Originally called reciprocal inhibition, systematic desensitization works on the premise that the original fears are learned and therefore can be unlearned. This process was originally developed by Joseph Wolpe. And although his assumptions about the role of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in this process proved to be wrong, his systematic desensitization program when practically applied has been proven to be highly affective and has become the leading treatment for phobias and anxiety (Sapp, 2004). Put simply, since this system assumes that phobias are learned, and therefore can be unlearned, it provides a process to help people accomplish this using a controlled exposure to whatever the focus of the phobia may be. It thereby helps to take away the individuals reactivity to the particular object. To prepare for the process, the individual must learn the basic skills of relaxation, and the ability to do so as needed, or at will. They may use deep breathing, or progressive muscle relaxation, or other techniques (Stein, 2004).
Ophidiophobia is the intense fear of snakes. This is different from people who do not care for snakes or fear them because they are poisonous or dangerous. An ophidiophobic would not only fear them when living around them but also dread to think about or even see them on television or in books (Murrie & Murrie, 2010). So to apply this process to Ophidiophobia, the next step would be to use a systematic desensitization hierarchy to make what seems like an insurmountable task into “baby steps”. This begins with the least intimidating to the most difficult. So it would be something like this: 1- Think about a snake 2- Look at a comical drawing of a snake 3- Look at a more realistic representation of a snake 4- Look at an actual photograph of a snake 5- Look at a snake skin that has been shed 6- Touch a snake skin that has been shed 7- Look at a tame snake in a tank from a distance 8- Look at a tame snake in a tank up close. 9-...
...delusion C.compulsion D.hallucination
Answer Key: C
2.0/ 2.0 Points
After surviving a train derailment, John experienced frequent, vivid thoughts and images of the accident for several months. He also had problems sleeping and was irritable and withdrawn. John is suffering from ________________.
A.Major depression B.PTSD C.Generalized anxiety disorder D.Panic disorder
Answer Key: B
2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which is not a problem associated with "Direct Brain Intervention" treatments?
A.Success claims are based on patients' self reports. B.Potential placebo effect. C.They are addictive.
D.Benefits for some types of this treatment seem to depend more on who is doing it than what is being done.
Answer Key: C
2.0/ 2.0 Points
Systematicdesensitization for the treatment of phobias is a type of ___________ therapy.
A.Psychodynamic B.Behavior C.Cognitive D.Humanist
Answer Key: B
2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following is a humanist therapist?
A.Carl Rogers B.Aaron Beck C.Albert Ellis D.Sigmund Freud
Answer Key: A
2.0/ 2.0 Points
The drug of choice for treating bipolar disorder is _____________________.
A.Xanax B.Lithium carbonate C.Wellbutrin D.Prozac
Answer Key: B
2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT behavioral therapy
A.Flooding B.Skills training C.Exposure D.Unconditional positive regard
Answer Key: D
...“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematicdesensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.”
This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematicdesensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Classical conditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns a relationship between the stimuli. Systematicdesensitization, also known as graduated exposure therapy is a type of behaviour therapy used to help overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. There are 3 stages of systematicdesensitization: first the identity of an anxiety must be found and this encourages stimulus hierarchy. The second step is the learning of relaxation or coping techniques to help them through the anxiety. Once the individual has been taught these techniques and skills, they are then used in the third step to react towards and overcome situations in the established hierarchy of fears. The target of these steps is for the individual to learn how to cope with, and overcome the fear of the hierarchy.
Phobias can be acquired through classical conditioning by pairing a neutral stimulus with...
My Ophidiophobia |
Lisa JacksonFor Dr. Thomas PapiPSY105031VA016-1132-001 (Intro to Psychology) March 23, 2013 |
I don’t think that I’ve never had a time in my life when I was not afraid of snakes. To me there is nothing more freighting than this crawling, scaly, unblinking reptile that man has abhorred since the beginning of time. The subfield that is primarily connected with phobia is psychoanalytical psychology, behavioral psychology and neuropsychology. According to our text, Psychoanalysis is a method of therapy based on Freud’s theory of personality, in which the therapist attempts to bring repressed unconscious material into consciousness (Baron& Kalsher, 2008). Behavioral psychology is a school of psychology that clarifies all mental and bodily activity in terms of reaction by glands and muscles to external factors (stimuli).
Neuropsychology studies the structure and purpose of the brain as they transmit to fixed emotional processes and behaviors. It is seen as a clinical and experimental field of psychology that aims to study, assess, understand and treat behaviors directly related to brain functioning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how biological bases of behavior have contributed to this fear. I also will analyze my reactions when I came into contact with the physical presence of a fake reptile. And, finally, discuss the role that learning has had on the fact that I fear and hate snakes.
Our text states...
Systematic observation is an assessment strategy used to document behavior, activities, knowledge or skills of a sample space (here, a group of people) over a period of time, rather than assessing the sample space at the same time.
