Social Security for Unorganised Workers
The National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector was set up by the UPA Government under the Chairmanship of Arjun Sengupta in September 2004. The Commission prepared two draft bills: (1) Unorganised Sector Workers Social Security Bill, 2005, and (2) Unorganised Sector Workers (conditions of work and livelihood promotion) Bill, 2005. According to the draft bill, it will cover all workers in the unorganised sector with a monthly income of Rs.5,000 and below. This category includes self-employed workers (including marginal and small farmers), wage workers including agricultural labourers, and home-based workers. It also includes informal workers under the organised sector. It is estimated that around 30 crore workers are eligible under this scheme. The Bill indicates that there will be a national minimum social security for all eligible workers covering four things: (a) health insurance; (b) maternity benefits; (c) life insurance; and (d) old age pension. Every unorganised sector worker is eligible for registration. The registered worker will get a unique social security card. The existing welfare programmes will continue as before. A National Social Security Fund will be created. The scheme will be financed from the contributions at Re.1 a day by workers, employers (wherever identified), and the Government (that is, Rs.3 per worker a day or Rs.1,095 a year). The Government contribution will be divided between Central Government and State Government in the ratio of 3:1 respectively (75 paise per worker by the Centre and 25 paise per worker by the State Governments). Similar to the Employment Guarantee Scheme, the National Commission estimated the costs of the minimum social security scheme. If all the 30 crore workers are covered, the contributions would work out to Rs.32,850 crore. The share of the Central Government will be Rs.17,548 crore and that of the State Governments Rs.5,010 crore. This adds up to a...
6 November 2013
Since passed by Congress in 1935, SocialSecurity has been considered by Americans to be one of the most beneficial and supported government programs, providing benefits to society and the elderly. Despite its widespread popularity, the program faces major funding issues, making the future of SocialSecurity seem unpromising. In the 2013 annual report by the SocialSecurity and Medicare Board of Trustees, the SocialSecurity program is estimated to be drained by 2033, after which it would be able to fund only seventy-five percent of promised benefits (“SocialSecurity, Present and Future”). This projected downfall of SocialSecurity has many people wondering if the program will still be around for them by the time of their retirement. Due to Social Security’s inability to change with the economy over the past eighty years, the federal government program will not survive without a combination of benefit reducing, income increasing, and income redistributing reforms to the foundation of the system.
Although the current program shares the same founding purpose as the original SocialSecurity Act of 1935, to provide security for workers, the design of...
...CAPITAL WAGE EMPLOYMENT IN UNORGANIZED SECTOR
As stated earlier the paramount importance of the unorganized sector can be seen in the NSS survey 1999-2000 – around 92% the Indian workforce (around 370 million workers) were employed in the unorganized sector against a standard of 60% in developing countries. NCEUS report in 2004/05 showed an increase in employment in the unorganized sector by 8.6 million, the corresponding figures in organized sector also showed an estimated 8.5 million increase. This meant that by 2005 the 92% workforce of unorganized sector diminished to 86% or 392 million, and according to 2011 NCEUS report the employment in organized sector showed first signs of progress since independence.
So the bottom-line is more and more of the labor are now coming under the purview of the formal enterprises albeit in small steps over the last 5 years, however many experts feel the formalization should have happened a long time ago and the country's inefficient bureaucratic mechanism is the sole reason for procrastination of the inevitable formalization.
This chapter would analyze the Unorganized sector from three perspectives
1. Capital -Role of MFIs in extending credit,
2. Wage disparity based on Gender and
3. Employment/Unemployment numbers in different sectors as well as employment categories.
In the past decades, SocialSecurity Administration has had annual revenue that excesses the amount it pays to beneficiaries. However, U.S. economy situation has created a long-term effect in many of the public organizations and departments. SocialSecurity Administration is one of many departments that will face some economy issues during U.S. economy recovery. Socialsecurity will post nearly $600 billion in deficits over the next decade as the economy struggles to recover and millions of baby boomers stand at the brink of retirement, according to new congressional projections, (Ohlemancher, 2011). The funds that SocialSecurity has save to payout their beneficiaries have an expiration date. In the upcoming years more people will be eligible for retirement, however, many of them will only be pay 78 percent of their benefits, (Ohlemancher, 2011). The government needs to find solutions for the upcoming deficits and be able to help SocialSecurity Administration to no run out of funds.
In 2011, Socialsecurity administration will collect about 4.6 million retirement, survivor, and Medicare claims. 3.3 million SocialSecurity and SSI claims and 326,000 SSI aged claims, (SocialSecurity, 2011). These claims...
The purpose of this paper is to analyze socialsecurity so as to show the
reader what makes it beneficial to us today. .
