Public Speaking: Crash and Burn, or Speak and Learn
There are a number of "creative" tips that are taught to people who are nervous to speak in public. These creative bits of advice designed to help you get over being scared are not only stupid, but will likely hurt you and make you feel worse.
Picture the Audience naked. This seemingly pornographic advice refers to imagining your audience in some position that lowers their perceived power. Other variations on this theme include, "Picture them in their underwear" and "picture them on the toilet." To all of these (and especially that last one about the loo), I say, "Ew." And how distracting! Not only do you have to remember your speech but now you have to visualize people in unflattering positions? No thank you. Instead, visualize yourself delivering your speech calmly and confidently. And as for what to do with your audience? Look at them as people interested in hearing what you have to say and strive to make a connection with them.
Instead of making eye contact look at their foreheads/chin. Or Look at the back of the room. Really? People do notice if you're not looking them in the eye. Unless you are in a large auditorium on a stage far removed from the audience, people will be able to tell if you are avoiding eye contact. Plus, you always risk coming across a person with a double chin, a mole on their face, or pimples on their forehead. I don't know about you but my face tends to change when I spot these things. How awkward would it be for not only you but the person your looking at if you are looking at them, and while your staring at them make a not so pleasant face... how embarrassing! Instead, find people who seem genuinely interested in what you are saying and speak to each one individually during your speech.
Start off with a joke. Only start your presentation with a joke if you are a priest delivering your Sunday homily or a comedian. Or if the joke is completely relevant to your speech....
Although phobic disorder is certainly common, it has been more difficult to establish the extent to which it should be considered a "serious" mental disorder from a public health perspective.
Recent studies in understanding the behavioral, molecular, and anatomical bases of fear extinction in animals and humans are leading to new knowledge about the nature of fear and new treatments for anxietydisorders that affect millions of Americans (news release from SFN). In those people who suffer from phobic disorders (specific phobia, social phobia and agoraphobia) excessive and inappropriate fear and anxiety comprise the core symptoms of the disorder. Collectively, these disorders are the most common forms of psychiatric illness, surpassing rates of mood disorders and substance abuse
A study by Michael Davis, PhD, at Emory University (SFN News Release) that determined how human brain can used to treat such disorders. He found that a receptor for a particular protein called the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in a brain region called the amygdala is critical for the extinction of conditioned fear. Many medical professional believe and it also has been proved true in many cases that combination of drugs therapy and behavioral therapy has the most successful results.
2. Phobia - Definition
...Anxiety is a normal reaction to a threatening situation and results from an increase in the amount of adrenaline from the sympathetic nervous system. This increased adrenaline speeds the heart and respiration rate, raises blood pressure, and diverts blood flow to the muscles. These physical reactions are appropriate for escaping from danger but when they cause anxiety in many situations throughout the day, they may be detrimental to a normal lifestyle. Ananxietydisorder is a disorder where feelings of fear, apprehension, or anxiety are disruptive or cause distortions in behavior, (Coon, 526); they are psychiatric illnesses that are not useful for normal functioning. At times, an underlying illness or disease can cause persistent anxiety. Treatment of the illness or disease will stop the anxiety. Anxiety illnesses affect more than 23 million Americans with about 10 million Americans suffering from the most common, general anxietydisorder . (Harvard, 1). Common anxietydisorders are panic attacks (panic disorder), phobias, and general anxietydisorder (GAD). Panic attacks Panic attacks can begin with a feeling of intense terror followed by physical symptoms of anxiety. A panic attack is characterized by unpredictable attacks of severe...
...Panic disorder is a real illness that can be successfully treated. It is characterize by sudden attacks of terror, usually accompanied by a pounding heart, sweatiness, weakness, faintness, or dizziness. Panic attacks usually produce a sense of unreality, a fear of impending doom, or a fear of loosing control. Have had a panic attack before. For me, a panic attack was almost a violent experience. I felt disconnected from reality. I felt like I had lost control. My heart pounded very hard and I felt like I could not breath. I had an overwhelming feeling that things were crashing down on me.
Panic disorder affects about 6 million American adults and is more common in women than in men. People with full-blown, repeated panic attacks can become very disabled by their condition. Some people lives become so constricted that they avoid normal activities, such as grocery shopping or even driving. Some people start to avoid places or situations where panic attacks have occurred. For example, if a panic attack happened in an elevator, someone with panic disorder may develop fear of elevators. This fear could affect the choice of a job or an apartment, and restrict where that person can seek medical attention or enjoy entertainment.
Panic disorder is one of the most treatable of all the anxietydisorders, responding in most cases to certain kind of medication or certain kinds of cognitive...
...relates to Anxietydisorders.
