“People of the current” is the translation of the word Tausug. “Tau” means man and “sug” means current. Tausug people are the majority Islamized group in Sulu. They have a total number of population at around 502,918 and most of them are predominant in the northern part of the Sulu province. The name of their province Sulu came from their own language “sulug” or “sug” which means “ocean current” and the name Jolo is the Spanish word for corruption.
Tausug literature is very rich. It includes prose, poems, narrative and nonnarative forms. The content of their literatures are classified into two: folk literatures that are closely related to the life of indigenous people and second is Islamic which is based in Quran or from Hadith (sayings) and Sunna (traditions and practices) of the prophet Muhammad.
Tausug ver owns “ tigum-tigum” are either asked in casual conversation or sung during celebrations, but in both cases, the answer is volunteered as soon as the audience has given up guessing. In form, they may be in quatrain form (when sung), in rimed couplet, or in prose. Common subjects include flora and fauna, house-hold items, climate, topography, celestial bodies, human anatomy, food, games, and religious practices (Tuban 1977:101, 108, 111-112).
As with other ethnolinguistic groups, Tausug ulasaalaa (proverbs) represent a world view and their perspective on life. It is often quoted at various times during celebrations, in moments of joy, sadness, or disappointments. Proverbs for them also serve an educational purpose, teaching the young Tausu about the society (Tuban 1977:140). Many Tausug proverbs often reveal dominant ethnic characteristics. For example, Gam muti in bukug, ayaw in tikud-tikud which means it is better to die rather than run away from trouble. The proverbs symbolizes the courage of the Tausug to do heroic act upon living. Another example is in tau nagbubuluk bihasa mahumu marayaw in parasahan niya which means a person who works...
Tausug visual arts are represented by carvings, metalworks, woodworks, tapestry and embroidery, mat making and basketry, textile and fashion, pottery, and other minor arts (Szanton 1963). In general, Tausug visual arts follow the Islamic prohibition of representing human or animal forms. Consequently, Mindanao and Sulu have developed ukkil or abstract motifs which are carved, printed, or painted into various media. These motifs are suggestive of leaves, vines, flowers, fruits, and various geometric shapes.
Tausug carving is best exemplified by the sunduk or grave marker. Although not as stylized as those of the Samal, the Tausug sunduk are wood or stone carv-ings of geometric or floral forms. Women's grave mark-ers are flatter with carved geometric designs, those of the men are more floral. Sakayan or outriggers present yet another media for Tausug carving. Adornments are usually made on the prow and sometimes on the sambili or strips across the hull. The carvings are done either on the boat itself, or on a separate piece of wood which is then attached to the vessel. Abstract manok-manok (bird) motifs are the most common. Ajong-ajong/sula-sula are carved tips supporting the wrapped sail; the hidjuk (dark cord) on the sangpad (prow-plate) also serve as decoration. Carved saam or cross--pieces supporting the outriggers are called the mata (eyes) of the boat. Colors used on the finished carvings are...
Ms. Arcelyn N. Sangalang
oral literature of the
refers to the collection of tales and
superstition about magical
creatures and entities
wide range of material due
to the ethnic mix of the
3 MAJOR GROUPS
from Philippine folkliterature
stories of ancient Philippine mythology
include deities, creation stories,
mythical creatures, and beliefs
ancient Philippine mythology varies
among the many indigenous tribes of
In the beginning when the Earth was still young, the gods, Bathala;
Aman Sinaya; and Amihan, were the only beings that existed. Bathala was god
of the Sky (Langit) and Aman Sinaya was goddess of the Sea (Dagat). The two
have been fierce rivals for a long time, and everyday, they would try to outdo
each other. Bathala used his lighting bolts and thunder, and Aman Sinaya
used her waves and typhoons. One day, Aman Sinaya decided to send her
tempests into the Sky to cause a wild commotion. In order to stop her, Bathala
threw giant boulders that came from atop of the mountains. It created
thousands of islands onto the surface of the Sea, which became the...
...Characteristics of FolkLiterature
Setting Character Plot Theme Style
Folktales employ certain characteristics or conventions common to virtually all tales. The most familiar involve the setting, character, plot, theme and conflict, and style.
Most folktale settings remove the tale from the real world, taking us to a time and place where animals talk, witches and wizards roam, and magic spells are commonplace.
The settings are usually unimportant and described and referred to in vague terms (e.g., “Long ago in a land far away…” and “Once upon a time in a dark forest…”).
Some settings reflect the typical landscape of the tale’s culture, for example, medieval Europe with its forests, castles, and cottages, Africa with its jungles, India and China with its splendid palaces.
The characters in folkliterature are usually flat, simple, and straightforward. They are typically either completely good or entirely evil and easy to identify. They do not internalize their feelings and seldom are plagued by mental torment.
Motivation in folktale characters tends to be singular; that is, the characters are motivated by one overriding desire such as greed, love, fear, hatred, and jealousy.
The characters are usually stereotypical, for example, wicked stepmothers, weak-willed fathers, jealous siblings, faithful friends. Physical appearance often readily...
