Proposal Submitted to: National Science Foundation
Box 000, Washington D.C. 00000
March 8, 2012
Role of ecological and environmental differences in natural selection of Geospiza difficilis in Darwin and Santiago Islands Introduction
Few places are better suited for the study of biodiversity and evolution than the Galapagos Islands, home to Darwin’s finches. Free of most anthropogenic influences, these islands provide researchers with a natural, undisturbed environment in which to study the functions of natural selection as Darwin did 177 years ago (Grant, 2003). Since then, Darwin’s finches have been studied extensively for the insight they provide into the evolutionary questions of adaptation and speciation. However, the complex role of ecological and environmental factors (including competitive exclusion, cultural/behavioral differences, disturbances, reproductive barriers, etc.) in the process of divergence is still not well understood. Using the finch species Geospiza difficilis and the islands Darwin and Santiago as the subjects of our study, we will address these questions, simultaneously filling in the gaps left in previous studies of these islands and species. We are using the BIRDD database (Price, 1998) as the basis for our analysis of previously collected data concerning Geospiza difficilis on Darwin and Santiago. Analysis of the data indicated a significant correlation between beak size and island habitat (see table 1) suggesting island dissimilarity as a major influence in natural selection. Character displacement (i.e. divergence in body structure in allopatric populations as a result of niche competition) is one possible explanation for this variation (Campbell, 2010). Gaps in the data provided and collection dates limited our ability to analyze specific characteristics (body length and beak width in particular). Information concerning beak height and length for Darwin and Santiago Islands separately is found on tables 2 and 3. Collecting...
...Most educated people in Europe and the Americas during the 19th century had heard of or been exposed to Charles Darwin and the concept of evolution. Although he did not invent the idea, he did carry out the necessary research to document that evolution occurred and then made the idea acceptable for scientists and the general public. This was not easy to do, as the idea of evolution was not widely accepted because of the views of the post-revolutionary France. These ideas were considered a threat to the social and political order.
Charles Darwin was born in 1809 into a wealthy family; his father had the largest medical practice outside of London and his mother Susan Wedgewood was from a family of wealthy pottery makers. She passed away when Charles was just eight years old. Growing up the times were such that Charles future was mainly mapped out for him. He would go away to a university and study to be a doctor, a military officer or a cleric in the Church of England.
Charles started school at 16 in Edinburgh, Scotland as a medical student. He had little interest in medicine and was disgusted by surgery. He ended up dropping up after two years. His father then sent him to Cambridge University to study theology. It was here that he began to change his direction in life. He became very interested in science and the ideas of Adam Sedgwick, a geologist and John Henslow a naturalist that he spent time with collecting...
...Darwin and NaturalSelection
1. Yes, this article is credible information. Daniel O’Neil, who is the Professor Emeritus of Anthropology Behavioral Sciences Department in Palomar College, wrote the article.
2. Based on the reading, we can infer that Darwin’s upbringing as a child was quite luxurious and opulent. We can interpret this from the facts that O’Neil tells us, such as his father, Robert, had the largest medical practice outside of London at the time and his mother, Susannah Wedgwood, was from a family of wealthy pottery manufacturers. The author also hints us by mentioning that Charles lived in a large house with many servants. We can also infer that he had a period of grief in his life, as the author tells us that his mother, Susannah, passed away, and he lived with his father and sisters.
3. This late 18th century theory of James Hutton states that the natural forces now changing the shape of the earth's surface have been operating in the past much in the same way. The most important implication is that the earth is very old and that the present is the key to understanding the past.
4. No, all people did not agree with uniformitarianism. An opposing theory to uniformitarianism is the theory of catastrophism. This theory states that the earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events. Advocates of this theory usually believe that there have been a number of wide-spread...
...to where they are today. The idea of simple organisms migrating, dying off, adapting, thriving and changing to fit their needs of survival was unheard of, or solely disregarded, for it was not supported by many or misunderstood. That is, until one man, Charles Darwin and his evolutionary theory of naturalselection was presented for the world to take into consideration. He provided mass amounts of evidence after traveling to the GalapagosIslands for research to support his ideas and eventually, his fundamental proposals would forever change the world of science, anthropology, philosophy, and faith.
To begin, Darwin tells us that every species (within populations) contains variation; they exhibit different physical features and/or behaviours from one another. Some examples include body size, voice properties, and numbers of offspring. These abbreviations can range from extreme shifts to minor alterations, and could also be beneficial or harmful. Changes in a species can occur due to environmental factors, such as weather in a certain location, prey and predator situations (camouflage or "blending in" with surroundings), or the simple day to day functions, like eating or drinking. During his stay on the islands, Darwin studied Galapagos finches (a native bird of the area) and observed their diverse beak structures. These varied beaks allowed for specific...
