Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Scholars about Hijab
The most prominent justifications for veiling entail, quite simply, the idea that veiling is prescribed in the Qur’an (see Arat 1994; Dragadze 1994; Hessini 1994; Sherif 1987; Shirazi-Mahajan 1995 for reviews). Several Muslim Scholars place a strong interpretive emphasis on a Qur’anic passage (S. 24:31) that urges women “not [to] display their beauty and adornments” but rather to “draw their head cover over their bosoms and not display their ornament.” Many of these same defenders of the veil marshal other Qur’anic passages that bolster their pro-veiling stance:
“And when you ask them [the Prophet’s wives] for anything you want ask them from before a screen (hijab); that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for them” (S. 33:53); “O Prophet! Tell your wives and daughters and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments over themselves, that is more convenient that they should be known and not molested” (S. 33:59).
In addition to these Qur’anic references, pro-veiling Muslim Scholars highlight hadiths intended to support the practice of veiling (see Sherif 1987 for review). Many pro-veiling Muslim clergy maintain that the veil verse was revealed to Muhammad at a wedding five years before the Prophet’s death. As the story goes, three tactless guests overstayed their welcome after the wedding and continued to chat despite the Prophet’s desire to be alone with his new wife. To encourage their departure, Muhammad drew a curtain between the nuptial chamber and one of his inconsiderate companions while ostensibly uttering “the verse of the hijab” (S.33:53, cited above). A second set of hadiths claim that the verse of hijab was prompted when one of the Prophet’s companions accidentally touched the hand of one of Muhammad’s wives while eating dinner.
Yet a third set of hadiths suggests that the verse’s objective was to stop the visits of an unidentified man who tarried with the wives of the Prophet, promising them marriage after Muhammad’s death.
A majority of Muslims also see the hijab as mandated by Allah. However, the term “hijab” is never used in the context of a woman’s clothing in the Holy Qur’an (El Guindi, 1999). Surah- al-Noor 24:31 is the one surah (passage) which most people point to for an illustration of the requirement of hijab. This passage states that women should dress modestly and should not reveal themselves to men outside their family. Including the surah here is problematic because of the translations. Many Islamic scholars translate differently, and there are Islamic scholars who feel that hijab is not mandated by the Holy Qur’an. Different translation in English will use different words. For example, here are two different translations of the same passage:
“ [24:31] And tell the believing women to subdue their eyes, and maintain their chastity. They shall not reveal any parts of their bodies, except that which is necessary. They shall cover their chests, and shall not relax this code in the presence of other than their husbands, their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, their sons, the sons of their husbands, their brothers, the sons of their brothers, the sons of their sisters, other women, the male servants or employees whose sexual drive has been nullified, or the children who have not reached puberty. They shall not strike their feet when they walk in order to shake and reveal certain details of their bodies. All of you shall repent to GOD, O you believers, that you may succeed.” This is taken from http://submission.org, which is an authorized English translation of the Holy Qur’an online (2007). But it does not mention the hijab or the veil for women at all, and commands women simply to dress modestly and “cover their chests”.
This next version, taken from a Yusuf Ali translation (2001), uses the word veil:
“ And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze...
...by David W. Baker. It is posted with permission from the author.
The Kingdom of God has been one of the dominant topics of New Testament study in this century. The reason is obvious. Many scholars, both conservative and critical, regard the kingdom of God as “the central theme” of Jesus’ public proclamation.1 In fact, a plethora of monographs has poured forth since Johannes Weiss and Albert Schweitzer made the case that Jesus’ teaching was profoundly Jewish, drenched in intense eschatological hope.2 This new view contended against nineteenth century views, which moralized the kingdom and made it palatable to modern taste by arguing it was merely an expression of ethical sensitivity raised up in the hearts of men. In contrast, Weiss and Schweitzer argued that Jesus’ claim for the kingdom anticipated God’s stark intervention in the very near future that would reshape the creation. The view became known as “consistent,” “thorough-going” or “imminent” eschatology.
