This essay will cover the topics of Sigmund Freud and phobias. Freud is one of the most familiar psychoanalysts. How did Freud influence the study of psychology? How did he analyze phobias? How are phobias acquired? How are phobias treated today? Research was conducted using books and electronic sources.
Sigmund Freud is one of the best known psychoanalysts. He had very radical ideas for his time. Freud is associated with the idea that psychological problems stem from sexual desire. Freud even hypothesized that phobias are a result of sexual feelings. (Rathus, 2008) Are phobias caused by sexual needs, or is there something else that causes people to have phobias?
Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia (now the Czech Republic). Freud grew up a very confused child. His father married a woman 20 years younger than himself. His father had sons that were as old as his new bride. Freud thought his half-brothers were more compatible as a mate with his mother. Freud himself questioned if his new little sister was produced from his father or half-brother. His childhood confusion led him to investigate his own thoughts and the thoughts of other people. (Gay, P., 1988)
Freud used psychoanalysis in patients, which allowed them to openly speak about their memories in a relaxed environment. Freud’s psychoanalyst approach is still used today. Summer’s (2006) states, “Freud found that as the patient grew closer to the traumatic material, repression increased, and the analyst’s intervention was required. As each resistance was overcome, a new zone was reached in which the patient could associate freely, but as that process approached painful material, the resistance intensified, and the analyst was needed to break through the new barrier.” (p. 328) But Freud was not satisfied with just analyzing people’s thoughts. He wanted to know what motivated the repression of feelings.
Freud thought the three psychic structures: the id, the ego, and the superego, could be used to describe the conflicting forces of personality. The id begins at birth and continues until the child is 1 year old. The id is entirely unconscious, and has no regard for rules of society. The ego is the second stage of psychic structures. The child is beginning to see that needs cannot be met immediately. The third stage of psychic structure development is the superego. This stage takes over in early childhood as the child begins to learn the rules of society. The child also begins to be more like his or her parent. (Rathus, 2008)
Freud was very controversial in his time. He believed children’s basic feelings were related to sexual feelings. He defined five stages of psychosexual development as oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. The stages of psychosexual development translate into adulthood as well. If needs are not met, or overstimulated during any of the stages, the child will have issues as an adult. (Rathus, 2008)
The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage. This begins at birth. Freud argued that breastfeeding satisfied sexual need in an infant as well as nourished the child. By weaning the child early, he or she may have an oral fixation later in life. The anal stage begins at the second year of life. During this time the infant is able to begin to control bowel movements. Freud believed anal fixations translated into adulthood by being overly self-controlling or careless. The third stage is the phallic stage, which begins around the third year of life. During this stage children may have strong sexual attachments to a parent. The latency stage begins after a child has had sexual attachment to a parent for several years. During this stage the sexual feelings remain unconscious. The fifth and final stage is the genital stage, which takes over at puberty. It is at this time that young adults begin to find mates that resemble their father or mother. (Rathus, 2008)...
Jewish background, though avowed atheist
Lived in Vienna until Nazi occupation in 1938
Had medical background- wanted to do “neurophysiological research”
Private practice with specialty in neurology
Josef Breuer and Anna O.
Private practice in nervous and brain disorders
SigmundFreud (1856-1939) developed psychoanalysis as
(1) a theory of psychological development, personality, and neurosis;
(2) a method for studying symbolic cognitive processes and the unconscious; and
(3) a technique of psychotherapy.
Structure of Personality
a. Infants are born with Id intact
b. Operates on PLEASURE PRINCIPE – to gain pleasure, avoid pain
c. Driven by sexual and aggressive urge
a. The rational level of personality
b. Operates on REALITY PRINCIPLES – does realistic and logical thinking
c. The balance between Id and Superego
a. Partially unconscious
b. Operates on MORAL PRINCIPLES
c. Able to differentiate between good and bad, right and wrong
d. If people follow their superego, they will feel proud but if they don’t follow, they will feel guilty and anxious
Oral Stage (0-18 months)
Pleasure centering around the mouth (sucking, biting etc)
Focus: weaning- becoming less dependent
Not resolved? aggression or dependency later in life-- fixation with oral activities (smoking, drinking, nail biting etc.
Anal (18-35 months)
Fixation on bowel and bladder...
...SigmundFreud es reconocido como el padre de la psicología. Sus ideas nos rodean a diario ya
sea en libros, películas, etc. A pesar de esto sus teorías y planteamiento fueron y siguen siendo
atacados por sin numero de personas. Se tiene que tomar en cuenta diferentes factores que pueden
haber influido en el desarrollo de las teorías como las épocas del Modernismo y del Post-Modernismo
o filosofías como el positivismo y el pragmatismo. Estos factores pueden haber influido en la teoría y en
la forma en que esta es vista.
La teoría de SigmundFreud es una de las teorías mas complejas y profundas que existen hoy en
día. Freud dividió los estados de conciencia: Consiente, Pre consiente e Inconsciente. Freud propuso
que hay 3 divisiones clásicas en la memoria, que se diferencia por qué tan consiente estamos del
material que se guarda en cada una de las divisiones. El estado de conciencia es todo aquello
que nos damos cuenta en un momento en particular como son las percepciones presentes,
pensamientos, fantasías y sentimientos. Otro estado es el preconciente que se refiere a todo
aquello que somos capases de recordar ósea es la información que no esta presente en el
momento pero puede ser traída al consiente. El tercer estado es el inconsciente y este se refiera a
toda esa información que no se puede traer al consiente ya sea lo relacionado con...
* Born: May 06, 1856 in Freiberg, Germany
* Died: September 23, 1939 in London, England
* Nationality: Austrian
* Occupation: Psychoanalyst
1856 - (May 6) Sigismund Freud was born
1873 - Freud began studying medicine at the University of Vienna.