...Question from Chapter 6- Critical and Creative Thinking: Although most salamanders have four legs, the aquatic salamander shown below resembles an eel. It lacks hind limbs and has very tiny forelimbs. Propose a hypothesis to explain how limbless salamanders evolved according to Darwin's theory of naturalselection.
According to Darwin there needs to be four characteristics for animals and plants to evolve. Number one is they need to be isolated. Number two is that reproduction needs to be involved, so there needs to be more than one, a boy and a girl. Number three is that naturalselection needs to occur, meaning that animal does whatever it is that they need to do to survive, even if they have no limbs. And Number four is they need to be fit sexually meaning that there should be no missing parts that will not be able to let them reproduce.
So in this particular case, it seems that a salamander eventually become isolated by water resulting in them not using any of his limbs. After that these salamanders kept reproducing, and those with the longer legs could survive predators in that area.
...introduced to evolution by way of NaturalSelection, Artificial Selection, and Sexual Selection. The process of evolution is seen in species that undergo changes over long periods of time by adapting characteristics which will better suit them to their environments. By utilizing a combination of both hypothetical imagery and scientific observation, Darwin has developed a persuasive argument intended to shed light on the origins of life.
NaturalSelectionNaturalselection is understood as the evolutionary process by which organisms capable of successfully adapting to their environment have a greater chance of survival. The survival of a species is dependent on whether or not the organism has been able to reproduce. The equation is quite simple; the longer an organism stays alive, the greater its chance for reproduction, passing along the same advantageous traits. Evolution tends to favor the species that are most capable of adapting to their environments, leaving the stragglers for extinction.
Adaptations chosen by NaturalSelection can be seen in a variety of forms. The ability for both predator and prey to camouflage in their habitat is a prime example of characteristics chosen by NaturalSelection. A gazelle who has adapted longer legs will run faster, making an easy escape from his...
Naturalselection is the gradual process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment. It is a key mechanism of evolution. The term "naturalselection" was popularized by Charles Darwin who intended it to be compared with artificialselection, which is now called selective breeding.
Variation exists within all populations of organisms. This occurs partly because random mutations occur in the genome of an individual organism, and these mutations can be passed to offspring. Throughout the individuals’ lives, their genomes interact with their environments to cause variations in traits. (The environment of a genome includes the molecular biology in the cell, other cells, other individuals, populations, species, as well as the abiotic environment.) Individuals with certain variants of the trait may survive and reproduce more than individuals with other variants. Therefore the population evolves. Factors that affect reproductive success are also important, an issue that Charles Darwin developed in his ideas on sexual selection, for example.
Naturalselection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, but the genetic (heritable) basis...
...NaturalselectionNaturalselection is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution, along with mutation, migration, and genetic drift.
Darwin's grand idea of evolution by naturalselection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find out how it works, imagine a population of beetles:
1. There is variation in traits.
For example, some beetles are green and some are brown.
2. There is differential reproduction.
Since the environment can't support unlimited population growth, not all individuals get to reproduce to their full potential. In this example, green beetles tend to get eaten by birds and survive to reproduce less often than brown beetles do.
3. There is heredity.
The surviving brown beetles have brown baby beetles because this trait has a genetic basis.
4. End result:
The more advantageous trait, brown coloration, which allows the beetle to have more offspring, becomes more common in the population. If this process continues, eventually, all individuals in the population will be brown.
Download this series of graphics from the Image library.
If you have variation, differential reproduction, and heredity, you will have evolution by naturalselection as an outcome. It is as simple as that.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution by NaturalSelection
1. More individuals are produced each generation that can survive.
...2 PAGES 305 – 310
Naturalselection: A process in which results in the characteristics of a population of organisms change over many generations. It occurs because individuals with certain inherited traits survive specific local environmental conditions and through reproduction, pass on their alleles to their offspring.
Selective Pressure: environmental conditions that select for certain characteristics of an individual and select against other characteristics
It may result from biotic factors as well, such as predators, parasites and competition for resources.
Example: population in Staphylococcus aureus, the individual members of the bacteria were selected by their environment.
They were able to survive the environmental change around them, and thus through reproduction passed on their genetic information against resistances to a particular antibiotic to their offspring’s.
NaturalSelection is Situational
IT HAS NO PURPOSE, WILL OR DIRECTION .
A trait that was once not used as an advantage for survival may be used in different times and situations for survival and reproduction
Fitness: the ability for an organism to survive and reproduce offspring’s that will live long enough to reproduce. The contribution to the gene pool of the next generation by producing offspring’s that survive long enough to reproduce
Described by the number of reproductively viable...