Scientific management in modern society
Scientific management also known as Taylorism (Mitchan 2005) is a set of rules that govern job design in manufacturing department. Taylor(1911), the pioneer of scientific management first came up with the theory in the late nineteenth century after viewing widespread inefficient work or soldiering among workers. Taylor’s promotion of time and motion study, production-control methods and incentive pay” (Burrell and Morgan 1979,Littler 1982 cited in Green 1986) has made great contributions to the boom of production since they were applied in practice. With the emergence of knowledge and information society which is science, technology and innovation intensified (Fagerberg, landstorm,Martin 2012 ),whether scientific management is still appropriate and effective in the modern society is uncertain. This article will explore suitability of scientific management in the new era. Firstly, principles of scientific management and influence of these principles in practical management will be reviewed followed by critiques of scientific management pointed out in the human relations movement. Then analysis of appropriateness and inappropriateness of scientific management in modern organizations will be illustrated in detail. Finally, conclusions will be made upon how to apply scientific management in the modern organization with modification of its demerits and giving full play to its merits to satisfy the demand of modern society.
Principles and influence
The principles of scientific management are major component of Taylorism. Taylor assumes that people are economic men who are so rational and self-interested that they can only be motivated by remuneration. The approaches of scientific management are based on several principles. First, tasks should be divided into simplest components. Second, management should integrate all knowledge in a particular industry and transforms knowledge into rules that can be precisely carried out. Third, all brain jobs should be separated from direct workers and leave them with planning sectors. Fourth, skill requirements should be minimized in performing tasks. Fifth, the layout of equipment and facilities must minimize motion and time taken (Bratton et al. 2010).
Next, we will look at how these principles of scientific management have influenced the conduction of management later. A typical application of scientific management is Fordism who practiced division of labor and management of time and motion in the assembly line which made mass production and product boom possible. It is described as economic expansion based on a mass production using unskilled workers(Burrows, Gilbert & Pollert 1992) and partitions of complicated tasks into simple parts with the aid of tools(Tolliday & Zeitlin 1987). So It seems Ford has inherited the principles of minimization of skill requirements and division of work from Taylorism. Another successful application of Taylorism may be the JIT production approach, originated by Ford, but perfectly applied by Toyota. According to Schermerhorn(1996), JIT is a system known for its efficiency and productivity of Japanese companies by reducing cost and improving workflow with material needed in production arrive just in time. It is fair and reasonable to judge that Ford absorbed some ideas of Taylor and scientific management into JIT approach development, such as time study(Petersen 2002). Taylorism also has influence on other modern management methods like TQM (total quality control), a model used in both manufacturing and service industries in pursuit of continuous improvement, or kaizen (Boje & Winsor 1993). Merkle (1980) believes that continuous improvement calls for a standardized program that can be measured and reproduced, so tasks are regulated and carried out in a way indistinguishable from scientific management.
Reviews of scientific management in history and modern society
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1956-1915) observed in his role as a apprentice machinist that workers used different and mostly inneficient work methods. He also noticed that few machines ever worked at the speed of which they were capable. Also, the choice of methods of work were left at the discretion of the workers who wasted a large part of their efforts ussing inefficient and unstead rules-of-thumb. They kept they craft secrets to themselves (between the group members) and worked at a collectively agreed rate that was below their ability. Therefore, he contrasted natural soldiering (i.e. the inclination to take it easy) with what he labelled systematic soldiering (i.e. the conscious and deliberate restriction of output by operators). His objectives were to achieve:
* Efficiency by incresing the output per worker and reducing deliberate “underworking” by employees
* Predictability of job performace by standardizing tasks by dividing up tasks into small, standardized, closely specified subtasks.
* Control by establishing discipline through hierarchical authority and introducing a system whereby all management’s policy decisions could be implemented.
Frederick Taylor’s 5 principles of scientificmanagement
1) A clear division of tasks and responsabilitis between management and workers.
2) Use of scientific methods to determine the...
...SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT AND CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY
Scientificmanagement is a theory of management that analysis and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labour productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of ScientificManagement (1911). He began trying to discover a way for workers to increase their efficiency when he was the foreperson at the Midvale Steele Company in 1875. Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work. Its application is contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices.
Taylorism is a variation on the theme of efficiency; it is a late 19th and early 20th century instance of the larger recurring theme in human life of increasing efficiency, decreasing waste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas of what matters. Thus it is a chapter in the larger narrative that also includes, for example, the folk wisdom of thrift, time and motion study, Fordism, and lean manufacturing. It overlapped considerably with the Efficiency Movement, which was the broader cultural echo...
...approach to ‘ScientificManagement” and what criticisms have been made of it? Do firms use scientificmanagement today?