For Weiss, the kingdom was purely religious, not ethical; purely future, not present in any way. The Kingdom would be God’s final miracle with Jesus functioning in his current ministry as Messias designatus.3 For Weiss, Jesus believed that he would one day become the Son of Man. At first, Jesus believed that this would occur during his lifetime, and later in his ministry, he anticipated it to come shortly after His death.4 It is a heritage...
...I deserve to be a Scholar.
To pass Education in UST is really an achievement for me. Before I took up the examination, I was so scared because, even though I am confident that I can manage to answer the exam, I am still afraid that I may not be able to have a slot because I am one of the applicants of the last batch.
After passing the examination, I really regret that I failed to reserve my slot between the date I received the results up to the deadline of reservation. So, the moment the Dean of Education allowed me to have a late reservation for my slot in UST, I really felt absolute happiness and thanksgiving that finally, I am able to study on a decent and known school.
Being asked by my classmates to teach them everytime they get trouble in studying makes me glad and pleasured. But you know what? There is a side that makes me confuse of choosing the course, Education. Why? Because many of my relatives, my father, and even the parents of my classmates said that Education doesn’t suit my intelligence. I deserve more. A higher degree and profession. They always recommend me medicine but well, I do like medicine and I really dreamt to be a doctor someday back to childhood days but its not the course I really prioritize right now. It’s not what do my heart and soul says. Maybe because I know that we cannot afford it and in reality, it takes too long to graduate. Moreover, I am finally decided to myself that I want to teach because I was inspired...
...Why are modern Muslim women adopting the veil, hijab or turban even when their mothers did not wear it? How does veiling shape the identity of these Muslim women? Is such voluntary modern veiling necessarily more oppressive than the pressure Western women are under to always dress up, look good, feminine and desirable as they walk out of their front doors? Discuss with reference to literature on Muslim women in Western minority situations and/or in predominantly Muslim countries. Refer to essential and further readings for weeks 8, and 9 in the Reader. The full reading list is also placed on MyLO in a folder titled Study Guide.
Throughout much of Western Europe, the United States and to some degree Australia, there exists a passionate dispute, a dispute which, remarkably orientates around the subject of women’s clothing. At first glance it is difficult to believe that what appears such an inconsequential matter of attire could bring about such unrest and political debate, nether the less this deeply polarised issue has managed to divide communities, activate policy-makers, engage religious leaders and send an uncomfortable schism throughout feminist ideologues. For the purpose of this essay I will use the word ‘veil’ rather than ‘Hijab, Turban, Burqa or Niqab, since the arguments are in effect about displays of bodily coverings: Where needed there will be an indication of specific coverings. The veil has ignited a quandary...
...To Veil of Not To Veil
Those of people that are brought up in typical western culture believe that Muslim women who wear the job symbolize the continued oppression of women in the Middle East. In “To Veil or Not To Veil” Jen’nan Ghazal and John P. Bartkowski perform a case study of different forms of identity among Muslim women in Austin Texas. This experiment delves into Muslim culture and tries to analyze both sides of the argument a primarily factual essay. The article carefully analyses both sides of the issue in an attempt to better understand what the head coverings mean for these women, and how their gender roles compare as muslim women.
It appears that some people of the west fail to do before making assumptions about Middle Eastern oppression of women, many stop to ask a Muslim woman what she thinks about wearing a veil. In their case study Ghazel and Bartkowski talked to twelve veiled women and twelve unveiled women in Austin, Texas and asked them questions surrounding the controversy of the hijab. Islamic women’s motivations for veiling seem to vary dramatically. The range can be broad as expressing their strongly held conviction, to critique western culture, for strictly religious purposes, and to be viewed not just as women, but as intellectual equals. Some of verses in the Qur’an and Hadiths (Islam’s holy texts) say that women must wear to hijab to not tempt men and that to be a good...
...EXPLANATION OF EACH VEIL
AL-AMIRA- A classic style, easily and comfortably worn. A two-piece set, the Al-Amira hijab comes with an underscarf complemented by a matching elasticated fabric hijab that fits snugly over the head.
SHAYLA- are classic, versatile and timeless. A rectangular scarf that is easy to wear in a variety of styles, it is also known as a Pashmina, shawl or wrap.