Psychologist Walter Cannon, (1963) was the founder of the fight or flight response, characterising it as the stress response for human beings and also a representation in the vital mechanism of our survival process. (Cacioppo, Bernston, Adolphs, Carter, McClintock, McEwen…et al. 2002.) The fight or flight response is the body primitive and automatic response which prepares human beings to either ‘fight’ or ‘flee’ from a perceived threat, you could also say it is the biological response to acute stress (Bernstein, and Nash, 2008.). This is a pattern of physical reactions generated by the sympathetic nervous system (Bernstein et al. 2008) prompting the body’s fight or flight response when faced by a threatening encounter one might have. According to Gellhorn and Loofburrow, (1963) as cited in Bernstein and Nash (2008) parts of the sympathetic nervous system are triggered in sympathy when other parts are stimulated creating the fight or flight response Figure three. This corresponds to the hypothalamus located in the brain when stimulated it moderates a succession of nerve cells emission and chemical release prompting our bodies to either fight or run away at the face of harm (Nolen – Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar, 2009.) Several types of neurotransmitters are involved in the system, collectively known as the hypothalamus pituitary – adrenocortical (HPA) axis, has a vital contribution to our...
...Unit 14 Physiological disorders
Task1 P1 and P2
Physiological Disorder | Panic Disorder | Bipolar Disorder |
Cause of Disorder | The causes of panic attacks and panic disorder are not so easy to understand.Normally the tendency to have panic attacks runs in families.This is always connected to the one of the major event of a person in his life graduating from college and entering the workplace, getting married, and having a baby. Severe stress, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, or job loss can also get a panic and this happens due to the unexpected event.Panic attacks can also be caused by medical conditions and other physical causes | There are number different factors act together for the cause of bipolar disorder is widely believed to be the result of chemical imbalances in the brain. If there is an imbalance in the levels of one or more neurotransmitters, it may cause the disorderBipolar disorder is widely believed to be the result of chemical imbalances in the brain. Bipolar disorder is also thought to be linked to family members of a person with the condition have an increased risk of developing it themselves and no single gene is responsible for disorder |
Physiological changes due to Disorder | Panic disorder even though there is no need to panic they start getting panic without any...
...tress and anxiety are caused by the response we have to challenging situations, situations where there is a perceived or real threat to our physical self, mental well being or perhaps our environment, lifestyle, family, job etc. Different people experience stress or anxiety for different reasons and deal or fail to deal with increased stress or anxiety levels in different ways. The feeling of stress or anxiety is our bodies reaction to fear or change – flight, fight or freeze. We feel stress or anxiety as a mechanism for avoiding dangerous situations in life ( i.e. – when predators approach) hormones flood our system preparing us to stand and defend ourselves, fight, or run away, social “rules “ prevent us from actually hitting someone or running away from a bullying boss at work and the excess of the hormones in our system drive the body into overdrive with no release causing many of the physical symptoms we experience at a moment of stress or anxiety.
However, we need a certain amount of “stress” to motivate us to do things, for example additional stress experienced because a father may need more money for better schooling may be the motivator for him to get a higher paid job, or work longer hours. However chronic stress (constant stress over along period of time) is responsible for many emotional and physical difficulties, Failure to earn more money or find a better...
...Blood injury injection phobia
Natural environment phobia
Social phobia – meaning
Agoraphobia – meaning
A phobia is an extreme, persistent fear that interferes with normal living. It is not necessarily an irrational fear. Many people have phobias of snakes, spiders, lightning, heights, and other items that really are dangerous. What is irrational is the excessive degree of the fear, leading to panic in the presence of the feared object. In most cases, people with phobias are not so much afraid of the object itself but of their own reactions. They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting. Consequently, They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting, Consequently, they do whatever they can to avoid the object that reminds them of it.
According to an extensive study of U.S. adults, about 11% of people suffer a phobia at some time in life, and 5 to 6% have a phobia at any given time. However, phobias vary from mild to extreme, so their apparent prevalence depends on how many marginal cases we include. As with other anxietydisorders, phobias are more common in women than men.
Fear vs. Phobia
What diagnosis has been given to this client?
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
Please outline the major symptoms of this disorder.
According to the DSM, the major symptoms of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia are recurrent panic attacks with anxiety about experiencing another attack. Also present is anxiety being in a public place where escape will be difficult or embarrassing or where it will be difficult to receive assistance in an emergency.
Briefly outline the client’s background (age, race, occupation, etc.)
The clients name is Annie and she is a 24 year old Caucasian woman. She has held a variety of jobs but has consistently had trouble holding on to a job for any length of time. Both of her parents are still living but they do not get along. She currently lives with a group of her friends.
Please describe any factors in the client’s background that might predispose her to this disorder.
In Annie’s interview, she states that she remembers her childhood as being normal but later in the interview, reveals that she experienced abusive experiences at a young age. Also, women are 3 times more likely than men to be diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Furthermore, Annie remembers having night terrors at age 4 and of her parents trying to calm her down. Finally, Annie was also diagnosed with major depression and...