The rationale for our observations is to interpret the reading interests of males and females by the magazines they choose to buy. From the observations it can be hypothesized that what the sample space prefers to read in their leisure time. The results are substantial because one would spend money buying a magazine only when he/she is interested in it.
The reading interests of males and females, defined by what magazine they buy is observed in the study. One can conclude from the study the reading interests of males and females from the fact one would spend money buying a magazine only when he/she is interested in it.
The location where the observations were taken at a bookstore, Crossword situated at Ground Floor, Mohammadbhai Mansion, NSP Marg, Kemps Corner, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
The observations were taken by remaining unobtrusive. We went to the store as readers and there was no change in the environment or the behavior of the people as they did not know that they were being observed.
While conducting the study we went to the magazines section of the bookstore and using the pretext of reading, observed people choosing the magazines they...
University of Phoenix
The purpose of a systematic review is to attempt to find, evaluate and synthesize high quality research relevant to the research question. A systematic review uses carefully developed data collection and sampling procedures that are put in place in advance as a protocol. (Polit, 2012). A systematic review must contain the following: a clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, an explicit search strategy, systematic coding and analysis of included studies, and a meta-analysis if possible. (Hemingway & Brereton, 2009). Systematic reviews are conducted by nurse researchers to avoid reaching incorrect or misleading conclusions that could arise from a biased study. Systematic reviews are perceived by many as the cornerstone of evidence-based practice. (Polit, 2012).
The issue of concern that this article addresses is “to systematically evaluate nurse working conditions and to review the literature dealing with their association with patient outcomes.” (Bae, 2011).
“The aim of this study is to fulfill two objectives: a systematic evaluation of nurse working conditions and a review of the literature dealing with the association between nurse working conditions and patient outcomes. The innovative review of research on working conditions focused on...
...systems with a sense of underlying order and structure
What are systems?
A system is an entity, which maintains its existence through the mutual interaction of its parts
Two key components
Boundaries: The limits we place around the system and the degree by which the system is isolated from its surroundings
Emergence: Characteristics which arise from the mutual interaction of the parts and cannot be found as characteristic of any of the individual parts.
What is Systems Thinking?
The 7 Levels of Systems Understanding
Common themes which occur across different systems which can then be used to classify a given system.
A pattern in nature is an emergent property because it is the result of a systematic interaction of its component parts
Super-organisms such as bee hives, bird flocks, and coral reefs are complex systems that exhibit blah balh
Simple Casual Links
An illustration of cause and effect
Feedback loops such as population cycles or interest rates
Archetypes and Complex Feedback Models
Paradigms and inniertical that can create
Sees oneself as a part of, not ontto
A systems thinker is someone who
Sees the whole picture
Changes perspectives to see leverage points in complex systems
Looks for interdepencies
Finds where unanticipated consequences emerge
Seeks out stocks or accumulations and the time delay
Sees oneself as part of, not out of the...
...reaction. Since there is no attention given to improve these conditions, the fear and anxiety increases, causing it to blend into poor assignments, projects, class work, and of course testing.
The study outlined in this article focused on two aspects. It set out to research the effects of SystematicDesensitization on the reduction of test anxiety on a particular population (Nigerian Secondary School children that were experiencing test anxiety), and also focused on three secondary independent variables, which included entry test anxiety level, sex, and locus of control.
The test hoped to establish a relationship between systematicdesensitization and sex and set up three research hypotheses. The first one stated there is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups with moderate and high entry anxiety at the end of treatment. The second declared there is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups subjected to SystematicDesensitization therapy and Control after treatment. Finally the third hypothesis was there is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of male and female subjects after treatment.
II. Description of Technique
SystematicDesensitization, a type of Classical Conditioning, is a behavioral technique used to reduce an individual's fear and anxiety toward a particular situation. This is done by...
...the development of emotion regulation skills. This leads to aggressive behaviour, attitudes and loss of problem solving strategies (cited in Funk et. al., 2004, p. 24). It also effects moral evaluation, as a result the viewer fails to perceive or respond to signs (Eron, 2001, cited in Funk et. al., 2004, p. 26). Researchers and sociologists refer these effects as “desensitization”.
Desensitization occurs due to repeated exposure to real life violence (Ceballo et al., 2001, cited in Funk et. al., 2004, p. 26). Likewise, fictional violence like movies and video games also contribute to the violence behaviour (Funk et. al., 2004, p. 26). The media produces "a powerful desensitization intervention on a global level” (Science Daily, 2006). Furthermore, desensitization is divided into two categories. When, the viewer show numbing or blunting of emotional reaction to violent events is called emotional desensitization. When people start reacting that violence is nothing extraordinary, it is kind of daily routine is called cognitive desensitization (Funk et al., 2004, p. 26). A study was conducted to examine desensitization by Drabman & Thomas (1974). In this study, the children who viewed violent movie needed adult help to avoid the aggressive thinking towards the scenes. The amount of time that people spend on watching violent media leads to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)...