Social anxiety disorder is one of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders with a lifetime prevalence rate of 12.1% (Ruscio et al., 2008). Social anxiety has been defined as anxiety resulting from the prospect or presence of person evaluation in real or imagined social situations, in which the person is the focus of attention (e.g., conversations, public speaking; Schlenker and Leary, 1982).
Many Models have been used to describe potential causes and treatments of social anxiety. In 1982, Schlenker and Leary (1982) indentified four categories of models: the social skills deficit model (anxiety is caused by actual lack of adequate social skills), the cognitive self-evaluation model (individual’s perception of skills deficit is more important than actual skill level), the classical conditioning model (anxiety is caused by pairings between aversive social consequences and neutral stimuli), and the personality trait approach (anxiety is caused by underlying individual differences). There has been more recent research that has considered the combination of all the above factors (Heimberg & Backer, 2002; Rapee & Spence, 2004)
Social anxiety is a frequently reported problem among college students, (Purdon, Antony, Monteiro, & Swinson, 2001) regardless of racial-ethnic group membership, nationality, gender, or sexual orientation (Beidel & Turner, 1998; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2006). Results indicated that persons with social anxiety are also more likely to have co-morbid mental health issues (e.g., depression), increases in substance use, and increases in physical disorders (e.g., cardiovascular disease), poor help-seeking behavior, and difficulty with normative transitions (e.g., reduced educational attainment increased teenage childbearing). Furthermore, social anxiety is a significant predictor of both suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts (Cougle, Keough, Riccardi, & Sachs-Erissson, 2009; Wunderlich, Bronisch, & Wittchen, 1998). Group Therapy
Group therapy has consistently been shown to be at least as effective as individual therapy (McRoberts, Burlingame, & Hoag, 1998; Toseland & Siporin, 1986) and evidence suggest that the issues for which college students often seek help such as anxiety, depression, interpersonal concerns, self-esteem issues are best addressed via group work (Parcover, Bunton, Gehlert, & Mitchell, 2006)
Cognitive-behavioral group therapy is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety (Herbert et al., 2005). Group therapy is one of many methods to treating anxiety that I will discuss throughout this paper. According to the research done in this particular article, 8 different group sessions were performed each focusing on the particular needs of the students. The students reported a significant increase in their confidence in social settings and a decrease in their feelings of fear in public. This is just more evidence to support the power of groups and how they influence our interactions with others. Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy has developed rapidly, and emerging evidence suggest that text-based self-help manuals presented via the internet and supported by therapist feedback can yield reliable improvements in a variety of mental disorders. Not only is this type of therapy cost effective it is great for people living in remote areas, those with irregular or inconvenient work schedules, or for people who fear face to face therapy (The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2009).
In one particular experiment on internet based treatment participants followed a cognitive behavioral self help program in the form of either pure bibliotherapy or an internet based treatment with therapist guidance and online group discussions. A...
...difference between fear and anxiety. Both actions can happen to adults and adolescents at anytime. Either or can cause harm to one because of catching an anxiety attack from being highly afraid of something. They may also be very rewarding, do to knowing right from wrong.
There are five different types of anxiety which include, panic disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Anxiety is normally defined as "apprehension without apparent cause."
Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress. Most people experience feelings of anxiety before an important event such as a big exam, business presentation, or first date. Anxiety disorders, however, are illnesses that fill people's lives with overwhelming anxiety and fear that are chronic, unremitting, and can grow progressively worse. In General, it helps one cope in a tense situation. For example, The nature of anxieties and fears change as kids grow and develop.
Furthermore, here are some specific examples that help express the meaning: Babies experience stranger anxiety, clinging to parents when confronted by people they do not recognize. Toddlers around ten to eighteen months old experience separation anxiety, becoming emotionally distressed...
...Anxiety & FearAnxiety and fear are both emotional reactions to danger, yet there is a difference between the two. Fear is a reaction that is proportionate to real danger; anxiety is a disproportionate reaction to danger or even a reaction to imaginary danger. Anxiety is feeling unrealistic fear, worry, uneasiness, and being unfocused. People who have anxiety also tend to feel restless, have fatigue, problems in concentration, and muscular tension. Fear is the ability to recognize danger leading to an urge to confront it or flee from it, also known as the “fight or flight” response. Some of the most common fears we have are of ghosts, cockroaches, spiders, snakes, heights, rejection, failure, and death.
There are several types and levels of anxiety. The most common is Existential Anxiety, which is a normal anxiety that evolves from stress. Test and performance anxiety, is the lack of focus when needing to complete a task such as a test or performance at an event. Test anxiety is common in students, who have a fear in failure of an exam. Some symptoms of this anxiety may be sweating, dizziness, headaches, fast heartbeats, nausea, and drumming on the desk.
Stranger and socialanxiety is...
...Fear causes anxiety, and anxiety can cause fear. Throughout our lives, we experience circumstances that make us feel different emotions. Some situations make us experience positive feelings and emotions, such as joy and excitement. At other times, we experience things that bring about feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, fear and anxiety.
Anxiety and fear both produce similar responses to certain dangers. Also, they both often cause similar symptoms, such as muscle tension, increased heart rate and shortness of breath brought about by the body’s “flight-or-fight” instinct. It is no surprise that for many of us fear and anxiety pretty much mean the same thing but indeed there is a difference.
