REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS OF WOMEN: A PERSPECTIVE
Nikhat Ehsanul Haque
Reproductive Rights and Women: A Perspective
“I am going to the sea to fetch a new baby, but my journey is long and dangerous, and I may not return.” 1 Both the Native women in North America and the African Brazilian women can have one thing in common i.e. both may be forcefully sterilized, same is the case with the Black South African women and the indigenous women in the French colony of New Caledonia who are the victims intensive fertility control propaganda targeted to wipe out their population. 2 The aim of this essay is to explore the meaning and the problems of women’s human rights vis-à-vis reproductive rights. Although women have reaped the benefits from contraception services but by and large they have been abused too by such policies. Sterilization, neglect and resistance to the use of contraceptives and safe abortion services have obstructed women’s human rights. The essay aims to link the issue of reproductive rights of women with other human rights and highlight the issue of health as human right, the essay will also try to show how the right to family planning affects the other rights of women. Analyse the problems and provide solutions to the issues. Human Rights and Women’s Rights:
Human Rights are basic entitlements encompassing civil and political as well as economic, social and cultural rights to which every one is entitled to not because he or she is the citizen of a particular country or ethnic group rather because he or she is as a human being. Although the notion of human rights and human dignity has always been there in every culture and region in the world, however, human rights gained an enormous amount of impetus as a movement after the Second World War.3 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948 has now become the constitution of the modern human rights movement. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the dignity, rights, liberty, security, and freedom of movement, ownership, religion, conscience, and movement of all the individuals. The International Covenant on Civil and Political rights which was adopted in 1966 and entered into force in 1976 gives the basic civil and political rights like right to life, movement, equality before law, freedom from torture and among other freedoms forbids discrimination on the basis of race, colour and sex. On the other hand, the International Covenant on Economic and Social and cultural rights adopted in 1966 and which came into force in 1976 strives for the socio-economic rights like right to work, equal pay for equal rights, opportunity for advancement, to be paid or otherwise compensated maternity leave and right to health. These two Covenants have been very significant in the human rights movement and have become a benchmark for the society and the governments to develop and generate a human rights culture. Whereas the Civil and Political Rights guarantee the basic political or civil rights to its citizens, on the other hand, the governments have a responsibility to ensure the social and economic well being of its citizens with the adoption of the covenant on economic and social rights. Officially speaking, the concern about the women’s rights as human rights was initiated by the UN with events in 1970s.4 The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women or CEDAW adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979 is often described as an international bill of rights for women. The Convention ensures the equality between men and women. It seeks to end the discrimination against women by providing equal opportunities in both the political and public life. The state parties to the convention are required to take all the appropriate actions and measures in their legislatures to provide opportunity and equal access in health, education,...
29 Nov. 2012
Women’s War for ReproductiveRights
The most challenging social issue in America today is not just abortion, but a woman’s right to contraceptives and reproductive health. Generally abortion is an issue that has always been questioned but is an ambiguous subject, even though abortions have been allowed by the Supreme Court for almost five decades. The debate is where to draw the line for contraceptive availability, abortion laws, and healthcare. The argument ranges from; free contraceptives, full healthcare, and whenever the mother decides; to no contraceptives, paid-for healthcare, and none at all. Neither of these arguments can be supported and bring into question human morality, individual freedom and personal responsibilities, as well as federal and state responsibility. The proper role of federal and state government is to ensure women’s basic rights to safe, affordable reproductive healthcare and choice regarding its use.
In America today we have states like Virginia, which want to change the policies regarding women’s reproductive freedom. Tobias Wolff, a writer for the Huffington Post reported, “The Virginia legislature has passed a bill that will force women seeking an abortion to undergo a medically unnecessary transvaginal ultrasound” (Wolff 1). This now mandatory ultrasound is a government overreach to control...
...Abortion and the ReproductiveRights of Women
Abortion and the ReproductiveRights of Women
Abortion is a very controversial topic in today’s society. It is defined as the removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. Nowadays, there are many reasons why a woman may choose to terminate her pregnancy. Reasons that are common, but not limited to the following include: inadequate finances to support a baby, parents not being ready for the responsibility that comes with motherhood, teenage pregnancy, health problems with either the mother or the unborn baby, or pregnancy caused by rape. In third world countries, a woman may terminate a baby if it is a girl, because society is man-based. There are many reasons that abortion is chosen.
The issue of abortion relates to Women and Gender Studies 100 because “the fact is that women have been trapped. Reproduction is used, consciously or not, as a means to control women, to limit their options and to make them subordinate to men." (Dr. Nafis Sadik, UN Population Fund). Control over reproduction is a basic need and a basic right for all women.
The issue of abortion is an on-going debate. Pro-choice groups believe that a woman should have access to whatever health care she needs and that she should have control over her own body. Pro-life groups believe that the embryo or fetus is "alive" and thus abortion is the same as murder....
...ReproductiveRights as a Contemporary and Historical Feminist Issue
Essay #1 / Final Exam
American Women’s History
H. June Laves
One of the biggest issues facing women in American society today has been an issue bouncing around in politics for decades: reproductiverights. Women can never have equal opportunity to men without equal opportunity to make their own decisions about their bodies. Reproductiverights for women not only include the right to abort a pregnancy, but it also involves any choice a woman may make concerning her body. She must have the right to choose when she wants to get pregnant, choose when she wants to have sex, have easy access to information about her body and reproductive system, as well as access to contraceptives and non-stigmatized medical care. Today’s women in American society still have to battle the right to information, the right to contraceptives, and the right to abortion.
