RETHIKING TRADITION IN MODERN ISLAMIC THOUGT
A Book Review
RETHIKING TRADITION IN MODERN ISLAMIC THOUGT
Since the middle of the nineteenth century, Muslim thinkers have faced numerous and repeated challenges to classical Islamic ideas about religious authority. Upheavals in the Muslim world have stimulated widespread reexamination of the classical sources of Islamic law as Muslims have struggled to preserve, adapt, or redefine their social and legal norms in the face of changed conditions. A central issue in this ongoing struggle has been the question of the nature, status, and authority of the Sunna, the normative example of the Prophet Muhammad. Because of Muhammad’ status messenger of God, his words and actions are accepted by most Muslims as sources of religious and legal authority second only to the Qur’an. Indeed, the Qur’an itself repeatedly commands its reader to obey Allah and His messenger. II. Summary
This book is all about in the modern debates on religious authority are shaped by what Muslims see when they look back at the early history of Islam. Consequently, these modern debates must not be approached in a historical vacuum, as if they represent completely new and unprecedented challenges to traditional ideas about religious authority. The contest Muslim tradition was a matter of controversy long before the reemergence of these questions in the nineteenth century. In fact, hardly an element of the classical consensus about Prophetic became established without serious contest. Controversies over Sunna, both ancient and modern, should be viewed as an essential corollary of efforts by Muslims to adapt doctrine to change circumstances. Because of the stature of Sunna as a symbol of the authority of Muhammad and as a source of continuity with the past, no doctrinal dispute, no legal controversy, no exegetical discussion can be carried on without reference to it. III. Critical Analysis
...Medell’s Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Writings of Crystal Medell
Humanities Ms. Melissa Jayne Shelton
University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this paper is to describe ancient Islamictraditions. This paper focuses on the religious traditions that are mainly still practiced today according to the Qur’an. The six pillars are described which consist of Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj, and Jihad.
Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Writings of Crystal Medell
The religious Islamictraditions of ancient times are still practiced in there entirety except for the sixth pillar which is known as Jihad or the holy war. Islam is the Arabic word for submission to God and the people who practice this religion refer to themselves as Muslims which means one who has submitted to God. The religious beliefs of Islam are from a book written around 610 AD called the Qur’an. Islam was accepted shortly after, sometime around 630 AD. The true meaning of the Qur’an is believed to only be properly accepted in the Arabic language. The Qur’an’s religious traditions come from the six pillars (obligations) of the book. The six pillars are called Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj, and Jihad....
...in islamdom—the religion where muslims are dominant cultural an political force.
a.v. Islamdom- the religion where muslims are dominant culturally and a political force
a.vi. Islamicate- cultural practice—not motivated by religious beliefs. Ex coffee.
a.vii. Islamic- motivated by Islamic religious beliefs. Ex praying, a mosque
b.i. Understand the relationship between Islamdom, Islamicate, and Islamic. Be able to correctly identify other terms/concepts within that relationship.
b.ii. Be able to elaborate on the “three approaches.” What kind of sources would we use to answer each one? Who speaks authoritatively for each one? What kind of questions do they bring up?
b.ii.1. Historically -
b.iii. Understand the concept of monotheism as it pertains to the Abrahamic traditions.
2) Pre-Islamic Arabia
a.i. ‘Asabiyyah- group solidarity based on kinship blood relations, either real on imagined
a.ii. Sheikh- leader of tribe—must be 40
a.iii. Mawla/Mawali- a client of a tribe
a.iv. Muruwwa- maniless- moral idea aspired to by tribesmen
a.vi. Dahar- time- you don’t know when you will die so live fully.
a.vii. Sira- important gene of literature in traditional Islamic sciences
a.viii. Ka’ba- housed idols 364. Sacrifices were made there. Sanctuary.
a.ix. Zamzam- well found that was created for ishamel and hagar. Lost and then found by...
...lHow Muslims legal experts used Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas to interprete holy Qur’an? (30 Mks)
"Invite all to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; And consult with them in ways that are best and most gracious." (Al Qur'an, 16:125)
Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the direct words of Allah, as revealed to and transmitted by the prophet (S.A.W). All sources of Islamic law must be essential agreement with the Quran, the most fundamental source ofIslamic knowledge. When the Qur’an itself does not speak directly or in detail about certain subject, Muslims only then turn to alternative sources of Islamic law like ; the Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas used by Muslims legal experts.
Purpose of the Qur’an:
"Had we sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, verily thou wouldst have seen it humble itself and cleave asunder for fear of Allah. Such are the similitude’s which We propound to men, that they may reflect." LIX:21
"O mankind! There hath come to you a direction from your Lord and a Healing for the (diseases) in your hearts. And a Guidance and Mercy for those who believe." X:57
"And We reveal from the Qur’an that which is a Healing and a Mercy to the believers. And It adds only to the perdition of the unjust." XVIL: 82
"And We have not revealed to you the Book except that you may make clear to them, that about which they differ, and (A.S.) a Guidance and a Mercy for a people who believe." XVI: 64
"These are ayat of...
...no chance for welfare in the world unless the condition of woman is improved. He felt that it was impossible to get back India’s lost pride and honour unless the condition of women was improved. According to Vivekananda, the ideal of womanhood in India is motherhood and that Sita was the ideal of Indian womanhood.
