Accreditation in the Philippines: A Case Study
Victor and Gina Ordonez
As countries progress along the development trajectory, the availability of a competent human resource base becomes a determining factor of progress. Countries progressing from an agricultural economy to a manufacturing economy to a technological and knowledge economy recognize that an adequate supply of higher education graduates is a necessary pre-condition for achieving and sustaining advanced levels of development in this globalized, competitive, fast-changing world, as the tiger economies of Asia have proven.
Until about thirty years ago the Philippines boasted a well-established higher education system that provided relatively democratized access for over a century, enrolling proportionately more students than all but five countries in the world. From the 1980’s to the present, however, as many other countries witnessed phenomenal higher education growth rates, enrollment rates in the Philippines did not. More alarmingly, contrary to prevailing economic wisdom where higher ratios of higher education graduates within a population is meant to correlated with improved economic development, this seemed not the case in the Philippines where many graduates seem ill-prepared to handle the complex workforce demands of the modern workplace.
One symptom is the performance deficit of graduates in various national licensure exams certifying entry to various professions. In exams of the Integrated Bar given by the Supreme Court, for example, only 27% of candidates pass the examination. For teaching candidates the pass rate for the national Licensure Examinations for Teachers (LET) examination, is just 31% and for accounting graduates taking the Certified Public Accountants exam only 24%.
Another symptom: Employers and the business community in general have warned that an inadequate supply of well-trained and prepared graduates is limiting the performance of the business system, and forcing a downward projection in expansion plans. For example, leaders in the service outsourcing industry, an area of projected rapid growth, complain that out of every 100 applicants for call center operator positions, only two have adequate skills; and managers of these centers are even harder to come by.
Clearly the quality of higher education is a matter of national concern. The challenges in assuring workplace preparation and quality have figured largely in the evolution and development of the accreditation movement in the Philippines. The right balance between government regulation, private sector-led accreditation, and adaptation to the requirements of the existing work environment should be constantly monitored. It is in this context that various efforts at establishing accreditation for quality have evolved.
The Philippine Higher Education System: Context
The Philippine higher education system evolved much earlier than its Asian neighbors. Its first universities date to the seventeenth century, founded by the Spanish colonizers to educate a local ruling elite that would serve as its surrogates. With the arrival of its American colonizers in the early twentieth century, the education system was somewhat democratized at all levels, encouraging democratic access and private initiative. By the 1950s, the hundreds of higher education institutions had developed, mostly religious or private in nature, a pattern that persists to the present in a system comprised of 125 public universities and colleges, and 1300 private universities and colleges. The quality of these institutions varies widely. Whereas a handful are world class, ranking in the top 500 universities of the world, others are little more than glorified high schools. Very few, or sometimes none, of the graduates from these poorer institutions pass national credentialing examinations.
Responsibility for governing this system was located...
...thinking on quality and subsequently coming up with the idea of Kaizen and making it their way of doing.
Quality circles is an important organ of Kaizen, they consist of an informal group of people that involves operators, supervisors, managers, etc. getting together to improve processes and procedures in the making of a product. These circles are embraced in a participative style of management whereby new ideas are generated and implemented
The concept is based on the observation that the operators are in a better position to contribute ideas that will lead to an improvement in the operation since they are closest to the operation. Thus improvement ideas come not only from the management but form all levels of the organization.
The informal nature of the quality circles is such that invisible barriers between the people from different levels or departments of the organization are overcome and everyone feels free and comfortable to share their ideas. Thus consultation and discussion are hastened throughout the organization and the employees attain an uplift of morale and motivation also improving productivity.
The group members are actively involved in the decision making process and thus feel as an important player within the organization where they can contribute towards creating a better quality product. The members feel more integrated in the organization and as a family work...
...Improved quality of education in the Philippine schools
We know that Philippines country is rich in agriculture and economics. But don't you know that Philippines are one of the top that is great in terms of education. And I can prove that in simply observing the status of my country and surveys in the rank of schools. Literacy rate in the Philippines has improved a lot over the last few years- from 72 percent in 1960 to 94 percent in 1990. This is attributed to the increase in both the number of schools built and the level of enrollment in these schools. The number of schools grew rapidly in all three levels - elementary, secondary, and tertiary. From the mid-1960s up to the early 1990, there was an increase of 58 percent in the elementary schools and 362 percent in the tertiary schools. For the same period, enrollment in all three levels also rose by 120 percent. More than 90 percent of the elementary schools and 60 percent of the secondary schools are publicly owned. However, only 28 percent of the tertiary schools are publicly owned. A big percentage of tertiary-level students enroll in and finish commerce and business management courses. Table 1 shows the distribution of courses taken, based on School Year 1990-1991. Note that the difference between the number of enrollees in the commerce and business courses and in the engineering and technology courses may be small - 29.2 percent for commerce and business and 20.3 percent...