The Tausug or SULUK people are an ethnic group
in the Philippines and Malaysia. The term Tausug
was derived from two words tau and sug (on
suluk) meaning “people of the current” referring
to their homelands in the same thing, with the
former being the phonetic evolution in
the Philippines of the latter( the L being dropped
and thus the two short U’s merging into one long
U). the Tausug people in SABAH refer to
themselves as Tausug but refers to their race as
SULUK as documented in official documents such
as birth certificates in Sabah, Malaysia the Tausug
are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who
constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group.
The Tausug mats show exemplary work done by their weavers. They have great
weaving skills that can be seen in their silk sashes, shoulder cloth or in their
male head dresses called pis siyabit.
Their designs are mostly linear and geometric.
Tausug art also include the embroidery that they do. Since they are known
for their prizedsilk threads, the embroidery found in their pillow cases, table
cloths etc are of value.
Due to the Tausug’s religion which is mostly Islamic, their aren’t allowed to
worksthat show human or animal forms which is why they go for more abstract
decision didn’t come out as bad at all because they have been creating...
...(2 cлайд) Folk music songs deal with almost every kind of human activity. Folk music often expresses the character of ethnic and social groups and sometimes a nation. It is the music of the people. A folk song can express political or religious beliefs, tell a story or describe history, or just provide amusement.
(3 слайд) Folk music is usually learned by listening rather than by reading the notes or words. The music is shared from person to person, from place to place, and from generation to generation. Folk song sometimes change either by accident or from a purposeful alteration. Folk song melodies and words often evolve over time. Words of a song may also change over time.
(4 слайд) Folk songs can often be classified into different types. The ballad, a song that tells a story often about real events, is one of the main types of folk song. Ballads are in stanza form, where a melody is repeated for each of several verses, and may have a refrain that is repeated several times. Another type of folk song is those that deal with a particular activity, occupation, or set of circumstances. This group includes work songs, prison songs, war songs, and the like. There are also spiritual songs, songs for children, songs about life's stages, and many songs are just for celebration, dance, and enjoyment.
(5 слайд) Russian folk songs and...
...About Hemingway's Short Stories
The importance of including Hemingway in American Literature anthologies cannot be overestimated. Hemingway's style and subject matter are archetypal of American writing. Hemingway broke new literary ground when he began publishing his short stories. Furthermore, not only was he an American writer, but he was not an ivory-tower esthete; he was a man's man. He hunted in grand style, deep-sea fished, covered both World War I and World War II for national news services, and was married as many times as Hollywood celebrities — and yet he found time to write novels and stories that feature men and women facing both death and emotional crises with grit, gumption, and grand tenacity.
Hemingway's heroes are characterized by their unflinching integrity. They do not compromise. They are vulnerable but are not defined by their vulnerability. Hemingway's men and women are often defiant of what society expects of them: they eat with gusto, devour adventure, and have sex — simply and directly.
In the beginning, Hemingway wrote about himself, and he would continue to write himself into all, or most, of his characters until his death. His first persona was Nick Adams, a young boy who accompanies a doctor to an American Indian camp and watches the doctor use a jackknife to slice into a woman's abdomen and deliver a baby boy. At that early age, Nick vows never to die. Later, he defies death and the sanity-threatening wounds that he receives...
(The People of the River)
The Subanon, also called the “Subanu,” “Subano,” “Subanen” are the biggest group of lumad or non Muslim indigenous cultural community on the island of Mindanao. The word is derived from word soba or suba, a word common in Sulu, Visayas, and Mindanao, which means “river,” and the suffix “-nun” or “-non” which indicates a locality or place of origin. Thus, “Subanon” means “a person or people of the river”; more specifically, “from up the river,” since they are usually differentiated from the coastal and plain inhabitants of Zamboanga Peninsula. Blumentritt mentioned the “Subanos” in his accounts, referring to them as “a hethean people of malay extraction who occupy the entire peninsula of Sibuguey (West of Mindanao) with the exception of a single strip on the south coast” (Finley 1913: 2). Finley recording his impressions of the Subanon at the beginning of American occupation of southern Philippines in 1990s, cited published records of early Spanish chroniclers, notably the writings of Fr. Francisco Combes in 1667, to argue that the Subanon were the aborigines of western Mindanao.
The researcher is residing in Buug, Zamboanga Sibugay. She is a Subanen herself. Thus, her study focuses on the collected riddles from Subanen, some of their ceremonies and rituals such as Binah, Bhalai and Dhaga, and also some of Subanons’ learned magic in making a chicken motionless and getting rid of flying termites which disturb them while...
...Comparative study into European literature curricula
LESSONS IN LITERATURE
A comparative study into the literature curricula in secondary
education in six European countries
Master thesis of:
M.G. Slager (1465775)
Master of Science in Education
Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences
University of Groningen
dr. R. Maslowski
dr. T.C.H. Witte
Comparative study into European literature curricula
Students differ in their level of literary competence. Despite this fact, less capable students
often have to read the same literary text as their more advanced classmates. To make sure
students develop themselves and their literature reading skills, it is important that they read
literature with a level of complexity that suits their literary competence. In the LiFT-2 project,
the Netherlands, Romania, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Finland and Germany aim to create
a literature framework for teachers in secondary education. This framework will be an
instrument, helping teachers to match the reading ability of students to the complexity of
literary works. This should improve the quality of literature education and it should help
stimulate students to enjoy and appreciate literature. To develop such a European framework,
it is important to examine...