- Hinduism. Vivekananda strived to give to Hinduism a clear-cut identity, both nationally and internationally. At the end of the 19th century, the Western world knew very little about India. The British masters and Christian missionaries had conveyed to them the picture of a barbaric, backward race of people practicing evil and inhuman Hindu customs. Moreover, the Hindus in India were practicing many different customs and traditions and were a loose confederation of many different sects. Swami approached the problem in two parts. Within India, he preached about the common bases of Hinduism, the common ground of all its different sects and brought about its overall unification. He also toured the Western countries in an effort to convey Hinduism’s liberal and universal values to Westerners and raising his voice in its defence. He also worked among the masses fighting social evils and superstitions and trying to integrate the best elements of Western culture into Hindu culture.
- Regarding Spirit of Service, Vivekananda said “Do not stand on a high pedestal and take five cents in your hand and say, ‘ Here, my poor man’ but be grateful that the...
...tobe implemented for the transformation of Turkey into a modern state. Nevertheless, he and the bureaucratic elite surrounding him presented them as novelty through which the state and nation would catch up the contemporary and civilized world. As a matter of fact, they were the ideological instruments providing the republican-bureaucratic elite to disconnect themselves from the Ottoman past and legitimate their position as well as the reforms held for eradication of religious institutions.
Cutting all relations with the Ottoman past and arguing that 'the new Turkey has any relation with old [Ottoman] Turkey', that 'the Ottoman government has passed into history' and 'now a new Turkey has been born, a very characteristic of the Kemalist discourse, found its expression in transformationism. This principle, defined as 'a commitment to ongoing change and support for the Kemalist programme', was the spirit lying behind the reforms held in the early Turkish Republic and displayed Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues' determination to create a new Turkish state and society independently of the past. Yet it has also political connotations regarding the power struggle ongoing among Mustafa Kemal's faction and their opponents. It is because it provided legitimacy for the reforms while it was used as a mean to devalue what belonged to the Ottoman past so as to discredit every kind of opposition, whether conservative/Islamic or Kurdish or political,...
...By: Asif Bhat
International Islamic University Malaysia
The term worldview has a long and interesting history. As a matter of fact, no one survives without a worldview, whether he/she is aware of it or not. One’s worldview, whether religious, philosophical, scientific, atheistic, or otherwise, is a core contour of his/her life and existence. Notwithstanding the several definitions and connotations that may be attached to its literal and technical meaning, the concept of worldview begs further explanation and clarification, especially from an Islamic perspective. The Islamic Worldview denotes the practice of Allah and His judgement on different creatures of the universe. It is more than a religion. Islam covers all aspects of life for its followers. Ideas and values it embraces always seem logical and obvious to the people of the particular culture. (Muhammad Abdullah)
What is a Worldview?
A worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society including the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point-of-view, including natural philosophy, themes, values, emotions, and ethics. The two concepts “philosophy” and “worldview” are closely related and this relation is explained by Will Durant. Wolters also summarized the relationship between worldview and philosophy...
...Report in ED 501-Philosophy of Education
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam
EVANGELISTA, JAMAIKA S.
DR. NILO E. COLINARES
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam (Islamic Philosophy)
* Ibn Sina - "Philosophy is the exercise of intellect, enabling man to know Being as it is in itself. It is incumbent upon man to do this by the exercise of his intellect, so that he may ennoble his soul and make it perfect, and may become a rational scientist, and get the capacity of eternal bliss in hereafter."
* It is not necessarily concerned with religious issues.
They have the following:
HADITH(the traditional sayings of the Prophet)
SUNNA(the practices of their community)
FIQH(Islamic law, which discusses particular problems concerning how Muslims ought to behave)
* It is not exclusively produced by Muslims.
* Philosophy helps the Muslim to understand the truth using different techniques from those directly provided through Islam
* It is the continuous search for Hikma(Wisdom)
Nature and Origin
* Philosophy in its fullest sense began in the third century of hijra(The hijra was in 622 ad; it is the first year according to the Muslim calendar)
* The main sources of early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam and Greek philosophy. Greek philosophy because most their works on philosophy like logic, medicine...
... Tarbiyah, from the root raba (to increase, to grow, to rear), implies a state of spiritual and ethical nurturing in accordance with the will of God. Ta'dīb, from the root aduba (to be cultured, refined, well-mannered), suggests a person's development of sound social behavior. What is meant by sound requires a deeper understanding of the Islamic conception of the human being.
1) Importance of Education
Education in the context of Islam is regarded as a process that involves the complete person, including the rational, spiritual, and social dimensions. As noted by Syed Muhammad al-Naquib al-Attas in 1979, the comprehensive and integrated approach to education in Islam is directed toward the "balanced growth of the total personality…through training Man's spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses…such that faith is infused into the whole of his personality" (p. 158).
Educational theory in Islam:
In Islam educational theory knowledge is gained in order to actualize and perfect all dimensions of the human being. From an Islamic perspective the highest and most useful model of perfection is the prophet Muhammad, and the goal of Islamic education is that people be able to live as he lived. Syed Hussein Nasr wrote in 1984 that while education does prepare humankind for happiness in this life, "its ultimate goal is the abode of permanence and all education points to the permanent world of eternity" (p. 7).