Most Hospitality Operators use the term “Quality” somewhere in their advertising and promotion. What exactly does that mean? One would compile multiple responses, as management tries to define “Quality”. The same would be said for their staff, and, just as importantly, the customers. We all have different perspectives. Quality has become an essence to lifestyle and with intensification of competitors; there exist a constant drive to excel in business. Various authors and individuals have defined quality as per the business aims and objectives, however a definite explanation of quality is quite impossible as the word quality itself is an ever changing phenomenon. This report attempts to define quality to its closest meaning, by comparing and contrast two definitions from different authors. It defines and differentiates service quality and product quality and finds out how Jumeirah Carlton Tower Hotel, which is the chosen organisation for this report, uses the EFQM quality model to maintain and enhance quality. The information used in this report is collected by reviewing various authors’ books and journals in hospitality.
Two definitions of Quality in hospitality contexts:-
First definition of Quality:-
Crosby, (1979) in his book, “Quality without...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
...Quality is defined as essentially relational: "Quality is the ongoing process of building and maintaining relationships by assessing, anticipating and satisfying the needs expressed or implied.
Nobody has to say about how quality is important for your company, you can see the results of it, or lack of it, every time you have a satisfied customer, or when competition increases market share. Unfortunately, although the concept is in vogue these days as any type of business or service carried out some kind of quality is difficult to define.
Quality is a factor that consumers refer to forward in describing favorable or unfavorable, good, service or experience. There is rarely a definition may give consumers because the quality is essentially determined on an individual basis, but there are key elements that can define and measure quality companies. This paper attempts to define quality and their elements, explain why elements are useful in today's society, explaining about the future of quality, and show how the use of facts as a successful pioneer.
According to Goetsch and Davis (2010), quality is a dynamic state associated with products, services, people, processes and environments that meets or exceeds expectations and helps produce a higher value. This definition simply means that the quality is when the consumer needs...
...Excellence in Education
The concept of excellence in education is one that, on the surface, seems to be unquestionable. After all, who would not accede that students within our schools should, in fact, excel? Certainly teachers, parents, and administrators can agree on excellence as an aim to shoot for. The interpretation of the term “excellence” is, however, less obvious. How do we regard excellence? Is it the college bound student with a broad liberal arts education? Is it the student who graduates high school trained in a specific trade? Many in the field of education cannot come to an agreement on how our schools can best achieve excellence for and from our students.
One of the many authorities who have contributed a model for what schools should be is Robert L. Ebel. According to Ebel, knowledge is the single most significant and most important goal in the education of children. In his article “What are schools for?” Ebel answers “that schools are for learning, and that what ought to be learned mostly is useful knowledge” (3). He builds this declaration in answer to trends in education that focus upon other aspects of learning in schools. Ebel states in the beginning of his article, that he does not assume schools should be social research agencies,...
...TRANSLATING EDUCATION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Commissioner Nona S. Ricafort
The Brundtland Commission of 1987 defined “Sustainable Development” as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend.
Habang naga develop an gating country it affects everyone on the planet
resulting in poor education, less innovation, poor healthcare, and less economic security.
The key programs needed in the development of our youth:
Ladderized Education System (EO 358)
Ladderized education is a facility that allows for vocational courses to be credited as units earned toward a related college degree program.
Ladderized Education Program (LEP) ibig sabihin kapag nag aral po kayo ng 2years. Ladderized courses pede ituloy as Bachelor's Degree
Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (EO 330)
By adopting the principles of E.O. 330, you may be conferred a college degree based on your work experiences, past schooling, training, etc. provided that you have earned the required number of hours on a degree program you are applying for.
Evaluates your work...
...Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement
In this assignment I am going to analyse the quality assurance and quality improvement framework and procedures on my teaching programme. The efforts to improve quality in education are very important and in recent years have received increasing attention. In particular three main factors, external pressure played an important role.
* Educational Issues: Concerns about performance of schools and colleges.
* Political Issues: Concerns about reducing public spending as a proportion of GDP and other public spending.
* Economic Arguments: Concerns about the links between educational spending and economic success, especially in comparison with competitor nations.
Legislative changes in the UK and elsewhere have brought increased autonomy for schools and colleges, accompanied by requirements making them more accountable for the quality of provision and spending decisions. (Preedy, Glatter and Levacic, 1997)
Learner’s Feedback and Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement:
There are a number of different ways for students to make their views known and offer constructive feedback on modules and programmes, including the use of questionnaires, attendance at key academic quality related committees, and feeding into quality assurance and...