Situation Awareness and
Decision Making in a Warning
Advanced Warning Operations Course
IC Core 2
Lesson 3: Team SA
Warning Decision Training Branch
Lesson 3 will focus on the Situation Awareness (SA) of teams. The “teams” in this lesson are not limited to the forecast office staff. For example, another team would be the entire group comprised by the forecast office, the media, and emergency managers, who are all part of the warning process.
Lesson 3: Team SA
• Identify factors that can impact getting
and maintaining team SA.
“When in danger, when in doubt, run in circles,
scream and shout”
The Learning Objective for Lesson 3 applies to factors that affect getting and maintaining team SA. The Learning Objectives will be tested when you take the on-line exam for IC Core 2.
Lesson 3: Team SA
1. Using specific data examples, identify the
three levels of SA and how they are
contributing to your warning decisions,
a) WES simulations, and
b) Warning events.
2. As part of post-event analysis, determine
the role that SA (good or bad) at the
three levels played in the warning
decisions that were made.
The Performance Objectives for Lesson 3 apply during this course as well as after completion. Though they are not tested formally, questions related to these Performance Objectives will be posed during the course simulations. Developing SA in the “domain” of the warning environment is a skill that evolves over time and is an important asset in making sound warning decisions.
Apollo 13 and Team SA
The Apollo 13 mission is an interesting example of a shift in team SA. This large team of controllers had to build their SA sufficiently to shift the goal from mission completion to getting the astronauts back alive. Imagine the reluctance to abandon the mission, but lengthy resistance would have caused delays that might have prevented the return of the astronauts.
A Shared Understanding
Who’s in charge
What are each of
these people doing?
Who has the
Did the right person
hear that report?
This photo was taken at a forecast office during a significant warning event. The arrows depict all the potential interactions among team members. There are five people working in this one area and others working elsewhere. The potential for communications chaos is very high in this environment.
Are Team Decisions Inherently
Differing views can paralyze a team
Teams may suffer from a collective error
Communication of information among team
members may be faulty
• Status differences may have an impact
• Cultural differences may play a role
Team SA has its own challenges. Team decisions are not necessarily better. There are a number of things that can derail team SA, such as inability to resolve conflicts, poor communication, status and cultural differences.
Team SA Definition
“The active construction of a situation partly shared
and partly distributed between two or more agents,
from which one can anticipate important states in the
Salas et al 1995
• Team SA is the result of each individual’s SA
• If one individual loses SA, it can affect that of
“40% of reported incidents in the ASRS
data base occurred when only one crew
member had a problem with SA.”
The definition of team SA addresses the construction of SA for each individual, with information shared among team members, building team SA. The quote from ASRS shows that the impact is significant when only one member of a team loses their SA. ASRS is the Aviation Safety Reporting System, a web site provided by NASA where pilots and crew members can report incidents anonymously. This database is also used by human factors...
In this essay, we will discuss the importance of self-awareness and other forms of awareness in building quality relationships.
Communication plays a vital role in developing any kind of healthy relationship, regardless of what phase the relationship is in. “Ineffective communication causes an interpersonal gap that is experienced in all facets of life and in all sectors of society” (Bolton, 1987, p.4) Communication can be divided into two categories which is verbal and non-verbal. Verbal is the spoken language whereas non-verbal includes gestures, body language and facial expression. Effective communication can be established when this two types of communication complement each other. We will discuss how self-awareness and other-awareness can be applied to heighten the ability in our skill in communication to bridge gaps in a relationship. After all, working on a relationship starts with working on ourselves.
Types of Awareness
Self-awareness is being conscious and being able to connect to our feelings and actions. By accepting and understanding our thoughts and interpretation processes, we will have a clearer picture of what we want to achieve. And this will undoubtedly help in making wise and sound decisions in a relationship. It is just like driving a car! In self-awareness, we have to be in control of our thoughts, speech, emotion and behavior. For...
...Stories Of Awareness Beyond Oneself:"Araby" And "A Sunrise On The Veld""Araby" by James Joyce and "A Sunrise On The Veld" by Doris Lessing are both short stories in which theprotagonists gained a consciousness that was beyond themselves. The main characters are both initiatedinto new realities and truths of which they were not previously aware. Both short stories will beexamined with reflections according to the type of initiation that was experienced, the nature of thenarrators, the similar and dissimilar aspects of both characters and various components of the short stories. In the two stories, both characters were experiencing an initiation or awareness of newactualities that were outside of themselves. The main characters both painfully learned that thisinitiation was beyond their control. It was impossible for them to ignore the new realities which theyboth came to understand. The new found awareness was so powerful that it changed each boy’s entireoutlook and they both began to see the world through new eyes. The type of initiation both charactershad was a distressing journey from innocence to knowledge and experience. The two narrators had different attitudes and reactions to the initiation experience.In Araby, the reader learns of the boy’s initiation in the final sentence: "Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity; andmy eyes burned with anguish and anger."1 The...
10 March 2015
Sexual Assault; More Awareness, Less Cases
Sexual abuse is a pressing issue all over the world and has been for years. Sexual assault
can happen anywhere; the workplace, war, home, on the street. Since the 1960s, movements to
raise awareness and prevent sexual assault have been made. The statistics for sexual assault are
way too high. In order to change these numbers, awareness needs to be raised and the proper
precautions need to be taken.
