“Prepare a written briefing for a Board (you can choose any company real or imaginary) explaining why they should increase or decrease their security in relation to the threat of terrorism.”
BRIEFING ON THE THREAT OF TERRORISM POSED TOWARDS TELECOMS ORGANISATIONS OPERATING IN AFRICA
The purpose of this briefing note is to present an overview of terrorist threats within Africa, spesifically towards the Vodacom organisation operating in the Democtratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to make recommendations on how to mitigate the risk.
Terrorism: “the United Nations General Assembly has condemned terrorist acts using the following political description of terrorism: "Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_terrorism Terrorism has become a global threat and is not just confined to the theatre of war, it is also not only targeted at nations involved in those conflicts like the United States (9/11) and Great Britain (the July 7 London Bombings) but also with any nation and organization that is seen as an ally of such nations. ESICS Briefing on THE TERRORISM THREAT LINKED TO THE LIBYAN CRISIS states “obviously on the top of the list of likely targets for Colonel Gaddafi are the United Kingdom and France, they are closely followed by the United States (an old and usual enemy of Libya but also by the Arab countries taking part in the coalition, every single national participating in the operations could be seen as a legitimate target.” In stating this the point that I am making is, although Vodacom is a South African operation, we must take into concideration that Vodafone, a British entity is our major shareholder and the building where our head office is located, Building Gulf Oil is an American institution. Thus it would be a grave mistake to make the assumption that the company cannot be seen as a target of militant action and sensationalism. Current Situation:
Emerging Terrorist Networks
“As al-Qaeda has syndicated its ideology and violence, its affiliates and adherents in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula have become increasingly networked and adaptable in their recruiting, training, financing, and operations. Violent extremist organizations, insurgents, and criminal organizations are exploiting weak governance and under-governed spaces, and remain determined to harm the United States, our partners and Allies, and innocent civilians.” General Carter Ham, USA Commander, USA Africa Command in his address to the Senate of Armed Services Committee, 2 March 2013(sic).
Terrorist organisations are operating in numerous African countries now including but not limited to: Country| Active Terrorist Networks (only major listed)|
Cameroon| Al Qaeda – Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD)| Chad| Al Qaeda – Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJC) +2| Egypt| Al Qaeda + 11|
Eritrea| Al Qaeda – Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJH)| Ethiopia| Al Qaeda – Ethiopian Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJH) + 6| Kenya| Al Qaeda – Al Shabaab|
Libya| Al Qaeda – Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG)| Morocco| Al Qaeda – Moroccan Combatant Islamic Group (MCIG)| Nigeria| Al Qaeda – Boko Haram|
Somalia| Al Qaeda – Al-Shabaab|
Sudan | Al Qaeda – Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) - Hezbollah| Syria| Al Qaeda – Al Nusra|
Tanzania| Al Qaeda – People Liberation Party|
Zambia| Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance – Al Nusra|
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism and crimicweb.org
“The Horn of Africa is Africa’s bridge to the Middle East. That fact explains much...
...According to Webster’s dictionary by definition, terrorism is defined as the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion or the unlawful use of violence or threats to intimidate for political purpose or ideological reasons. When the word terrorism is mentioned most Americans will reflect to the attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001. Terrorism involves extraordinary violence. It is intended to create massive fear and involves a planned attack for a purpose, often against something or someone. The art of terrorism is meant to have an audience. While terrorism is meant to be an act of violence to bring about change, it is usually not committed by those officially in the government. Usually, terrorist groups have fewer members than expected. They want to be dramatic and attract attention in hopes to gain power and influence because of the act. Terrorism doesn’t just happen. Terrorism is an advanced stage of a failed political process that begins with inequalities and injustices and moves from frustrated attempts at reform that breed fear and anger to political confrontation that erupts in violence. This definition like most others raises more questions than answers. Is airline hijacking or kidnapping violence? Is a government building a non-combatant?
Recently social scientists who want to understand the causes of terrorism have exploited...
...Relate International Terrorism with Ethno-National Identity Problem
What is the root cause of terrorism? What drives a terrorist group to commit acts of violence? Is it the environment they are born in to or is it a trait that is developed over time as a result of their upbringing? The term ethno-nationalism can be defined as “the combination of both ethnic and national identities in some way for a political purpose, usually to infer superiority over some other group or groups”. This identity is what brings a terrorist group together and serves to invigorate their extremist actions. Through an ethno-nationalism identity terrorists are able to not only empower their case of taking on the identity of “freedom fighters” but also to recruit and retain supporters willing to join their cause. Across the globe the ethno-nationalism identity problem is responsible for the dilemma of international terrorism.
Terrorism can be defined as the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. It is an act intended to cause fear perpetrated in the name of some type of political, ideological, or religious goal and is not concerned with the safety of civilians. Terrorist acts throughout the centuries have been performed with the goal of spreading a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion. International terrorism is evident in almost every nation at one point in time or another. From places like Baghdad,...
...Globalism & Terrorism
Society has changed immensely from the historical readings throughout this course. The world has transformed from scattered countries and villages with their own cultures, to a high tech, global community. This new societal structure, deemed Globalism, is defined as “the promotion of interdependence of cultures and peoples in all parts of the world”. (Fiero, 2011) The beginning of this futuristic world came with the origin of digital technology. Communication, to anywhere in the world is immediate, information can be found and passed with just a few keystrokes, and travel is faster and cheaper than ever imagined. This new fantastic knowledge, coupled with major historical events such as the disintegration of Soviet Communism, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the conclusion of the Cold War, together ushered in this new reality of a world community. (Fiero, 2011)
Globalism, with its countless advantages in technology and integration, still holds many challenges. Many feel it difficult, with such a combination of influences from all over the world, to retain their individual ethnicity and traditions. With the creation of television, not only were important events and news being featured, but western consumerism and culture was also being endorsed. (Fiero, 2011) This westernization took hold without resistance in some parts of the world, but in others it has created immense resentment and hate. As a result, a recent...
