Tacit knowledge sharing, self-efﬁcacy theory, and application to the Open Source community Megan Lee Endres, Steven P. Endres, Sanjib K. Chowdhury and Intakhab Alam
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply the self-efﬁcacy model to compare knowledge-sharing activities in the Open Source community versus those in a traditional organization. Design/methodology/approach – Current literature on tacit knowledge sharing and information about the Open Source community is synthesized in the study with research concerning self-efﬁcacy formation. The knowledge-sharing literature is applied in the paper to the self-efﬁcacy model. Findings – Through a synthesis of different streams of literature, the paper concludes that the self-efﬁcacy model serves as a useful framework for better understanding the effects of context on tacit knowledge sharing. Furthermore, it is concluded that the Open Source community may provide an ideal set of subjects to whom the model can be applied. Research limitations/implications – Only propositions are offered, and the conclusions are suggestions for future research. The self-efﬁcacy model has been successfully applied to other areas of research in early stages (e.g. entrepreneurship) and provides a valid, tangible framework that allows many research possibilities. Megan Lee Endres is Assistant Professor of Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA. Steven P. Endres is Principal Consultant and Owner, Complex Systems Management, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Sanjib K. Chowdhury is Associate Professor and Intakhab Alam is an MBA Student and Research Assistant, both at Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA. Practical implications – The self-efﬁcacy model is practical and usable in a real-world situation. A software manager (or other manager) can easily look at the inputs and outcomes of the model and see where he/she could positively affect tacit knowledge sharing. Originality/value – This paper takes a highly valid and respected model and applies it to individual tacit knowledge sharing, a ﬁeld in which little cross-discipline work is done. This paper bridges a central organizational behavior/psychological theory with knowledge management research. Keywords Knowledge management, Open systems, Public domain software, Knowledge sharing Paper type Research paper
Highly complex, tacit knowledge can be a source of sustainable competitive advantage in organizations (Chen and Edgington, 2005; Grant and Baden-Fuller, 1995; Jashapara, 2003; ´ Lopez, 2005), especially in knowledge-based organizations such as software ﬁrms (Bryant, 2005). Complex, tacit knowledge is difﬁcult to express and is often context speciﬁc, which provides the source of potential sustainability. However, due to its tacit quality, knowledge derived from the process of joint decisions is difﬁcult to share with others outside the team, and may be difﬁcult to study using research tools available today (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). Tacit knowledge in this paper refers to the joint reasoning behind tradeoff decisions in software design work, such as in architecture, standards, and strategic intent. The software team must make these tradeoffs, but they are not expressed in the ﬁnal written software source code. Past knowledge sharing research focuses on causes and impediments, but not as much on how knowledge sharing results in individual or group performance (Haas and Hansen, 2005). Recently, however, a few researchers have looked speciﬁcally at knowledge sharing as a system of inﬂuences, resulting in outcomes such as performance, and the impacts of feedback on future knowledge sharing (Bock et al., 2005; Haas and Hansen, 2005; Tsai and
JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
VOL. 11 NO. 3 2007, pp. 92-103, Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1367-3270
‘‘ Self-efﬁcacy theory provides a unique theoretical model that...
...software, hardware, and processes. Yet
tacitknowledge also underlies many competitive capabilities—a fact driven
home to some companies in the wake of aggressive downsizing, when undervalued
knowledge walked out the door.
The marvelous capacity of the human mind to make sense of a lifetime's
collection of experience and to connect patterns from the past to the present and
future is, by its very nature, hard to capture. However, it is essential to the innovation
process. The management of tacitknowledge is relatively unexplored—
particularly when compared to the work on explicit knowledge. Moreover,
while individual creativity is important, exciting, and even crucial to business,
the creativity of groups is equally important. The creation of today's complex
systems of products and services requires the merging of knowledge from
diverse national, disciplinary, and personal skill-based perspeaives. Innovation—
whether it be revealed in new products and services, new processes, or new
organizational forms—is rarely an individual undertaking. Creative cooperation
We wish to thank Walter Swap. Barbara Feinberg, and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful
comn'ients and the Harvard Business School Division of Research for supporting this work.
12 CAUFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL40,NO,3 SPRING 1998
The Role of Tadt Knowledge in Group...
...and solutions approach increased the complexity and knowledge intensity of Siemens’ business. As Joachim Döring, ICN manger recalls: “Suddenly, our salespeople were facing the challenge of having to offer solutions rather than precisely defined products. That significantly increased our influence on the value-added chain as far as customers were concerned.” (Heading for Knowledge-Guided Networks, Sabine Saphörster
In the new market setting, the sales force at Siemens had to redirect their learning curve in order to broaden their skill set within the knowledge of business analysis, business development, and network planning. It was no longer to their benefit to only understand the specifications of a “box” in order to seal a deal. Since Siemens had a worldwide sales force, there was a fundamental need to find a way to make the knowledge available to everyone within the organization and better equip them with the tools they needed to produce results. Andreas Manuth acknowledged: “In the past, ICN relied on centralized flows of information to and from units. We wanted to dramatically shift from that approach to globally networked flows of knowledge.” ICN understood that they had poor re-use of knowledge and wanted to build a best practices model that would change their global strategy. This brought forth the development of the ShareNet knowledge management/sharing system....
