East meets West: Chinese Duty-based Confucianism meets opt-out system in HIV testing and Biobank Yonghui Ma
This chapter is comprised of two parts: in contrast In contrast to the previous chapterto the previous chapter, the first partthis chapter concerns with the applicability of and compatibility between Western ideas or practices and Chinese context, in particular, a popular right-based opt-out approach to HIV testing encounter with duty-based Confucian tradition. Note it should not be generalised as human rights, perceived as by and large a Western norm, at odds with Chinese culture and categorically not applicable in any domains of activities in China. Rather, it is perhaps the sensitivity of HIV/AIDS make the conflict between opt-out system in HIV testing and duty-based familism tradition a particular example. To provide a comprehensive understanding of duty-based familism tradition, the second part of this chapter will continue to discuss its application in another booming subject, Biobank, which presents to be a better alternative to rights-based approach. I hope this chapter demonstrates the complex of cultural difference and the importance of being attentive to the nature of context when we are conducting cross-cultural bioethics.
‘Too little, too late’ is the characteristic of the situation of HIV testing in many societies. It is widely recognised, by policy makers, health practioners, and human rights advocates alike, that the low uptake of HIV testing and counselling is a major challenge in the response to the epidemic that needs to be urgently addressed. At the end of 2007, in China, approximately 75% of people infected with HIV remain undiagnosed while in the United States it is 25%. It has been also observed that many people who present symptoms of HIV infection, and others who would otherwise benefit from knowing their HIV status through contact with health facilities are often not offered an HIV test. Many people are indentified with HIV only when they have progressed to AIDS, among these late testers some have been infected for 10 years or longer, unknowingly exposing their partners to HIV. Moreover, healthcare cost related to late stage of HIV infection especially accompanied by opportunistic complications, would increase massively.
Indentifying the “hidden epidemic” of those HIV infected but undiagnosed people represent the biggest challenge for HIV/AIDS control in many societies. More timely diagnosis of HIV can improve treatment and care of those infected with HIV, prolong survival, and reduce the spread of HIV. Therefore, sScaling up the access to HIV testing is an urgent task faced by many countries. Currently, the dominant model of HIV testing is the Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VCT)..Although the existing VCT programme has showed remarkable success worldwide, some inherent barriers associated with VCT uptake remains, including clients have to initiate testing themselves, lengthy pre and post testing counseling, implementation difficulties and patient concerns about confidentiality. Various possible strategies for expanding HIV test have been proposed, such as ‘know your HIV status’ campaigns, mobile VCT services, community and home based HIV testing. The most innovation and radical one is perhaps the ‘provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling’ (PITC), also referred to as ‘opt-out’ HIV testing or ‘routine offer of HIV testing’, proposed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2007. and This approach is raised under a wider political commitment made by governments to provide “Universal Access” to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services to all those in need by 2010.
What is PITC (provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling) and opt-out system?
According to the Guidance on PITC in Health Facilities, an “opt-out” approach is strongly recommended along with...
...in china after 1840’s. Most Christians are Mainland but come together to worship in south China. Taoism originated just after Buddhism and has influenced Chinas literature as well as their medicine. There are about 300 Taoist Temples spread across china. Taoists live in Hong Kong, Macau and the Mainland too. Along with these three major religions Confucianism is also highly practiced in China. Confucianism isn’t necessarily a religion but a way of living or ethical code. This shaped Chinas culture greatly by shaped the Chinese thinking and teaching patterns. Another traditional Chinese belief is to worship the souls of their
Throughout China’s history, the Chinese government has dictated the media. While in the Chinese constitution, citizens are allowed freedom of speech and press, authorities use the vague media regulations to claim that the stories could potentially endanger the country by sharing state secrets. In April 2010, the Chinese government made a revision to it’s existing law on guarding state secrets that tightened it’s control over information through news media. The definitions of state secrets in China are still vague and this allows the government to censor any information they deem as harmful to their political or economic interest (Bennett, 2013). Out of 179 countries worldwide, China is ranked 174 for the 2012 index of press freedom. This goes to show just how...
Life Span PerspectiveLife Span Perspective
An understanding of the developmental process through generations of living is an important characteristic in developing a life span perspective. Life span development is the process in which each individual go through from the time of conception to the time of death, but it is the time in between that is primarily studied. The developmental stages of an individual’s life are an important factor in regards to determining human behavior; this is studied through looking at heredity (nature), and the environmental (nurture) effects that both play significant roles. For many years there has been a great deal of debate over perspectives of the human life span and its development; in this paper, two of these perspectives, or theories, will be discussed (Berger, 2011).
A Life Span Perspective of Development
In order for researchers to study the development of human life, it is necessary, if not critical, to gain a “life span” perspective. Life span perspectives may differ in particular viewpoints, but they all are focused on the study of human development, from the time of conception, up until the time of death. Life span development is referring to the...
Course: ENG 1101
October 10, 2012
English Essay #1- ExaminedLife
In Malcolm Gladwell’s essay ExaminedLife Gladwell believes that Stanley H. Kaplan ruined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) by making it coachable. The Educational Testing Service, that created the SAT, did not intend for the test to be coachable or studied for. They believed that cramming or last minute review was pointless because the focus of the test was not about what a student learned, but what a student was capable of learning. The accounts and research that Gladwell displayed in his essay “ExaminedLife” was thorough and proved his argument in my opinion.