1881 - Freud received his doctorate degree in medicine .
1886 - Began his own private practice.
1893 - Began formulating his seduction theory.
1896 - First used the term psychoanalysis
1900- Published The Interpretation of Dreams
1933 - Corresponded with Albert Einstein.
1939 - Freud died on September 23 of cancer in London.
Freud's psychoanalytic view of human nature is rather pessimistic. Driven by primitive urges, humans are little more than controlled savages seeking to satisfy sexual and aggressive pleasures. The internal conflicts between id, ego, and superego only serve to heighten the turmoil at the root of personality.
The work of SigmundFreud (1856-1939), the Austrian founder of psychoanalysis, marked the beginning of a modern, dynamic psychology by providing the first systematic explanation of the inner mental forces determining human behaviour.
Motivations for growth, creativity, and fulfillment pepper Rogers' optimistic stance on human nature. With Freuds pessimistic and Rogers optimistic, Skinner is left somewhat neutral on human...
SigmundFreud was a major influence in the study of modern psychology and behavior in the twentieth century. Originally wanting to become a scientist, he was inspired by hypnotherapy to solve the unconscious causes of mental illnesses by studying psychoanalysis, the structure of the mind, psychosexual states, and dream interpretations. Freud’s work allowed psychologists to go into more depth of the reasoning behind mental illnesses and physiological symptoms.
One of the most prominent figures in the twentieth century was the psychologist and neurologist, SigmundFreud. Freud, originally aiming to be a scientist, revisited concepts from theories of major scientists and neurologists in the past to create more dynamic theories of the human mind. Marking the beginning of a modern psychology, he determined human behavior by providing well-organized information of inner conflicts and mental forces. Not only was he the founder of psychoanalysis, but he also developed many theories involving dream interpretations, unconsciousness, the structure of the mind, psychosexual stages, and the Oedipal complex.
Freud was born May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia of the Austrian empire, where today it is known as the Czech Republic (SigmundFreud, 2012, para. 1). His father was Jacob Freud, a Jewish merchant and...
Psychoanalysis & the Unconscious
SigmundFreudSigmundFreud had numerous theories over the course of his career; the ones that I will be discussing are only a few. SigmundFreud is a major influence on many theories of psychology. Freud was born May 6, 1856, and died on September 23, 1939, at the age of 83. He was the oldest of eight children. In 1882, he found his life partner who he married named Martha Bernays. Freud was a smoker and he began smoking tobacco at the age of 24. He believed smoking enhanced his capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating it. Freud spent most of his life in Vienna. From 1891 until 1938 he and his family lived in an apartment at Berggasse. Freud delivered many lectures on his theories to small audiences every Saturday evening at the lecture hall of the university's psychiatric clinic.
The theories of SigmundFreud were advanced and are very influential to modern society. This Austrian physician and neurologist is commonly considered as having one of the greatest creative minds of recent times. Throughout his entire childhood Freud had been planning a career in law. It was in his college years that made him change his mind and make a career in...
US History Honors/Period 3
January 3rd, 2012
“History Fair – The impact of SigmundFreud on Psychology”
One of the most influential and controversial thinkers of our time is SigmundFreud. He changed our perspective of how we look at our childhood, personality, memory, sexuality, and therapy. Many people have learned from Freud’s work and went on farther with his ideas bringing out new theories contributing to his work. SigmundFreud was the founder of psychoanalysis, providing the first explanation of the inner forces of the mind involving human behavior. SigmundFreud impacted psychology through a revolution by his major theories, his discovery of psychoanalysis, and even his works including the many writings and books. Many other individuals and psychologists reacted to Sigmund Freud’s impact on psychology by influencing them.
SigmundFreud had many different theories that were largely influential and revolutionary, though now are considered criticism for the present and during his life. These ideas have become one with our everyday lives showing of what his works impacted on us human beings. An example would be the term Freudian slip, or a misstatement that we might blurt out, revealing unconscious information of our thoughts or feelings. This...
Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. Also, how operant and classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sally’s phobia will be covered. Additionally, how extinction and tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained.
A phobia is an abnormal, vigorous, unreasonable persistent dread or terror that causes anxiety. “Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have an anxiety disorder (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2013)”. A person has the capability to make a fear out of anything; dog, open spaces, water, elevators, and tight spaces. Persons with a fears or phobias go to the ends of the earth to avoid any alleged risk that is larger more so in their thoughts than physical time. When confronted with the base of their fear, the person will sustain massive anguish that can hinder everyday tasks; fear can seldom lead to complete panic. Furthermore, for a number of individuals the simple thought of their fear is tremendously upsetting. Fears can be a wearying thing. The defeat of efficiency and productivity at the hands of a person’s phobia can be massive. However, a comprehension of psychology can offer a person the authority to development past...
Father of Psychoanalysis
Born on 6th May, 1856 in Freiberg
had two half brothers, Emmanuel and Philipp.
mother was same age as his half brother
studied medicine and specialized in
Martha Bernays in 1982
did cocaine and lots of it.
Austrian neurologist and the founder of
Master piece- “The Interpretation of
Dreams” in 1900
The concept of “unconscious”.
Driven out of Austria in1938 by Nazis.
He died in London on September 23,1939
PSYCHOANALYSIS – An
• A set of philosophical descriptions of human nature.
• A method of psychotherapy development that focuses on
factors that motivates behavior and allows the therapists to gain
information and create connection between the clients and
• A theory of personality which is developed through different stages
• Psychoanalysis asserts that the impact of early childhood sexuality an
experiences stored in the unconscious state, can lead to the
development of adult emotional problems.
• Present from birth
• Driven by pleasure
gratification of all
• Deals with reality
• Functions with
• Contains values and
• Make judjements
Freud’s defense mechanisms...