemics. Because most places did not have public water or sewer systems, most Americans got their water from pumps and used outhouses until well into the 19th century. There was no trash collection so the streets became a breeding ground for all types of disease.
There were a few attempts to influence public health. For example, when smallpox vaccinations were developed in...