Psychopath or not?
Are suicide bombers crazy? Do you think their way of thinking is rational? At first, the answer anyone would give seems obvious: they must be crazy and have irrational thoughts to blow themselves up and kill innocent people in the process. However, terrorism experts have proposed several rational motives for their actions. Some political scientists believe that terrorists make a tactical choice to use suicide bombings against a stronger enemy. Other experts argue that suicide terrorism is part of a “cycle of humiliation” fueled by a suicide bombers’ desire to strike back at those who have mistreated or shamed them. Some psychologists have concluded that suicide bombers are ordinary, everyday people who are unlikely to commit violent acts until they identify with and join a terrorist group which manipulates and pressures them to commit these violent acts. Suicide bombing attacks have become a weapon of choice among terrorist groups because of their lethality and ability to cause mayhem and fear. Though depressing, the almost daily news reports of deaths caused by suicide attacks rarely explain what motivates the attackers. Between 1981 and 2006, 1200 suicide attacks constituted 4 percent of all terrorist attacks in the world and killed 14,599 people or 32 percent of all terrorism related deaths. The question is why? Between 1981 and 2006, 1200 suicide attacks constituted 4 percent of all terrorist attacks in the world and killed 14,599 people or 32 percent of all terrorism related deaths. (figure 1) Despite everyone’s stereotype belief that suicide bombers “are both sociopathic and irrational people, many political scientists believe that most terrorists are rational people with tactical goals. Evans (a political scientist), for example, argues that terrorism is a strategy. Those who use it want to expose their cause, draw the enemy into a costly conflict, and provoke an overreaction that will make the enemy look foolish or evil, recruit supporters, and prevent finding the middle ground. Robert Pape also believes that suicide terrorism has an essential strategic logic. It is politics more than religious passion that has led terrorists to blow themselves up. In Roberts view, “Suicide-terrorist attacks are not encouraged by religion but more as a clear strategic objective: to force modern democracies to remove military forces from the territory that the terrorists view as their homeland.” While terrorism can be seen as a rational strategy, feelings of shame and embarrassment may make suicide the weapon of choice because they can get their revenge as well as just end their miserable life, Interviews of failed bombers or bombers-in-training reveal that they are striking back at those who humiliated or injured them. On October 4, 2003, 29 year old Palestinian lawyer Hanadi Jaradat exploded her suicide belt in the Maxim restaurant in Haifa killing 20 people and wounding many more. According to her family, her suicide mission was in revenge for the killing of her brother and her fiancé by the Israeli security forces and in revenge for all the crimes Israel had perpetrated in the West Bank by killing Palestinians and confiscating their lands. The main motive for many suicide bombings in Israel is revenge for acts committed by Israelis. The bombers want to send a message: their enemies are responsible for their humiliation and ultimately for their death. In September 2007 when American forces raided an Iraqi insurgent camp in the desert town of Singar near the Syrian border they discovered biographies of more than seven hundred foreign fighters. The Americans were surprised to find that 137 were Libyans and 52 of them were from a small Libyan town of Darnah. The reason why so many of Darnah’s young men had gone to Iraq for suicide missions was not the global jihadi ideology, but an explosive mix of desperation, pride, anger, sense of powerlessness, local tradition of resistance and...
...What are they thinking?
SuicideBomber - those 2 words give us pause. Ever since the terrorist attack on Sept 11, 2001, we Americans have had 1st hand knowledge with the meaning of these words and the aftermath that follows. In order to attract the publicity necessary to generate widespread fear, terrorist must engage in increasingly dramatic, violent, and high-profile attacks. These have included hijackings, hostage takings, kidnappings, car bombings and frequently, suicide bombings. We all have seen these accounts in the news and witnessed (some first hand) the destruction that these bombers have caused, but have you have ever stopped to wonder what makes a person become or agree to be a suicidebomber? Or ask why a person would want to give their life to kill innocent people? Are they that dedicated to their cause or are there other reasons that make people participate in such heinous acts? What about the impact of illiteracy and unemployment as their motivation? Or could it be something else?
Times Gone By
The 1st recorded use of suicidebombers goes all the way back to the Crusades when Nights Templar destroyed one of their own ships and 140 Christians to kill 1400 Muslims. Suicidebombers were rarely heard about in history until the 20th century when, during World War II, the Japanese Air Force...
...What makes suicidebombers tick? Is it religions upbringing with promises of paradise in reward for acts of martyrdom? Is it the parental support he or she receives for his convictions? Is it society with no means of fighting back against oppression and humiliation? (http://israelinsider.com/channels/security/articles/sec0049.htm). In this paper I will discuss the characteristics of a suicidebomber, their mission, as well as discuss suicide attacks.
SuicideBombersSuicidebombers are said to believe that God sends them on their missions, and by the time they are ready to be stopped with explosives, they had reached a hypnotic state. (http://israelinsider.com/channels/security/articles/sec0049.htm) As one can see, religion is a powerful factor. Though the Koran teaches against taking one's own life, the suicidebombers are seen as martyrs and are said to be living in the heavens. (http://cnn.com/2001/world/hanna.focus) However, it is stated that suicide is forbidden in Islam. However, fighting oppression is commendable, harming innocent bystanders, even in times of war, was forbidden by the prophet Muhammad. (israelinsider.com/channels/security/articles/sec0049.htm) Suicidebombers are very complex. They are never justified in their actions....
Social norms play a key role on how people should behave and act in groups or societies. If an individual were to abandon these norms, others will criticize the individual for doing so. To learn and understand these social norms, social interaction is very important. Robert Brym (2012) states that "social interaction is of such fundamental importance that, without it, individuals would not be able to develop a sense of identity, an idea that they are" (p.49). This also applies to suicidebombers. Some counties, believe that these deviant acts are justified in the Middle East and used to achieve political goals. Using the work from Robert Brym (2012) and Kevin Peraino (2008), this paper will show how psychopathology, clash of civilization, deprivation, and differential association, were introduced as theories on explaining the motives of suicidebombers.