Sex Education in public schools has always been a widely debated topic in American History. Determining what information to give out and how old the children need to be is constantly being argued. However, many programs are only preaching abstinence, especially to young women. Young men on the other hand get the “condom talk.” Very little information about female contraceptives, physical...
...Reflection Paper # 2
The Reproductive Health Law has a lot of provisions on Reproductive Health Care. As defined by the full text of the “Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011” , Reproductive Health Care encompasses different issues from family planning to maternal health and adolescent and youth care. Among these issues is my focus for this reflection paper, which is sex education. Also counted in reproductive health care is education and counseling on sexuality and reproductive health, and reproductive health education for adolescents.
Firstly, the RH Law is a law passed to address the “universal basic human right to reproductive health by all persons, particularly parents, couples, and women.” It proposes a universal access to “medically-safe, legal, affordable, effective and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies, relevant information and education. Among the guiding principles it has, based on the text, there are programs that would help couples and women in terms of family planning/ the number and spacing of children regarding their health and resources available, and also proper utilization of resources. There are also programs promoting studies to analyze demographic trends, and scientific studies about the safety and efficacy of alternative...
...David jhon mad'z
AB POLSCI II-A
Reproductive Health Law today is popularly known as the RH LAW, a Philippine law that aims to guarantee methods and information for universal access on birth control and maternal care. It allows the usage of different contraception methods to prevent the multiplying population here in the country. That is why; the priests are not in favors of this because for them it is against the law of God. However, in my points of view, I thought at first that this argument is unnecessary for me to know. I thought that this is not needed and irrelevant for a student like me. But I now concede that I am really wrong. This law must be known to every person that resides here in the Philippines. This is about us. This law is something about our health and our country.
For me I guess I’m pro RH law in a sense that it is the only way to help our country to reduce overcome population and I believe that the irresponsible parenthood is one of the main reasons why there is poverty. Maybe through responsible parenthood, we can decrease poverty and that is the mainstream of this concern. We can build a nation that can provide things for their family. A nation that can cope with the fast changing approach of the new century and can never be left out. Because of poverty, we are being pulled down to the ground because we can’t go with the flow of life. In addition, this law can serve as a good purpose for the married couples because this contributes...
...Abortion as a Human Right
Throughout history, induced abortions have been a source of considerable debate and controversy. An individual's personal stance on the complex ethical, moral, and legal issues has a strong relationship with the given individual's value system. A person's position on abortion may be described as a combination of their personal beliefs on the morality of induced abortion and the ethical limit of the government's legitimate authority.
It is a woman's individual rights, right to her life, to her liberty, and to the pursuit of her happiness, that sanctions her right to have an abortion. A women's reproductive and sexual health and shape her reproductive choices. Reproductiverights are internationally recognized as critical both to advancing women's human rights and to promoting development. In recent years, governments from all over the world have acknowledged and pledged to advance reproductiverights to an unprecedented degree. Formal laws and policies are crucial indicators of government commitment to promoting reproductiverights. Each and every women has an absolute right to have control over her body, most often known as bodily rights.
A woman has a right to abortion if :
# The continuance of the pregnancy would involve...
...Women’s Identity: Women’s ReproductiveRights
An important part of finding a women’s identity to reproductiverights you will have view various perspectives and the history behind it. You will have to understand the many influence in society such as race, gender, age and sexuality. This influences women’s roles as an individual, members of the family and society. In the movement for reproductiverights, women have been dominated by many different viewpoints to this subject. I am for women’s reproductiverights but there are many layers to this topic. Some I agree with and some I don’t.
From my observation and reading in seems that since women have won the right to vote the feminist movement has gain some serious movement forward. Reproductiverights also opened doors for women but not all areas of this topic have been totally finalized. Since Margaret Sanger a supporter of birth control and Katharine McCormick a highly educated women have been birth control in support of women’s reproductiverights. These two women were able to push forward the development of the birth control pill. It was not until 1960 the government legalizes the production of the pill. I do not realize how the development of the pill freed women to have a career and fueled the women’s movement. I have always looked...
Reproductive Health Bill in the Philippines
Mary Ann A. Maranon
Submitted in partial fulfilment of
Mr. Oscar Laborem A. Garcia
The study is about the Reproductive Health Bill or the RH Bill that was passed thru the 15th Congress by the Lower House Minority Leader and Albay Representative, Congressman Edcel Lagman. Though majority of the Senators from the Upper House supports the legislation, some are still opposing it. This bill aims to let the common Filipinos prevent cases of abortion and unwanted pregnancy. The importance of this topic is integrating awareness of the current social, political, and legal issues affecting reproductive and sexual health care into clinical practice.
The Reproductive Health bill (HB 5043) or more commonly known as the RH bill was authored by House Minority Leader and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman during the 15th Congress. Senators Miriam Defensor Santiago & Pia Cayetano co-sponsored the senate’s counterpart version of the Reproductive Health bill, which will be the part of the country’s commitment to international covenants. The House of Representatives Committee on Population and Family Relations consolidated all the House versions of the bill, which is entitled HB 5043: An Act providing for a Comprehensive Policy on...