...Question 1 – What is Knowledge Management?
Elaborate Your Views:
PART A (i)
A good operational definition of knowledge management is the deliberate introduction of an
improved and more effective information environment
(Koenig, 1999, p. 77)
Knowledge, by definition: is broad and wide in its scope. This statement seems to imply knowledge to
be of an explicit nature. Explicit knowledge is “information or knowledge that is set out in tangible form”
(Koenig, May 2012): which refers to those information which has been put in words or writing, for example,
rules, procedures, user manuals and databases.
Koenig scopes the statement from a practical and enterprise viewpoint, by using words such as
“operational definition”. We assume that Koenig relates the concept into operational practice and apply this
discipline to support the routine functions or activities of a certain specific business domain or organization.
Similarly “deliberate introduction” implies that there is a systematic methodology, possibly with
gradual introduction and careful planning. It could well-meant that users and owners of this knowledge
management system are well-equipped with skills and are being educated with appropriate trainings.
The most important aspect of this statement is that it defines the objective of knowledge
management briefly and it illustrates...
...School of Economics
National Research University, Perm
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses (on the base of the book «Rosatom is Sharing Knowledge»)
Executed by the students:
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses…………...4
For the past several decades knowledge has become extremely important asset of a company. Nowadays large organizations and even small companies have to address the issues of Knowledge Management in order to increase flexibility and efficiency, reduce lead time and involve people as much as possible. As it was mentioned in 1996 by McKern [1; 13-18], the major forces of change are the following: globalization, higher degrees of complexity, new technologies, increased competition, changing client demands, and changing economic and political structures. So companies are starting to understand that the core and sustainable resource of competitive advantages are their employees. In other words all the knowledge about...
...PRIST SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
PART – A
Answer all the questions (10x2=20)
1. Define Knowledge Management.
Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences
2. List various team members in knowledge management system.
a. Knowledge manager
b. Project Manager
c. Technology coordinator
e. Knowledge Broker
3. List the success factors in Knowledge Management.
h. Structure,roles and responsibilities
i. Information technology infrastructure and
4. What is the role of knowledge Management officer?
k. Set strategic priorities for knowledge management.
l. Establish a knowledge repository of best practices.
m. Gain a commitment from senior executives to support a learning environment.
n. Teach information seekers how to ask better and smarter questions.
o. Establish a process for managing intellectual assets.
p. Obtain customer satisfaction information in near real time.
q. Globalize knowledge management.
Knowledge management is a process of transforming information and intellectual assets into enduring value.
Knowledge Management has two type:
Highly personal, means the knowledge is unrecorded and unarticulated and it’s hard to formalized and therefore difficult, if not sometimes impossible to communicate.
2. Explicit Knowledge
Formal and systematic, and can be easily to communicated and share, for example in a book or a database in a library.
Knowledge Hierarchy, to transfertacitknowledge to explicit knowledge we need to use Human Resource Management.
easier to access KNOWLEDGE
We need knowledge management to reacting to new business opportunities and to build brain sensitivity to brain drain. So that we could create, transfer and apply knowledge with the purpose of better achieving objectives. Because knowledge is really important to achieve the goals.
What forces us to have knowledge management first is increasing in Domain Complexity means that is intricacy of internal and external processes, increased competition, and the rapid advancement of technology all contribute to increasing domain complexity. Second is...
...The concept of treating organizational knowledge as a valuable asset to leading organizations has been popularized by leading management and organization theorists. Organizations are being advised that in order to remain competitive, they must efficiently and effectively create, locate, capture, and share their organization's knowledge and expertise, and have the ability to use that knowledge on specific problems and opportunities. Firms are showing a tremendous interest in implementing knowledge management processes and technologies, and are even beginning to adopt knowledge management as part of their overall business strategy.
Although knowledge management is becoming widely accepted, few organizations today are fully capable of developing and leveraging critical organizational knowledge to improve their performance. Many organizations have become so complex that their knowledge is fragmented, difficult to locate and share, and therefore redundant, inconsistent or not used at all. In today's environment of rapid change and technological discontinuity, even knowledge and expertise that can be shared is often quickly made obsolete. However, while many people call for effectively managing knowledge, almost no research has been done regarding how to do it.
What is Knowledge?
Knowledge is commonly...
They are primary cells that form the basis for the
creation of information.
2. Information and document (record)
The information can be defined as a processed data set, that has
meaning, y and therefore are useful for who should make decisions.
The processes that add value to the data and can be
transformed into information:
We can define INFORMATION:
data processed communication content
providing the new knowledge
aims and is able to change the way the receiver perceives
impacting on their value judgments and behaviors.
All support capable of communicating information.
Object created with the deliberate intention of transmitting
information only (Information Science).
Documents for quality must meet the following criteria:
•Its origin should be evident and verifiable
•The information provided must be verifiable and come
from renowned authors and publishers
•Must be reachable and usable
3. KnowledgeKnowledge management (KM)
a range of strategies and practices used in an
organization to identify, create, represent,
distribute, and enable adoption of insights