In his essay, Gladwell strategically mentions Kaplan’s practices, achievements and opinions. I believe that throughout his life Stanley Kaplan excelled in his studies because he believed in studying and preparing. When Kaplan was a child he enjoyed studying, while the children in the neighborhood were out playing Kaplan was home studying. Kaplan was not satisfied with just passing tests himself, when he observed his fellow classmates struggling he helped them as well. Kaplan believed that every test should be studied for and he believed that just getting a good score wasn’t enough. He was confident in his abilities even to the point when he felt he was given an incorrect grade, he went to his professor and...
...granted by feeling that they know knowledge on a particular subject but utterly find out that they obtain no knowledge or wisdom on that subject that they felt so strongly about, which in turn, ended up being embarrassing to that individual. However Socrates feels that if he did not live and examined his life would have been pointless because he would not have learned of all the knowledge he did. Socrates was not like every other citizen in his time who did not examine life and world around him; he would explore his mind and find knowledge of the ideas, thoughts, and values in his time period. He would not have learned all different opinions and views if he did not question the people around him. He felt that all the other people around him were not examining reality, and to him, this was unacceptable because he would of lived life in ignorance like his fellow citizens who thought they obtained great knowledge on a particular subject when their own personal ignorance just made them think every one else’s ideas were wrong and that they were only right. And in reality, they realized that they obtained not much knowledge or wisdom because they could not the most basic questions of their life. An example of that is when Socrates asks Euthyphro what holiness is and Euthyphro can not answer it because he does not know how to explain the definition which in actually, he has no idea what holiness is. It...
... Perspective of Life.
The moon was hiding behind the curtain of dark clouds, tonight. The air was becoming heavy with humidity, the atmosphere gloomy. The fire torches along the length of the houses were burning brighter now as the dark descended in further. Everyone was hurdling inside mad-made tents in heed to the wind, which announced the coming of the rain, in that barren land.
All were in when one came out, clad in a cloak which could resist rain but only for a little while. His face covered with a hood. Not so much further away, in another tent, a small boy was looking outside at the sudden emptiness of sounds and growing silence. He looked up at the sky in wonder and asked his mother “Is somebody smoking there, high above?”
The mother, who was wasting away in her drink, answered with a simple nod. After a minute she turned to her son and said, “Come here and wrap yourself in this shawl. It is cold out there. Come close to me so I can warm you.”
The boy ignored the call and kept staring outside at the sky, when a shadow fell on his vision. The hooded-man had walked past the boy, prompting the boy’s curiosity, “Who walks outside, when everyone is inside?”
The drunken mother looked at her little boy and then away, “Only those who keep hoping for something more,” she then suddenly added a warning, “But, you don’t follow them, boy. Those who do what others don’t always get lost.”
“Where do they get lost?” The boy asked.
The mother fell into...
...The significance of the Examinedlife
Adrian Eames 951105878
Section leader: Elizabeth Grosz
The Trial and Death of Socrates takes place during a time in Socrates life where he becomes most reflective. During these final moments of Socrates life a theme arises, that of the unexamined life. Socrates claims that “the unexamined life is not worth living” (Apology 38a). Profound as the statement may seem it creates many questions; what is the unexamined life? And why is the idea of an examinedlife so dear to Socrates? It's clear throughout the dialogues of The Trial and Death of Socrates has a sort of obsession with questioning the world around him, and discovering truth. These dialogues highlight an inner struggle within Socrates as he attempts to find truth about right and wrong, pious and impious. Socrates continually tries to define the world around him, the entire time playing his own devils advocate by finding flaws in his definitions. Socrates also believes that it is wrong to live a life fueled by selfish desires, Socrates is against taking payment and the collection of material possessions and makes it obvious that those who take this path are living their lives in a way that the gods do not approve of. Above all Socrates looks for right and wrong to guide him because to him the gods judgment is all powerful and the state of...
...[himself] and others...” Plato describes Socrates living a philosophical or examinedlife which overall implies the concept of human excellence. For him, human excellence is examining one's life and beliefs and determining how we can live well and overall live to ones ultimate potential. His notion of human excellence and the examination of one's life ultimately lead to truth and doing the right thing. However, his ideal of living the examinedlife is the equivalent of living a perfect and rational life. An ideal that is not relevant to our contemporary world or individuals simply because of human nature.
Human nature is the distinguished characteristics, ways of thinking, feeling and acting that each human has. These characteristics are shaped by the people and environment surrounding us and they are what completely prevent us from following one model or one concept of perfection.
In applying how Plato's belief is not practical today, I give the following example: Socrates describes that he will not hold his tongue to please others because "if [he] tells you that to do as you say would be a disobedience to the Gods, and therefore, [he] cannot hold [his] tongue". Here he is advocating that his message comes from the Gods. However, since before the time of Socrates, we have had people who do not believe in multiple Gods or any one God in particular; Atheist. How does...
...In Plato’s Apology, Socrates states that, “The unexamined life is not worth living” (38a). I am using the knowledge learned through hours of class discussion of Socrates from the Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito to explain what Socrates means by “the examinedlife,” and why he thinks that it is the only life worth living, and why he thinks that it can be lived only with others, in Athens. In doing so, I have found that the truth sought by Socrates is much more about the journey that one takes while seeking answers to the questions that revolve around an “examined” life. Whether right or wrong, Socrates himself seemed entirely convinced that the arguments he established should hold. Thus he concluded that it would be wrong for him to escape from prison even though the charges against him were false. As always, his actions conformed to the depth of his reasoning and Socrates chose to honor his commitment to truth and morality even though the decision cost him his life. It is at this point that I began my search for the answers to three distinct questions to which Socrates seeks answers: What is the examinedlife? Why is the examinedlife the only life worth living? How does the examinedlife affect and involve others?
In Euthyphro, Socrates searches for the answer to what the...