...Can terrorism ever be justified?
Since the turn of the century, the postmodern world has seen increasing levels of political, cultural, military and socio-economic tumult, much of this due to a series of terrorist attacks on American soil and the resultant waging of Washington ’s “War on Terror”. Consequently, the nature of terrorism has come under intense media focus and is subject to immense debate, especially on its justification. Before engaging in such a debate one must first identify terrorism as an act of widespread violence, whether on the part of a state or individual, against another state or society, with the ultimate goal of forcing the latter party to cede to the formers demands – be they political or socio-economic. With such a definition in place we find that terrorism is indeed unacceptable in a vast majority of occurrences. But we cannot be entirely certain that that is the case for a few but highly controversial situations. In its entirety, though I would tend to agree with the statement I must also state that it is too complex to be offered a clear-cut response.
From the perspective of a humanitarian, terrorism is completely abhorrent and totally unacceptable no matter the opinion of the terrorists themselves. All areas of terrorism in recent years have been manifested in the form of the taking of innocent lives – lives that had little to do with the terrorist’s main...
...Terrorism has been around for centuries. It has evolved from its beginning and as time passes the strategies and techniques change. Every terrorist uses a certain cause as an excuse to justify their terror attacks. Just because someone is a terrorist isn’t doesn’t mean that they have mental issues. They believe that they are following God’s will and will find themselves in paradise for carrying out these activities. Terrorism in the Middle East has its roots in the Arab-Israeli conflict that is going on. These terrorist activities that take place in the Middle East have been committed in the name of Palestinian self-determination and for the destruction of Israel. The conflict with Israel has been going on since 1948 when it was officially created. One of the main reasons for this conflict was because Palestine believes that Israeli lands were promised to them by British colonial authorities.
One of the major terrorist groups that were created in this conflict was the Palestine Liberation Organization which was led by Yasser Arafat. Their main mission was to destroy Israel and establish a Palestinian state. Since Israel is the only non-Muslim nation in the Middle East it is considered an invader of Islamic ways. They believe that the Western world is corrupting the Middle East. Terrorism also takes place in Europe. Some small terrorist groups were formed in the late early 1960’s and early 1980’s. These terrorist...
...Modern terrorism, as deduced from this literature, is acts to violence strategically used by secular groups spanning international borders with the aim of achieving a desired outcome. Further, it can be seen as organized activity whose genesis can be traced back to the 1880’s. From then to now there are identifiable traits and patterns observed from different (terrorist) groups which have allowed for the conceptualization of the term modern terrorism. This concept therefore, can be best explained in the context of being a wave or having a life cycle. That means it is a cycle of activity demarked by phases from inception and expands along the way then eventually it declines. The world, thus far, has experienced four waves of modern terrorism each following in chronological order with periods of overlapping. The first was the Anarchist wave followed by the Anticolonial, then the New Left and now the Religious wave. This summary will give a brief history of each of the four waves then the similarities and differences would be discussed.
The Anarchist wave which was the birth of international terrorist activity started in Russia. It resonated at the time of revolt against the Czar Alexander II lead government who could not deliver on his promise to provide funds for the serfs to buy land. There were other social and politic issues that left people dissatisfied with the governance. As a result there was a spate of...
Axia Campus of University of Phoenix
Every nation big or small suffers from random acts of violence known as terrorism. Described in this paper is what terrorism is, facts about terrorism, and details concerning one of the most disastrous terrorist attacks that took place in the United States, along with other attacks in both the U.S. and other nations. Several questions will be answered which include: Why is there heavier terrorism activity in certain areas of the world?, What do the sites of terrorist activities have in common?, Could laws, procedures, or organizations, either national or international, have prevented these attacks?, Who should determine what sorts of laws and organizations are most effective?, Does the United States have a moral obligation, a practical reason, or both, for becoming involved in stopping terrorist activities in other countries?, How has the idea of terrorism affected the lives of individual Americans since 9/11?, and How have American priorities changed since 9/11?; details will be provided that answer the questions with factual data, opinions, and views of the topics.
Terrorism is an act of violence which is used to try to force others into submission. There are many different forms of terrorism but the most common is violence which usually ends...
...“Is The War On Terrorism A War?”
The Global War on Terrorism is a military campaign that began shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001. First used by George W. Bush, the phrase ‘war on terror’ has become to be conceptualized as a term used to signify ‘global military, political, lawful, and conceptual struggle targeting both organizations designated as terrorists and regimes accused of supporting them.” The war on terror main focus has been with Islamist militants and Al-Qaeda. The war in Afghanistan and Iraq are both considered to be part of the war on terrorism. There is much speculation on whether the war on terror is actually a war. This essay will argue that both points of view are valid. There are reasons which validate the war on terrorism as being considered an actual war such as the fact that an actual decelaration of war was waged by both the US and Al-Qaeda, it can be considered a new way of war, and that ultimately like war, terrorism is a mean to a political end. On the other side of the spectrum, it may not be considered a war because it does not have a clear end or possible victory, it does not have a confined battle space as regular wars, and it is a ‘war’ against an immaterial concept such as the wars on poverty, drugs, and crime.
There is an extensive amount of literature on the subject of terrorism and especially the war on terror. Mia Bloom...