Frederick Winslow Talyor developed a theory called the ScientificManagement. It is a theory of management that analyse and improve work process, aiming to increase labour productivity. Scientificmanagement methods are used to optimize productivity and simplifying the jobs so that workers could be trained to perform their task in one “best” way.
Prior to the development of scientificmanagement, works were performed by skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobs by apprenticeships and they made their own decisions about how their job was to be carried out. Scientificmanagement changed skilled crafts to a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who could be trained to perform the task,
Taylor developed this theory as he worked his way up from a labourer to a manager in a US steelworks company. He realised the worker in his company were not efficient, hence he wanted to improve the workers’ productivity.
Talyor stated that inefficiency is caused by both labour and management. He had observed, that workers purposely operate below their capacity and at the slowest rate that would not be punished, which is called soldiering....
...Course: Bachelor of Business Studies (BBS)
Module: Principals of Management
Title: Explain ScientificManagement. Comment on the contribution of this approach to the development of management thought. What are its limitations?
Submission Date: 8th of March 2010
Word Count 2183
“The Principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee” (Taylor, 1947)
The Author will discuss ScientificManagement under the following headings: Section 1 An explanation on ScientificManagement. Section 2, The contribution of ScientificManagement to the development of Management thought and Section 3 looks at the limitations of ScientificManagement.
What is ScientificManagement?
Bratton et al (2007: 355) defines scientificmanagement as a process of systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardising tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. The scientificmanagement approach was developed at the end of the 19th Century; its father is commonly accepted to be Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917) although some variations of the theory have been developed by...
...Role of ScientificManagement in Current Business Practices
Scientificmanagement, also called Taylorism, Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; modernmanagement theory was born, 1911 might be a logical choice. That was the year Frederick Winslow Taylor's Principles of ScientificManagement Was published. Its contents became widely accepted by managers around the world. Taylor proposes four principles of the scientificmanagement of work, Taylor believes that scientificmanagement of work will alleviate the common work problems of inefficiency, slow rate of work, and decreased productivity. Taylor’s principles of scientificmanagement derive from the positivistic paradigm.
During the 19th and 20th century, scientificmanagement resulted in massive production cost reductions, increases in profit, productivity and improvement in working conditions, environment. Although it has revolutionized management theories, these methods were developed for the last century with different industry,...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOUR PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT 2
EXAMPLE OF ORGANIZATION THAT PRACTICE SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT 3
Before scientificmanagement came along, work was performed by skilled workers who had learnt their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships. They made their own decisions on how they had to carry out their tasks.
Fredrick Taylor had noticed that many workers were performing below their capacity as they had no reason to work harder as they were paid based on the job position and the hours they worked.
Taylor had come up with his scientificmanagement theory as he wanted to prove that the application of scientificmanagement would greatly improve productivity.
Scientificmanagement methods were carried out to perform work with maximum efficiency, and jobs were made simple so that workers could be trained to perform their part at work in the most efficient way. It converted major jobs into a series of simplified jobs that could be done by unskilled workers whom could be easily trained to “the work for which it was best suited” (Koontz H. & Weihrich H)...
Module 1: Introduction to ModernManagement
Throughout history many different theories have been developed, researched, written about and put to the test in actual work place setting to see how well they work and how effective they are. Lower-level management, comprehensive analysis of management and human relations movement in management theory are just a few of them. Each theory was and still is important in today’s modern business world. Every theory has had some kind of impact on the new theories in management that have come about since then and will still continue to have an impact in the future. It’s important that managers now and managers in the future are educated on these different management theories so that they can provide the support and education to their employees need and deserve. This will foster a positive work environment that will lead to increased productivity and success within companies. Every company must have good, competent managers in order to survive and be successful.
Module 1 Introduction to ModernManagement
Assignments: Essay Questions
“Managers should be paid more than regular employees.” Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer in scholarly detail.
There are many reasons...
..."Good management is the art of making problems so interesting and their solutions so constructive that everyone wants to get to work and deal with them" (Paul Hawken, 1993) I strongly believe that this very quote sum it all on the ways and means to run an organization successfully. Based on all the well known successors in life, the ultimate key on running the organization to its best performance is proper management but sometimes it may also leave bad effects to the organization. This lead to the topic that I am going to write about which is the pros and cons of ScientificManagement.
The term scientificmanagement is the combination of two words which is scientific and management. The word "Scientific" means systematic analytical and objective approach while "management" means getting things done through others. In simple words, ScientificManagement means application of principles and methods of science in the field of management. "Scientificmanagement is the art of knowing best and cheapest way". It is the art of knowing exactly what is to be done by whom it is to be done and what is the best and cheapest way of doing it.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), 'father' of scientificmanagement, was known as one of the first...