RIGHTS OF NATURE
• Ecuador: President
• Bolivia: President Evo
• Ecuador and Bolivia are
increasingly admired on
the international scene
for their opposition to
U.S. interference in the
democratic processes of
• This Social Revolution
was initiated by
Venezuela since 1999
• Pachamama = Mother Earth
(Indigenous language – Quechua)
• El buen vivir or “Good Living” (Sumac
Kawsay) is defined by the Ecuadorian
government as, “living at its fullest in
harmony with oneself, with the
community and with nature, by
covering needs, achieving a dignified
quality of life and death; loving and
being loved; the healthy flourishing of
all individuals in peace; and achieving a
perpetuation of human cultures”
RIGHTS OF NATURE
What do we mean when we say
that nature should have rights?
• the current system of law =
NATURE = PROPERTY
• Rights of Nature = Nature is
no merely property that can
• NATURE = ENTITIES that
have independent right to
exist and flourish
• Enforce by: People,
Why do we need to adopt legal
structures recognizing Rights of
• Species in dangerous
• Global warming is far more
• Deforestation continues
unabated around the world
•September 2008, Ecuador became the first country in the world to recognize rights for nature in its constitution
•The Yasuni ITT initiative is referring to the plan to not drill oil in Yasuni National Park and the biosphere kept from being violated.
International community takes responsibility and
pay 3.5 billion – FAIL
•In April 2010, Bolivia hosted the World People’s
Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of
•At the conference, the Universal Declaration of
The Rights of Mother Earth was drafted and
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MOTHER
EARTH April 22, 2010
• Article 1. Mother Earth
(1) Mother Earth is a living being.
(2) Mother Earth is a unique, indivisible, self-regulating community of interrelated beings that sustains, contains and reproduces all beings.
(3) Each being is defined by its relationships as an integral part of Mother Earth. (4) The inherent rights of Mother Earth are inalienable in that they arise from the same source as existence.
(5) Mother Earth and all beings are entitled to all the inherent rights recognized in this Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as may be made between organic and inorganic beings, species, origin, use to human beings, or any other status. (6) Just as human beings have human rights, all other beings also have rights which are specific to their species or kind and appropriate for their role and function within the communities within which they exist.
(7) The rights of each being are limited by the rights of other beings and any conflict between their rights must be resolved in a way that maintains the integrity, balance and health of Mother Earth.
Article 2. Inherent Rights
of Mother Earth
(1) Mother Earth and all beings of which she is composed
have the following inherent
(a) the right to life and to exist;
(b) the right to be respected;
(c) the right to continue their vital cycles and processes free from human disruptions;
(d) the right to maintain its identity and integrity as a distinct, self-regulating and interrelated being;
(e) the right to water as a source of life;
(f) the right to clean air;
(g) the right to integral health;
Article 2. Inherent Rights
of Mother Earth
(h) the right to be free from contamination, pollution
and toxic or radioactive waste;
(i) the right to not have its genetic structure modified or
disrupted in a manner that
threatens it integrity or...
EcuadorEcuador, a small country that rests on the north western part of South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru. Ecuador gained their independence on May 24, 1822 from Spain. Ecuador only has a population of about 13 million people, and the capital is Quito. The country is divided into 22 provinces, Guayaquil being the largest in Ecuador. The have a democratic republic government, and the current president is, Rafael Correa Delgado and has been the president since 2007. People consider president Rafael Correa Delgado to be a good president with his principles, but also has his flaws as he seeks to make Ecuador a communist country, which many native citizens of the country reject the idea.
Ecuador is governed by the new and revised constitution of 1998. Their government setup is basically almost the same as the United States, their executive branch is run by the elected president, and the president can only serve a term of 4 years, and can also not serve consecutive terms. President Rafael Correa is seen as the head of state and also head of the government. Ecuador’s legislature consists of 100 elected officials, that like the president can serve for 4 years term. What makes the country very hard to believe that its government is lasting this long is because of the amount of changes that Ecuador’s government has had to...
This landlocked South American Country is located North and East of Brazil and West of Peru and Chile and South of Argentina and Paraguay. There is 418,683 square miles of usable land. Ninety-five percent of the population is Roman Catholic with a Democratic Government. Bolivia also has the highest capital in the world at 11,910 feet.
In the mid-16th century, Spain entered and took control, this caused the predominant Indian population to be forced into slavery; finally in 1825 Bolivia gained independence from Spain. Once they gained their independence, the country lost huge amounts of their land to neighboring countries. During 1879-1884 several thousand acres was lost to Chile after the War of the Pacific. In 1938 Bolivia surrendered over 100,000 square miles to Paraguay after their loss at the Chaco War.
Bolivia is the poorest country in South American even though they sit on top of the second largest natural oil and gas reserve in the world. Their mineral wealth dried up in the early 17th century, about the same time they won their independence.
The official language in Bolivia is Spanish; many hybrid Spanish languages exist because of the native languages mixing with the Spanish immigrants. More than thirty other languages are spoken in Bolivia most of which are used by the indigenous people and some is used...
...What is Nature Tourism?
Nature tourism – responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people.
It is tourism based on the natural attractions of an area. Examples include birdwatching, photography, stargazing, camping, hiking, hunting, fishing, and visiting parks. These experiential tourists are interested in a diversity of natural and cultural resources. They want what is real, and they want to be immersed in a rich natural, cultural, or historical experience.
From the standpoint of conservation, nature-based tourism provides incentives for local communities and landowners to conserve wildlife habitats upon which the industry depends – it promotes conservation by placing an increased value on remaining natural areas. As nature tourism becomes more important to the local economy, communities have additional incentive to conserve their remaining natural areas for wildlife and wildlife enthusiasts.