Fear is known to be a cognitive and an emotional response to a situation in which someone feels threatened, related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance. The cause of the threat is realistic in nature. For example, if someone is chasing you with a knife, human instinct of fear is to run! Often times, fear of a certain situation or event is caused by a traumatic event experienced earlier in life. The effects of this traumatic event are carried by the person throughout his or her life to such an extent that when the individual finds himself or herself in a similar situation, he or she...
...Table of contents
II fear and phobias
a) What is phobia
b) Difference of fear and phobia
c) Part of the brain which is responsible for fear and phobia
d) Classification of phobia
Specific phobia- meaning
Blood injury injection phobia
Natural environment phobia
Social phobia – meaning
Agoraphobia – meaning
A phobia is an extreme, persistent fear that interferes with normal living. It is not necessarily an irrational fear. Many people have phobias of snakes, spiders, lightning, heights, and other items that really are dangerous. What is irrational is the excessive degree of the fear, leading to panic in the presence of the feared object. In most cases, people with phobias are not so much afraid of the object itself but of their own reactions. They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting. Consequently, They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting, Consequently, they do whatever they can to avoid the object that reminds them of it.
According to an extensive study of U.S. adults, about 11% of...
Everyday there are people living with fear, avoidance, pain, terror, and doubt.
This is the disorder of socialanxiety. Socialanxiety can be found throughout the entire country. Both men and women are suffering from this disorder (Main Symptoms of SocialAnxiety Disorder). Not only is socialanxiety a disorder but, it is also a phobia (Charles H. Elliott & Laura L. Smith). Socialanxiety is an apprehension towards a relationship an individual may have with people around him or her. Socialanxiety isn’t just the fear of judgments but, it can lead to keen symptoms that can heavily impact an individuals life.
An individual suffering from SocialAnxiety Disorder (SAD) is very shy, centered and afraid of his or her surroundings. What causes this disorder? Well, most likely, SAD is a natural response to many people. Correspondingly, it can also be caused from biological factors. Socialanxiety can often be caused in the early years of an individual’s childhood. Jerome Kagan, a researcher from Harvard University has found that these children all had a high resting heart rate; their heart rates would increase when the children are faced with stress. Well, the parents of these...
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This research paper is based on a mental health issue called socialanxiety disorder. It is also known as social phobia, an intense fear of becoming extremely anxious and possibly humiliated in social situations, specifically of embarrassing yourself in front of other people.
Socialanxiety disorder is also known as social phobia. It is defined as the fear of social situations that involve interaction with other people. It is the fear and anxiety of being judged and evaluated negatively by other people or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule. This leads to feelings of inadequacy, self-consciousness, and depression. The person with socialanxiety disorder may believe that all eyes are on him at all times. Socialanxiety disorder is the third largest mental health case issue in the world, and it can affect about 15 million people with 36% percent of the people having had symptoms at least ten or more years, and 13 years old being the typical onset (adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/socia/-anxiety-disorder). Michael R Liebowitz, founder of the Social...
... How SocialAnxiety affects a person’s life
According to the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, “thirty-six percent of people with socialanxiety disorder report symptoms for ten or more years before seeking help”. Socialanxiety also known as social phobia is not to be taken lightly. It often affects multiple aspects of a person’s life. This makes it difficult for someone with socialanxiety to have a normal daily pattern. Socialanxiety can affect health, relationships, daily performance, emotions, and behavior.
Socialanxiety can affect a person’s health and form bad habits. A person suffering from socialanxiety may have trouble falling asleep and frequently wake up throughout the night. Thus causing a person to develop insomnia. A lot of the time a person with socialanxiety may have trouble falling asleep due to the stress of an upcoming social event. Having bad sleeping patterns such as these can wear a person’s body down and create serious health problems (Denkmire and Perritano 7). Individuals with social phobia tend to over analyze or over think simple situations which can cause a large amount of stress when done every day. Heart...
...PSY 339 Lecture
Fear Learning in Humans- Learning to be Afraid
Learning- a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience this occurs through ASSOCIATION – PAVLOV
Classical Conditioning a previously neutral stimulus (CS)-red square- gets paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) – lightening bolt- RESULT- CS elicits fear (CR)
How do we measure fear in Pavlovian Conditioning? Freezing, Vocalization (ultrasonic for rodents), Increase in acoustic startle response, skin conductance- non- specific arousal
Differential Conditioning- ITI- intertrial interval startles for in-between startle probes (when nothing is on the screen)
Startle indexes magnitude of response of fear- ITI lowest, CS- low, CS+ highest
Amygdala (fear conditioning/shock sensitization CS+ startle reflex) nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (RPC) spinal & facial motoneurons (startle reflex), cochlear root neurons (abrupt noise-probe)
Second-order conditioning- things which predict bad things to come (blue to red square, yellow to red light) CR magnitude is lower than first order conditioning (smaller reaction to blue square)
What determines CS-US strength- not just association- but PREDICTABILITY of US, so unpaired US presentations will actually REDUCE CS-US strength, but unpaired is scarier- unpredictable US presentationsreduce conditioned fear, but increases anxiety (ITI goes...