NIQAB- are an elegant face veils, allow you to move through society with the extra degree of modesty you want, without sacrificing practicality and comfort.
BURQAS- is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover their bodies when in public.The face-veil portion is usually a rectangular piece of semi-transparent cloth whose top side is sewn to corresponding portion of the head-scarf, so that the veil hangs down loose from the scarf, and it can be turned up if the woman wishes to reveal her face
KHIMAR- is a practical and modest covering, suitable for your everyday life -- and very useful for nursing moms
CHADOR-worn by many Iranian women and female teenagers in public spaces. A chador is a full-body-length semicircle of fabric that is open down the front. This cloth is tossed over the woman's or girl's head, but then she holds it closed in the front. The chador has no hand openings, or any buttons.but rather it is held closed by her hands or tucked under the wearer's arms.
HIJAB- is a...
...The Veil and The West
When it comes to Women in Islam much has been written about their dress, hijab, veils and burqas. Katherine Bullock and Asma Barlas are examples of such examiners; these two women investigated the veil and western politics of the body. Katherine Bullock observes veiling in her book “Rethinking Muslim women and the veil” by critically examining western media’s representation and perceptions of theveil. She also takes it one step further by interviewing sixteen Muslim women residing in Toronto; with attempts to challenge the popular western stereotype that the veil is oppressive and to stress the multiple meanings behind Muslim women’s choice of covering (Bullock, 2002). Whereas Asma Barlas explores the politics of morality and immorality of Muslim bodies, also touching on Islamic discourses on veiling and the dissonances between Muslim tradition and the Quran (Barlas, 2009). This paper examines both key questions and issues raised by these two authors along with an overview of overlapping themes found in both articles.
Bullock converted to Islam throughout the course of her studies. Her personal responses to much western journalistic views is reflected in much in her writing, along with her personal experiences living as white middle class Muslim woman. In much of Bullocks writing in this book, one can note that she is clearly frustrated and...
07 November 2013
Unnerving. That’s the only way to describe walking into a dimply lit black box theatre to realize that the actor you have come to watch…is watching you. He’s acting, yes, but the whole premise of “The View” could not have been more clearly stated as we sat down to the crackle and pop of white noise in the background. In the tiny theatre, I couldn’t have been more than ten feet from what we were soon to learn was the main character, but it could not be made clearer that actor Gideon Lombard was in a different time, a different place, or maybe even a different dimension. Lombard’s acting obviously deserves some of the credit – it’s no easy feat to be able to look the audience in the eye as they take their seats and discuss your imminent and current performance – but I believe that he could not have done such impressive work without the brilliant designs of Penelope Youngleson.
According to the programs handed out by friendly greeters at the door, Youngleson has a Bachelor’s of the Arts in Cabaret and Scriptwriting from the University of Stellenbosch, an Honours degree in Directing, and a Masters of the Arts in Theatre Making from the University of Cape Town. Being the well-educated woman that she is, I’m sure Youngleson realized what a massive undertaking “The View” would be as a designer. She had to create not one, not two, but thirteen different worlds with...
The Scholar I admire.
What is a scholar? The definition of what scholar actually means is a specialist in a particular branch of study, especially the humanities; a distinguished academic. A scholar is a person who is highly educated or has an aptitude for study. To me my sister is a scholar she is a person who achieved what she had to do in life. My sister was the first to go on to college in the family had a four point six all through high school, was a basketball manager, played volleyball, and ran track. During her time in high school in college I tried to follow in her footsteps. My sister is an minded intellectual who doesn’t put off things and does what she supposed to do. My sister is very dedicated to learning and continuous to teach me today.
My sister went to Miami University in oxford ohio. She took her mager in sociology and minor in managing and dancing. When she was in college she always pushed her self all through college. My sister was not a procrastinator in college. The deffintion of a procrastinator is the action of delaying or postponing something. This is something my sister didn’t do during her time of learning. Right now she out of college and is attending grad school to continue learning. Every year somebody throws a big New Year’s party and you can bring whomever you want. I never bring anybody only because my family is crazy once they...