Investigation into Phobias: Questionnaire on Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge
This investigation reports the findings of a questionnaire about beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of phobias. The questionnaire asked about biological and social beliefs participants had about phobias. It was hypothesised that there will be a gender difference in relation to participants¡¦ views on phobias. Participants will have stronger social beliefs compared to biological beliefs of phobias .There will be a relationship between attitudes and biological beliefs. There will be a relationship between attitudes and social beliefs There will be a relationship between the two attitude questions and there will be a gender difference in relation to views on the abnormality of phobia sufferers. Results showed that there was some support for there being a gender difference on the questions asked. Also, individuals showed stronger belief in social reasons for phobias than biological. This supports the learning theories of phobias that state that phobias could be based on classical conditioning and observational learning. Results also showed support for their being a relationship between the attitude questions, with participants showing greater support for participants to be shown sympathy.
A phobia is a strong irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction (Bernstein, 2003). It has been estimated that 18% of the United States population suffers from a phobia (Hall, 1997). Phobias can take many different forms including heights, dogs, spiders and even beards. However, many phobia sufferers realise their phobia are mindless but still feel discomfort and avoid the object or event, which can have huge repercussions in daily life (Bernstein, 2003).
When a phobia sufferer encounters their phobia they often have feelings of panic, dread, horror or terror. It is common for the individuals¡¦ heartbeat to increase and there to be a shortness of breath accompanied with a trembling and an extreme desire to remove themselves from the situation (Gersley, 2001).
The DSM-IV classifies three types of phobia; social phobia, agoraphobia and specific phobia (Gersley, 2001). Social phobia is an irrational fear of being negatively evaluated by other individuals; this includes speaking in public where other people would be constantly evaluating you. Generalised social phobia is an extreme form of social phobia where a sufferer would feel phobia symptoms in all forms of social situations which an individual may encounter. (Hall, 1997). Some forms of phobia can be culture based, as in Japan there is a common social phobia named tai-jin-kyofu sho, this is a phobia of embarrassing those around you (Hall, 1997). This phobia is prevalent in Japan as the culture heavily emphasises group values and goals. Agoraphobia is an intense fear of being in an unfamiliar situation especially where it would not be possible for immediate escape. Around 5% of the United States population suffer from agoraphobia (Bernstein, 2003) Agoraphobia can be extremely debilitating; as it is a fear of most public places most sufferers become housebound. Specific phobias are the most prevalent of all anxiety disorders (Rainey, 1997). A specific phobia is any phobia which is not a social phobia or agoraphobia. There are four categories of specific phobia which are; situational phobia, fear of natural environment, animal phobia and blood-injection-injury-phobia (Gersley, 2001). There are a vast amount of phobias which fit into these categories many which can be very strange to other individuals including cathisphobia; the fear of sitting down and gamophobia; the fear of marriage.
Many psychologists argue over the cause of phobias but it is believed that the cause is a combination of genetic predisposition, environmental causes, social causes and through learning. Phobias could be based on classical...
...PhobiasPhobias are a very common disorder in the United States these days. The definition for phobia is "an abnormal or morbid fear or aversion" ("Oxford" 655). To be considered a phobia, a fear must cause great distress or interfere with a person’s life in a major way. The word phobia is Greek, therefore, any word that proceeds it should be Greek too. To coin a new phobia name, it is proper and only accepted to follow this rule. The rule has been broken many times in the past, especially by the medical profession. The medical profession is steeped in Latin and many times when forming a name for phobia, they use Latin.
There are three kinds of phobias: simple phobia, social phobia, and panic attacks. Simple phobias, also called specific phobias, are fears of a specific thing, such as spiders or being in a closed place. Most simple phobias develop during childhood and eventually disappear. Specific phobia is a marked fear of a specific object or situation. It is a category for any phobias other than agoraphobia and social phobia. The categories of specific phobias are 1. situational phobias such as: fear of elevators, airplanes, enclosed places, public transportation, tunnels, or bridges; 2. fear of...
Acrophobia is well known as a fear of heights, and many experts keep focusing on studying and finding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for the best and most effective solution of this phobia.
Acrophobia is derived from Greek; acro means “high” and phobia means “fears”. Acrophobia is characterized “by marked anxiety upon exposure of heights, by avoidance of heights, and by interference in functioning as a result of this fear” (Ibrahim, "Virtual Reality Approach in Acrophobia Treatment"). Sweating, shaking, crying, or yelling out, and high heart rate are common symptoms which are found in many phobias; also, these are found in acrophobia (Fritscher, “Acrophobia”). Moreover, acrophobia’s symptoms are associated with some phobias such as illyngophobia (a fear of developing vertigo), aerophobia (a fear of flying), and bathmophobia (a fear of slopes and stairs). However, obviously, there are some differences symptoms from other phobias, unconscious actions, such as finding something to cling to, crawling on all fours, sitting on the knees, and falling down on the floor (Fristscher, “Acrophobia”). According to the National Institute of Mental Health survey, acrophobia is one of the top ten common specific phobias, so this phobia can be common found in people of all ages; however, there are still arguments of what an exact cause of acrophobia is.
Psychology Block 4
A phobia is an intense fear of things, activities, animals or even other people, that is uncontrollable. People suffering from phobias usually suffer from anxiety attacks when they find themselves in the situations, things or the person they have fear of. Phobias are more often gotten through traumatic experiences though some of them are inherent to the victims. If it is untreated,phobias can cause long term damage on the mental and physical health of a person, and in a recent study, it shows that phobias are most common in women and about 19% of women have a phobia. A very common phobia in most people is being embarrassed, especially in social situations. An example of this can be presenting a project in front of your class, asking out a girl, or simply just being embarrassed of a situation.
