Puritanical Islam: A Modernist and Conservative Understanding of the Puritan Approach to Religion
The puritan approach to Islam is revered by the more conservative members of the Muslim community as necessary and, at the same time, is ardently denounced by modernists. As highlighted by the differences in Islamic thought by modernists, such as Khaled Abu El Fadl, and that of more traditional thinkers, including Sayyid Qutb, Abu-L-‘Ala’ Mawdudi, and Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, there are clear divisions between the two groups. These divergences between the two groups are highlighted through their sentiments toward the nature of rational thinking, Islamic law, government, and modernism. Puritanical Islam is a movement by which Muslims seek to return to the “pure” and orthodox practice of the fundamentals of Islam, as exemplified in the Quran and the life of the Prophet Mohammed (El Fadl 2005, 82-87). It is an understanding of the Quran and religious texts, in their literal form, as ultimate religious authority that must be adhered too in every aspect of a Muslim’s daily life. However, not all Muslims adhere to the puritan approach to Islam, and thus, there are clear distinctions that separate modernist Muslims, such as El Fadl, and puritan advocates. Even though both groups do revere and sanctify the fundamentals of Islam, they understand and adhere to them differently. Modernists apply rationality to religious texts, using the fundamentals of Islam as a means to understand modern times, and implement their understandings accordingly. On the other hand, puritans deny the use of rationality in adhering to the Quran and Sunnah, and understand them in their literal sense, denying anything that diverges from the written word (El Fadl 2005, 128-29). Thus, modernist thinkers describe puritans as being unaccepting of any Islamic jurist or religious figure who is not a strict “literalist,” which completely denounces the...
...servant turned political and religious activist, inspired by fundamentalist Islam. To gain an understanding of what influenced and formulated Qutb’s ideas it has been necessary to provide some background information relating the history of modern day Egypt and the emergence of reformist and fundamentalist Islam, from the 19th century until Qutb’s time. The essay also seeks to give some biographical information in order to provide a fuller picture of Qutb the man.
Qutb’s involvement with Egyptian religious politics caused him to come into conflict with the Nasser government of 1950s’ Egypt and Qutb spent a decade in prison. It was during this period he produced many of his seminal writings on the establishment of a truly Islamic society. By drawing on early Islamic thinkers and on direct interpretation of the Qur’an, Qutb advocated violence in establishing an Islamic state. The thinking behind and the implications of these interpretations are discussed at length in this essay to demonstrate how they have informed the belief of many Islamic fundamentalists, especially with regard to the use of violence to achieve their aims. The latter part of the essay focuses on the legacy of Qutb’s ideas and how these have been manifest in various fundamentalist groups. However, because academic literature is often a few paces behind the present it has not been possible to explore some recent developmenst of Islam inspired violence in any...
...ISLAM - BIOETHICS QUOTES ETC.
GENERAL - Great opening paragraphs etc
Islamic ethics in is all about a Muslim’s relationship with Allah.
* Muslims believe that Allah is the all powerful creator of the universe to whom all humans are called to submit. Allah has revealed himself through the prophets the Shari’a (Law) that governs the whole of a Muslim’s life. This includes moral and ethical teachings on what is permissible (halal) and what is forbidden (haraam).
* Ethical teachings in Islam include teachings about bioethical issues. These teachings are found in all the major sources of Islamic teachings, the Qur'an, Hadith and Shari’a (Ijma & Qiyas).
The Qur'an provides a number of specific references to bioethical issues....
The Hadith also provides a number of specific teachings together with the reiteration of important principles expressed in the Qur'an. Finally, Islamic law, known as Shari’a contains many examples of teaching relating to bioethical issues.
The basic principles found in the Qur'an show that life is a gift from Allah and is to be cared for and respected.
* The religion of Islam provides clear ethical teachings on issues relating to bioethics. These teachings are found in all the major sources of Islamic teachings, the Qur'an, Hadith and Shari’a.
While Islamic teachings do not specifically address many of the modern bioethical concerns, they do, however, provide clear guiding...
