The right to education is a universal entitlement to education, recognized in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a human right that includes the right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education. The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to rule outdiscrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve quality of education.
International legal basis
The right to education is a law in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The right to education has been reaffirmed in the 1960 UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, the 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities In Europe, Article 2 of the first Protocol of 20 March 1952 to the European Convention on Human Rights states that the right to education is recognized as a human right and is understood to establish an entitlement to education. According to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the right to education includes the right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education in...
...The Right to Education – A Global Perspective
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”
This saying of Nelson Mandela reveals a lot about the importance of education as a mean of achieving the changes we want to see in the world. Realizing the importance of education is highly significant for the nation and the world as a whole; however, giving equaleducation opportunities to people within specific countries and around the world remains a challenge for the global society. In order to overcome, or at least ease, such challenges, the right to education has been a subject of matter of international law, as well as state constitutions. While a great number of countries have been signatories and ratifiers of international conventions that protect the right to education, many countries have failed to provide the essential capacities to assure this right for various reasons. The failure to protect this right, no matter the reasons, has been quite harsh for the most vulnerable groups of different societies; hence, leaving millions of people worldwide without the capacity to contribute to a better world. As such, this paper will firstly focus on the protection of this right by international law, and it will later focus on the protection of...
...Table of Contents
* INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………… 6
* RIGHT TO EDUCATION: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ………………………7-12
* PRE-INDEPENDENCE ERA
* SUPREME COURT ON THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION
* APPROACH OF VARIOUS COMMISSIONS
* INTERNATIONAL TREATY OBLIGATIONS
* THE 86TH AMENDMENT ACT
* THE RIGHT OF CHILDERNS TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009 ………………………………………………………………………..12-15
* HIGHLIGHTS OF THE ACT
* CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………….15-16
* BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………….17-18
Education is the most effective tool and medium for human development. Right to education has been judicially construed to fall within the guarantee of right to life in Article 21 and now it is being expressly included in Part III of the Constitution as a fundamental right. The right to education of every child is clearly a human right and its proper direction a human right issue.
Children’s right to education has close link to their right to development. India being a party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, is committed to support development of children so as to promote their right to life under Article 21...
...The right to education is identified as a human right and is understood to establish an entitlement to free for all also compulsory primary education for all children. An obligation to the secondary education accessible to all children as well as access to higher education. The right to education is one of the most fundamental right but also humanright. The right to education to eliminate discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve quality of education. The education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The human rights shall promoting understanding and friendship among all nations, religious or racial groups and shall further the activities of the united nations for the maintenance of peace. This right to education is most fundamental as a human right. Education promotes a man, as individual freedom, and it shown way of life, change the thinking, and it makes smart.
2. What is right to education?
Education is the most important thing in man life, it makes sense, it effect on mind, it change the...
...WAQAR AHMAD RANA
Topic: HUMAN RIGHTS (Rights to free and compulsory Education in Pakistan)
Human rights imply the rights concerning to life, freedom, equality and self-worth of the distinct. The UN charter in its preamble reaffirms the determination of the United Nations “to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war, reaffirmed faith in fundamental humanrights and pledged to promote social progress and better standards of life. There is - of course, one might say - no absolute agreement as to how to define human rights, but among ESC human rights, the substance of the right to education is comparatively well defined: universal access to free and compulsory primary education, universal obtainability/approachability of secondary education, in specific by the liberal introduction of free education; equal access to higher education on the basis of size, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education.
(Rights to free and compulsory education in Pakistan)
In today’s period of technological advancement, development of nation is liked largely with the nation of their citizens and accessibility of trained human resources for the economy....
...India is the second largest country in the world so far as population is concerned. But so far as education is concerned it is a backward country. In past, women did not receive any education at all. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their houses. Domestic works were their only education.
During the British rule in India some noble social thinkers of the time paid their attention to the education of woman in our country. Raja Ram Mohan Ray, Iswara Chandra Vidyasagar was famous reformers who gave emphasis on the education of women. They put forth a very strong argument.
Man and woman are like the two sides of a coin. Without one, the other cannot exist. They help each other in every sphere. So education should be given to both man and woman. Further, women are the mothers of the future generation. If women are uneducated, the future generations will be uneducated. For this reason the Greek warrior Napoleon once said, "Give me a few educated mothers; I shall give you a heroic race."
In day to day life, the real problems are faced first by women and then the same problems are conveyed to men for solution. If the women are educated, they can solve all the problems of their houses.
Very often, the working men of some families become handicapped in unfortunate accidents. In that situation, the complete burden of the family rests on the women of the families. To meet this...
1. Define Universal education:
Universal education is the right for all human beings to have an education.
2. Describe the historical background behind the development of the human right and describe the events that led to the human right being established.
Early civilisations classified formal education amongst wealth and power, or beliefs and religions. Until recent times illiteracy was a norm and formal schooling was available to a handful of people. During the 16th century the Aztec tribe made compulsory education to almost every child regardless of gender and rank. In Scotland in 1561, the Church of Scotland applied a principle of a school teacher for every parish and free education for the poor. Also I Norway cathedral schools were turned into Latin schools and mandatory for every market town. During the 19th century in England churches have free education on Sunday's. By the mid-1800s European governments provided findings for schools and in 1870 the British parliament passed the Education Act 1870 (UK). Laws in Australia were passed to make education free and compulsory at the primary level. In NSW the Public Instruction Act 1880 (NSW) allowed the government to take control of church run schools and made education free, secular and compulsory. By the...
...Advantages of Education
Human Capital – To build upon the previous point, when looked at from a macro perspective, an educated population provides a more valuable human capital base to the economy. A developed economy has maximum concentration of jobs in the tertiary sector which requires a highly skilled work force which has expertise in specific fields. For instance the most developed country in the world, the USA has the most skilled human resources with maximum efficiency. Also, developing countries which adopt tried and tested technologies from other nations require skilled engineers, technicians and managers who can put it to good use. This can only be achieved by providing quality education to the population at a primary, secondary and higher secondary level.
Broadens perspective - This is one of the key advantages of education. Even if we consider economic benefit of education but its most important contribution that it helps in changing minds of people. Education makes people understand other cultures, religions, places and culture. It helps gain understanding of what the world is all about. This very important if we see from perspective of developing nations which are plagued by old notions. In countries such as India girl and boy child are differentiated. Even worse women are considered cause of girl child while science tells that it is the other way round. Similar old style dogmas exists...