The odds for a woman to experience sexual assault are one in four. As for men, the odds
are one in six chance of experiencing sexual abuse in their life time. Only about 39 percent of
sexual assault cases are reported to the police each year, making this crime one of the most
underreported. (Get the Facts
One way to raise awareness and inform young women and men of sexual assault and how
to prevent it, is by teaching about it in our schools. With the schools teaching about such a taboo
topic, they would be able to teach the adolescent youth many different ways of preventing it.
They can learn how to react when someone they know becomes a victim, also to prevent them
from believing the harmful lies of rape culture. ...
Caritas helps the villages that are in dire need of help by raising awareness in schools and doing fundraisers to raise money for materials. One of the unique ways that they help raise awareness is to go to some of these villages, and make a video about one or more of the inhabitant’s lives. This opens people’s eyes to the many ways that people have to suffer from war, famine, or natural disasters. Another unique way that helps them raise money is by providing a small box to each classroom in many schools, where the students can put their spare change in and also so the students can hold fundraisers themselves and raise money in that way. An example of a student fundraiser (prepared by the teacher) is that a male teacher has to wear a school dress if a certain amount of money is raised by the class.
So, how does Caritas do it? How do they help people in need? They show the poor that they are there and give them clothing and food without expecting anything in return. This charity work has helped many people over the years and restored pride and self-esteem in those who lost all hope. We hope that they continue to do these kind and helpful things in the future.
What Catholic values are evident in Caritas? How are they following Jesus’ example?
Caritas shows many signs of Jesus through their teachings. Caritas helps those in need and spreads the word of the unfortunate; they raise awareness of homelessness and...
...Xavier’s College |
Self Awareness |
Emotional Intelligence |
Chrysella Vaz 728Anisha Salgaonkar 723Natasha Fernandes 711Daniel Pereira 717 |
Self Awareness is having a clear perception of your personality, including strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, motivation, and emotions. Self Awareness allows you to understand other people, how they perceive you, your attitude and your responses to them in the moment.
We might quickly assume that we are self aware, but it is helpful to have a relative scale for awareness. If you have ever been in an auto accident you may have experienced everything happening in slow motion and noticing details of your thought process and the event. This is a state if heightened awareness. With practice we can learn to engage these types of heightened states and see new opportunities for interpretations in our thoughts, emotions, and conversations.
Why Develop Self Awareness?
As you develop self awareness you are able to make changes in the thoughts and interpretations you make in your mind. Changing the interpretations in your mind allows you to change your emotions. Self awareness is one of the attributes of Emotional Intelligence and an important factor in achieving success.
Self awareness is the first step in creating what you want and mastering your. Where you focus your...
...Developing Self Awareness
It is important for every individual to understand themselves. If you can understand yourself, you will understand others easily. Communication with others will be easier for you. Different self awareness questions, methods and studies can help us discover things about ourselves that we did not know. We can find about our hidden and unknown sides. Being open to feedback from others can make us stronger managers. Managers with higher levels of self awareness are more likely to advance in their organizations than the ones with lower self awareness. It is not unusual that our first case study case starts with self awareness topic.
Summary of the case study
Sally Smith is a marketing manager for one of the hotels in Phoenix, AZ. She attends a regular Tuesday meeting with senior staff. She knows that today's topic has vague sounding heading, it is called “morale issues.” She knows that some of her colleagues are not going to attend the meeting since this meeting does not sound too important. Some of them decided to catch up on pile of paperwork that had been put off. Jeff, however is playing golf with his college friends.
But this event turned out to be a good one, because they had to do self awareness assessment. General Manager, John, realizes that there is a great turnover in his hotel and he decides to hire a consultant...
...What is self awareness?
Self awareness is a way for us to explore our individual personalities, value systems, beliefs, natural inclinations, and tendencies. Because we are all different in the way we react to things, learn, and synthesize information, it’s helpful to occasionally spend time in self-reflection to gain a better insight into ourselves.
Why is self awareness important?
Self awareness is important because when we have a better understanding of ourselves, we are empowered to make changes and to build on our areas of strength as well as identify areas where we would like to make improvements. Self-awareness is often a first step to goal setting.
Key Areas for Self-Awareness
Human beings are complex and diverse. To become more self-aware, we should develop an understanding of ourselves in many areas. Key areas for self-awareness include our personality traits, personal values, habits, emotions, and the psychological needs that drive our behaviors.
Personality. We don't normally change our personalities, values and needs based on what we learn about ourselves. But, an understanding of our personalities can help us find situations in which we will thrive, and help us avoid situations in which we will experience too much stress. For instance, if you are a highly introverted person, you are likely to...
...considerably low level of self-awareness concerning one’s self. This is unfortunate due to the fact that self-awareness is an essential first step toward maximizing management skills. Self-awareness can improve one’s judgment and help them to identify opportunities for professional development.
Self-awareness involves developing an understanding of many dimensions of the individuality of an individual. Self-knowledge provides an essential foundation for general personal mastery as well as other personal management skills such as setting goals and priorities, and managing time and stress. Philosophers have long since recognized that knowing thyself may involve distinguishing between what you are thought to be versus what you actually are. This observation suggests that the perceived self-concepts of an individual may be either positively or negatively biased, from their actual self-concept. However, once self-concepts are formed, individuals tend to avoid new knowledge that does not fit within their self-view. This is typically achieved through feedback from family, friends, and coworkers. Fear, shame, or other emotions may prevent an individual’s ability to develop an honest and accurate awareness of who they are as a person (Williams, 2003).
Human beings are complex and diverse creatures and therefore, to become more self-aware, every individual person should develop an understanding of themselves...