Throughout my life the words social and security have meant little more to
me than the representation of a small blue card in my wallet, a consistent and
increasingly significant deduction of funds from my weekly pay-check, and a
vague academically-instilled recollection of the potential for long-term future
benefit. In fact, it was not until I researched pertinent material for this
particular project that I truly learned how markedly beneficial socialsecurity
will be after my eventual retirement.
Reflecting on precisely how ignorant I had been to the issue prior to my
investigation, I realized a tragic irony which exists quite commonly within our
society today; young people are not taught to save for retirement.
I think that many of my friends do not even think much of saving for their
college graduation, let alone for their retirement. Eventually, however, most
of us will reach a point in our lives where work shall come to an end, yet the
existence of living expenses will not. Socialsecurity, many of us find out;
will provide us with a monthly check at this point. What we do not realize,
however, is that this amount is not intended to be used as our sole source of
...health and social care setting.
When you are working within a health and social care setting the most important thing is to evacuate the people that is in your care out of the building first.
When you are working in an organisation you should always familiarise yourself with where the fire exits, fire alarms and fire extinguishers are located.
If you are working within a care setting with elderly residents and there is a fire it is important that you smash the fire alarms in order to make everyone else in the building aware that there is a fire. As a career, your main priority would be protect the elderly people and get them to the nearest fire exit.
If any of the fire exits are blocked for any reason and you are struggling to open them, you should always call the fire department and also close the door of the room that you are in put something along the gap at the bottom of the door so that the smoke doesn’t enter the room that you are in and stay low with a window open.
If you are in a situations where you are stuck in a room by yourself you should always open in window and shout to let passer-by know the situation that you are in.
A fire can have a very big Impact on people because they may lose valuables that mean a lot to them, they could lose their home or they could even hurt themselves.
Floods can be caused by many different things such as a natural disaster or a burst water pipe. When you are working...
...In the United States, there are several federal and state programs that provide income security to U.S. families. These programs started with the SocialSecurity Act (the Act) of 1935, and have expanded and changed over the course of several decades to become the program that is in existence today. The Act was signed into law on August 14, 1935, and provided unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, and various welfare programs. The Great Depression served as a catalyst for the SocialSecurity Act of 1935, and was intended to bring relief to families during that time. An important note is that the original SocialSecurity Act of 1935 had many amendments that took place in 1939. Although these amendments actually happened before the original program became operational, the original Act was instrumental in establishing a framework for today’s SocialSecurity program. Important aspects of these 1939 amendments include:
• The original Act provided for monthly retirement benefits that were payable to people 65 and older who were no longer working. The benefit formula was based on cumulative wages (earned since 1937). The 1939 amendments made an important change to the benefit formula, in that the retirement benefits were based on average wages instead of cumulative wages.
• The 1939 amendments also allowed for the creation of...
...POLICIES ON SOCIALSECURITY OF SMSEs WORKERS IN PUNJAB
Indian economy has preponderance of informal and unorganisedsector both in terms of number of workers and enterprises. A high proportion of socially and economically underprivileged sections of society are concentrated in the informal economic activities. The high levels of growth of the Indian economy during the past two decades are accompanied by increasing informalisation and casualisation of workforce.
Two fundamental features of the Indian economy underline the study of informal sector: (i) the overwhelming predominance of informal enterprises and informal workers and (ii) the fact that the Indian workforce is a workforce in transition.
A large section of population lives in Indian rural areas as the landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, share croppers, persons engaged in animal husbandry and fishery, forest workers, toddy tapers, workers in agro-processing and food processing and artisans such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths generally constitute the unorganised/informal sector. In the urban areas, it mainly comprises of manual labourers in construction, carpentry, trade and transport and small and tiny manufacturing enterprises as well as persons who work as street vendors and hawkers, head-load...
Northeastern State University
Over three decades ago, the nation was able to survive what was considered one of the most dramatic disasters since the Civil War. The economy was destroyed after the stock market collapsed and the country's financial stability was wiped out. One of the many steps taken to lessen the burden on the American people was when the SocialSecurity Act of 1935 and its amendments by Congress and the President FDR were established. (http://socialsecurityreform.org/history/index.cfm) As part of the requirements in the Act, the government would start taxing the income of all working Americans thus giving back money through several public fundraisers as well as programs that make monthly benefits available to an extremely large number of retired and disabled workers, their dependents, and survivors. Now the nation is dealing with an economic / political problem, which in the beginning was founded to help people but in the end has become its own demise.
In the beginning half of this era, the government was challenged with the job of paying out benefits to a great number of people with funds that were not there to give out. SocialSecurity is one of the major Federal Programs, responsible for 23 percent of all State expenses. Just about all governmental sides agree that...