History of Suicide Attacks
The history on the use of suicide attacks by terrorist dates back to ancient times. Terrorist suicide attacks are not a new method but are a very old method of operation. Before the late nineteenth century, suicide attackers used hand weapons to kill their victims in public places to assure publicity of their act. In World War 2, suicide attacks called Kamikaze were incorporated by the...
...Why Do SuicideBombers Exist?
Suicide bombing is believed to be one of the ultimate acts of terrorism. It is horrific in its results, and the act of bombing itself does not choose who it kills. It kills all, adults, man and woman, children, and the saddest thing is that it kills the innocent.
The propagation of suicide bombing nowadays has been increasing, especially in the Arab world where it seems that peace will not reign there for years or so. That area of the world has been a battleground of ideas, arms, and ideologies alike. Yet, suicide bombing is closely connected with Islamic extremist willing to give up there lives by blowing themselves up for a cause they only can relate to. As the clash between ideologies expands, the war continually expands also. More fighters are recruited on both sides of the campaign, and suicidebombers as well.
We pose the question “why do suicidebombers exist?” This paper aims to answer this question that has perplexed thousands of individuals around the world asking, “Why do they do that? What makes them tick?” Part of the answer can be linked to what the Islamic world calls the “Jihad” or the holy war. People give up their lives by killing another in order to gain entry into eternal life. To some, this idea may seem to be twisted, but to them, it is their key to heaven. However, the fact remains the...
26 September 2010
In 2004, there were 400 attacks by suicidebombers, killing 2000 people. A suicidebomber is a person who attacks another or a group of people, knowing they will lose their life in the process. The U.S. takes a strong negative stance to the subject, but other countries, such as Pakistan, believe it’s a useful tactic in warfare and an honorable deed. Its important for people to know what a suicidebomber was raised to believe and how extensive training they go through to make an argument on if they are doing wrong.
In David Brooks article, “The Culture of Martyrdom: How Suicide Bombing Became Not Just a Means but an End” he writes about suicide bombing through a psychological viewpoint. Pakistan started the use of suicidebombers as a tactic in warfare back in 1983, and it was a success in their eyes. Training men between the ages of 18-38 to have the mental focus to become one took a lot of work. They first had to take the Pakistani into small cells and spiritually guide them into the right mindset. The bombers were promised their past family members will have a spot waiting for them in the afterlife, and their family left behind will be left in riches. They are, also, to be married to multiple “dark-eyed” virgins (Brooks 39). All of...
...The Misrepresentations of Female SuicideBombers
Examining Gendered Biases in the Study of Female Palestinian SuicideBombers
Professor Laila Parsons
Friday December 7, 2012
The Misrepresentations of Female SuicideBombers
Examining Gendered Biases in the Study of Female Palestinian SuicideBombers
Professor Laila Parsons
Friday December 7, 2012
“[Be] Ready for the increasing threat of women terrorists, we must recognize women as rational actors as opposed to emotional reactors of violence.”— Lisa Kruger
The use of females as suicidebombers is a relatively recent occurrence, and they are increasingly becoming the weapon of choice. Female suicidebombers seem to have caused uproar among the international community, as heads of state and scholars appear shocked to learn that they would now need to broaden the scope of potential suicidebombers. However, the reaction of the international community is surprising. If history tells us that women have always taken part in militancy, then why would the use of female suicidebombers be unexpected? Could it possibly be the method of violence that the women are using?...
...Behaviors and Symptoms of a PsychopathPsychopaths are usually associated with sadistic extremes like Ted Bundy or Hannibal Lecter in Silence of the Lambs, but not all psychopaths are necessarily this obvious to spot. Some psychopaths live an entire life without acting on their instinctual need to control and hurt others. Psychopaths can be divided into 4 separate subgroups based on their behavior. There is the primary psychopath, the secondary psychopath, the distempered psychopath, and the charismatic psychopath.
Primary psychopaths usually do not really understand the purpose of social norms or emotions. They are usually antisocial and do not mind being considered strange or different. This is a key factor because most psychopaths seek some sense of societal approval. Primary psychopaths do not. They are more focused on their own impulses and can be considered the most dangerous because of their lack of interest in other people’s opinions of them or their actions.
Secondary psychopaths are a little more in touch with emotion. They are usually worriers, having serious anxiety disorders in some cases. Secondary psychopaths tend to be tempted to do things they know will cause them harm. They are drawn to disaster and pain.
Learning Theory and Criminal behavior
April 06, 2014
Robbery and Expectancy theory
A person is guilty of robbery if they steal and instantly before or even at the time of doing the act as well as in order on doing so, the person uses force on another person or even puts someone in fear and put in danger to force robbery. As a result, the robber is involved in a range of forceful, threatening and also violent behavior which can also include physical and verbal threats. The crime can vary from stealing from a public place such as a convenience store to personal property (Onukwufor & Chinelo, 2013).
Expectancy theory is an example of behavioral choice which explains about why someone chooses a certain behavioral option over another one. It also describes the behavioral route process. This learning theory also deals with issues by taking into thought on how someone being taken to mean. Crime is a product which comes from social learning and where an individual chooses to commit a crime as a result of observation. Going back to robbery, an example is when someone found a weapon, where did he or she even get the idea to rob another person and not turning this weapon in to the police (Schmidt, 2002).
In this example, expectancy theory suggests the missing piece to this question. This therapy proposes that people perform on the foundation of what he or she expect will happen as an end...