The nature-based tourism efforts in Texas will continue to focus on achieving habitat conservation by providing information and assistance to private landowners, communities, businesses, and local community leaders wishing to make nature-based tourism an integral part of their business and community. By empowering people at the local level, we hope to build and provide guidance to a growing industry that holds great promise for...
...formed the first liberal set of ministers, most of them form Guayaquil.
The liberal revolution marked a new era in Ecuadorian politics.
It was not only a coup, but a process of social transformations due to new laws in decrees.
The Secular (laica) public and obligatory education was established. Disposed that women could access to universities.
Incorporating her to public services, so she could work for the state.
Decreed the liberty of cults.
Issued the civil marriage and divorce laws.
Eliminated the Indigenous taxation and unified the nation with the rail road.
Its great leader was Eloy Alfaro who endlessly fought not only to redeem the citizens, but to unify and give national identity
Alfaro was president of Ecuador in the periods of (1897-1901) and (1906 – 1911).
The 12TH Constitution
The national assembly reunited in Quito, on December 23rd, 1906, issued the 12th constituent that ruled until 1925, in which the first liberal principles are founded. It proclaimed Eloy Alfaro president until 1911.
This constitution proposed peace, viability and railroads, arts and science development.
The most important was the culmination of the railroad that arrived in Quito on, June 25th, 1908.
This constitution oversees the governments of Leonidas Plaza (1901- 1905, 1912- 16). Lizardo García (1905, 1906). Víctor E Estrada (1911), Alfredo Vaquerizo M (1916- 1920), José Luis Tamayo...
...Humans are responsible for a variety of environmental problems, but we can also take steps to reduce the damage that we are causing to the planet. This essay will discuss environmental problems and the measures that individuals can take to address these problems.
Two of the biggest threats to the environment are air pollution and waste. Firstly, the increasing world population is putting pressure on the natural resources. Gas emissions from factories and exhaust fumes from vehicle lead to global warming which may have a devastating effect on the planet in the future. For example, rising temperature will cause melting of the polar ice caps. As a result, sea levels will rise and we can expect more extreme weather conditions like floods and droughts may become more common. Secondly, as the human population increases, we are also producing ever greater quantities of waste, which contaminates the earth and pollutes the rivers and oceans. From these perspectives, I think that somehow we should protect our environment.
Individuals should take responsibility for the impact they have on the environment. They can take public transport rather than driving, choose products with less packaging and recycle as much as possible. They should also take fewer flights abroad for holidays . Individuals should also try to be greener to protect the natural areas and wildlife animals. In addition, most supermarkets now provide reusable bags for shoppers as well as “banks” for recycling glass,...
...What is the role of students to protect environment?
Students, the most powerful stratum of the society, know the importance of environment and nature sustainability. Nature has endowed us with all the resources to which maximum beneficiary is human beings. Nature has full proof system of protection of all the creatures and environment subject to check on excessive pollution and resources utilisation.
Students understand the need for protecting environment and they are prepared to fight against the contamination of atmosphere as today’s student is tomorrow's citizen. They show the consciousness and save the various energy sources by going on foot or bicycle to schools and other places. Students may go to bed in the evening no sooner sun sets. They may develop the habits of Reading and writing in day lights. With their efficient skills of interaction with other parts of the society, they communicate to the society about need for protecting environment. Students may promote use of cold water in day to day activities if temperature/atmosphere permits. Students need to promote the plantation in surrounding areas. They should help the government and non-government organization in preventing pollution from the society by actively participating in programs and by giving the information of those who pollutes the environment.
Students in all disciplines of education may contribute some from the knowledge in the area of their...
-Santa Cruz is well known for its steakhouses
OKAY HERE ARE REALLL FUN FACTS (:
1.The highest navigable lake in the world is found in Bolivia at 3810 meters above sea level (that's 12,382.5 feet above sea level.) That's Lake Titicaca! It takes 6 hours to cross it on a fast hydrofoil. It's also one of the deepest lakes in the world.
2.The largest deposit of salt on the planet is also found in Bolivia. contain over 64 million tons of salt! (SALAR DE UYUNI)
3.The largest deposit of lithium in the world is found under all that salt! That's right, it's buried under all that salt! Major battery manufacturers are now interested in Bolivia because they want to extract the lithium to make long-lasting batteries for cars, cellular phones and more. That would be really great for our environment, but it would mean destroying part of Bolivia's biggest tourist attraction!
4.Bolivia contains 40% of ALL animal and plant life in the world!
5.tropical rainforests and Pantanal Wetlands are some of the most biologically abundant ecosystems in the world.
6.Bolivia has 36 native cultures and over 20 official languages (NAME 3 CULTUTES AND 3 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES)
7.Bolivia is among the top "mega-diverse" countries on our planet. Together, the mega-diverse countries contain over 70% of all species known to humankind. In plant species Bolivia is the 11th country in...
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Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, was named after the independence fighter Simon Bolivar, whom broke away from Spanish rule in 1825. Bolivia is located in the west-central part of South America and at 424,162 square miles, it is the fifth largest country of the continent having an area about twice the size of Spain. Bolivia is landlocked bordering five countries; Brazil on the northeast, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west. The main physical feature of Bolivia is the Andes Mountains, which define the country's three geographic zones. First is the Altiplano, or plateau region, which lies between the Cordillera Occidental (west) and the Cordillera Real (northeast). On the northern end of the Altiplano lies the Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable body of water in the world. Secondly are the Yungas which form a transition zone between the peaks of the Andes and the Amazonian forest. Lastly are the Lowlands which make up over two-thirds of the national territory; north and east of the Andes. Most of Bolivia's important rivers are found in the northern lowlands all which eventually flow into the Amazon.
Bolivia has a population roughly about 10,556,102 people. Most...