A lot of hard work from scientist has been made to find the reason, function, explanation and solutions to phobias. They try to find special treatments made for patients with phobias so that they can easily and quickly get rid of them. Different scientific departments dealing with mental health disorders and psychological processes all have different definitions, per say, of the behavioral phenomena and its cause. Scientists in the evolutionary field, who study the evolution of humans, believe...
Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. Also, how operant and classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sally’s phobia will be covered. Additionally, how extinction and tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained.
A phobia is an abnormal, vigorous, unreasonable persistent dread or terror that causes anxiety. “Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have an anxiety disorder (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2013)”. A person has the capability to make a fear out of anything; dog, open spaces, water, elevators, and tight spaces. Persons with a fears or phobias go to the ends of the earth to avoid any alleged risk that is larger more so in their thoughts than physical time. When confronted with the base of their fear, the person will sustain massive anguish that can hinder everyday tasks; fear can seldom lead to complete panic. Furthermore, for a number of individuals the simple thought of their fear is tremendously upsetting. Fears can be a wearying thing. The defeat of efficiency and productivity at the hands of a person’s phobia can be massive. However, a comprehension of psychology can offer a person the authority to development past...
...Strange and ridiculous phobias:
Leukophobia - Fear of the color white
Genuphobia - Fear of knees.
Octophobia - Fear of the figure 8.
Papyrophobia - Fear of paper.
Random stuff- fear of phobia- phobophobia
Names — Nomatophobia
The fear of names.
Phobia - the mere mention of it can make some people's hair stand on end. Yes, there is such a thing as fear of phobias. Called phobophobia, it happens to a person who dreads being frightened by everything. This type of phobia is different from the fear of everything, which is termed panophobia. Phobophobia, unlike other types of phobia, is more anxiety-related than being based on fear of a single object or situation. People with phobophobia think they most likely have a phobia, but they cannot figure out just what it is. They worry too much about not understanding what causes their fear of being afraid. Simply put, phonophobia is the worry of fear itself.
Fear of phobias can develop from other types of phobias. The intense fear that a person feels toward the other phobia may cause him or her to believe that the condition can lead to something worse. Fearing one's phobia may aggravate the impact of that phobia. When anxiety disorders are left untreated, phobophobia may also develop. This type of phobia may also be a result of a traumatic...
...serpents? Well, you’re not alone. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, phobias affect approximately 10% of adults. There are a number of explanations for why phobias develop, including evolutionary and behavioral theories. Whatever the cause, phobias are a treatable condition that can be overcome with cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques.
What do people fear most? The following phobias are ten of the most common fear-objects that lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and breathlessness. In some cases, these symptoms escalate into a full-blown panic attack. These common phobias typically involve the environment, animals, or specific situations.
The fear of spiders.
This phobia tends to affect women more than men.
The fear of snakes.
Often attributed to evolutionary causes, personal experiences, or cultural influences.
The fear of heights.
This fear can lead to anxiety attacks and avoidance of high places.
The fear of situations in which escape is difficult.
This may include crowded areas, open spaces, or situations that are likely to trigger a panic attack. People will begin avoiding these trigger events, sometimes to the point that they cease leaving their home.
Approximately one third of people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia.
The fear of dogs....
26 March 2014
Could you imagine someone reading a book about phobias and freaking out at the same time? That is called Phobophobia. That is a phobia of phobias. A phobia is a fear of something. One of the most well-known phobias is Claustrophobia. Claustrophobia is the fear of confined places (Statistic Brain). 74% of the U.S. population has or had Glossophobia, or the fear of public speaking (Statistic Brain). 1 in 23 people will be diagnosed with a phobia (Fear of Stuff). Many people struggle with their phobia.
Ablutophobia is the fear of washing or bathing. This phobia is hard and important to overcome because everyone needs to bathe to get all of the germs off of them. There are ways to overcome Ablutophobia. One way is to splash yourself slowly and take deep breaths to calm yourself down (Step by Step). Then, you get in the bath slowly and take deep breaths (Step by Step). Or you can go to therapy.
Agyrophobia, or the fear of roads, is another important phobia. This one is harder to get around because some people have no one to help them. To get around the phobia, you can get someone to drive you or someone to help you cross the street. That person could remind you to calm down when crossing the street. That person should be someone you trust, like a best friend....
...We define a phobia as ‘an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something’. You are probably aware of the more common phobias, such asarachnophobia (fear of spiders), claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces), andagoraphobia (fear of open places), but did you know there are also words which describe the fear of idleness, worms, and even body odour?
Explore the table below to discover the terms for some of the more interesting phobias you may come across. Although if you suffer from logophobia (a fear of words), it’s probably best to step away from this blog now… in fact, our dictionary site may be your worst nightmare!
Object | Phobia |
air travel | aerophobia |
American people and things | Americophobia |
animals | zoophobia |
bacteria | bacteriophobia |
beards | pogonophobia |
beating | mastigophobia |
bed | clinophobia |
bees | apiphobia |
birds | ornithophobia |
blood | haemophobia |
blushing | erythrophobia |
body odour | bromidrosiphobia |
bridges | gephyrophobia |
bullets | ballistophobia |
burial alive | taphephobia |
cancer | carcinophobia |
cats | ailurophobia |
childbirth | tocophobia |
children | paedophobia |
Chinese people and things | Sinophobia |
church | ecclesiophobia |
clouds | nephophobia |
coitus | coitophobia |
cold | cheimaphobia |
colour | chromophobia |
comets | cometophobia |
computers | cyberphobia |