...Islam and Business Ethics
Islam places its highest emphasis on ethical values, and the moral codes taught by the Quran and demonstrated by Muhammad are numerous and comprehensive; therefore, it is important to define what ethics is. Ethics may be defined as a set of moral principles that distinguishes the differences between right and wrong (Renaissance.com on ‘Business Ethics’). Because the decisions people make are not always black and white, especially in business, the Quran specifically identifies the issues that may arise in a person’s life. Generally, the Quran does not prohibit or replace existing practices, but rather consists of regulations or moral guidance that limits certain behavior. Islam gives complete freedom to economic enterprise, which corresponds to its encouragement of hard work to earn one’s living. However, this freedom is restricted by set of commercial rules, and requires Muslims in the profession to practice it with a sense of responsibility.
Muhammad, the prophet of God, was chosen at age 40 to be His last prophet and messenger at the age of 40, and before that he had been very involved in commerce. He had a good reputation as a hardworking, honest, and successful businessman (Theislamicworkplace.com on ‘Business Ethics’). Because Muslims follow the Sunna, the normative behavior of the prophet, good business is encouraged in Islam.
The Quran specifically addresses certain...
Is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
Concerns the religion of Islam and its adherents, Muslims. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits to God". Muslims and their religion have greatly impacted the political, economic, and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East, where its roots lie. Though it is believed by non-Muslims to have originated in Mecca and Medina, Muslims believe that the religion of Islam has been present since the time of the prophet Adam. Muslims believe that prophets Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, among others, were all Islamic prophets, and they have equal veneration in the Qur'an. The Islamic world expanded to include people of the Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization.
Timeline of Muhammad's Life (A.D)
570 - Born in Mecca
576 - Orphaned upon death of mother
595 - Marries Kadijah - older, wealthy widow
610 - Reports first revelations from angel at age of 40
619 - Protector uncle dies
622 - Emigrates from Mecca to Medina (the Hijra)
623 - Orders raids on Meccan caravans
624 - Battle of Badr (victory)
624 - Evicts Qaynuqa Jews from...
...IslamIslam is not only considered to be a spiritual connection to God, but it is a way of life; how one remembers God on day to day basis by not only praying five times a day but also by abiding to the rules and regulations that he has bestowed upon adherents for prevention of sin. The quote “If you want to be free of all affliction and suffering, hold fast to god, and turn wholly to him” is accredited to Abū Ḥāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111), a highly significant Islamic Scholar during the “Islamic Golden Era”.
Abū Ḥāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī is recognised as a significant scholar throughout the Islamic faith, particularly to both Sunni and Sufi members. Firstly, his ability as a Fiqh scholar (Islamic jurisprudence) was great; through his study of Islamic Fiqh sciences, he was able to come up with various approaches, which significantly impacted upon Islam. From his ability as a Fiqh scholar, he was able to form judgements objectively.
Al Ghazali’s impact on the development of Islam can be seen in his accomplished synthesis of the areas of; theology, philosophy, law and mysticism. He has made significant contributions to each of these disciplines yet what is often referred to as his most significant contribution was his ability to bring out the best from all these disciplines and strands of Islam in a way that provided strength and maturity to Islamic thought....
...Islamism in Northern Africa and in the Middle East.
Islam was destined to become a world religion that created civilization worldwide (Barkati 2011) which succeeded as Islam is the world’s second largest religion after Christianity in the world today. Islam has many impacts and influences in many countries around the world especially in countries in northern Africa and in the Middle East (Diller 1994). Islamism has impact countries in Northern Africa and in the Middle East politically, economically, and culturally.
Factors such as geography, colonisation and population affected the impact of Islam in Northern Africa and in the Middle East greatly. But there were also other factors that were involved as the factors varied overtime as Islam became the dominant religion (HBC 2003). These factors sometimes intertwined with each other. Islam spread its political control rapidly through military defeat over the Middle East, Northern Africa and also in other places. From its birth in the Arabian Peninsula in the 17th century Islam spread through the world rapidly as this was a time where Muslim strength and unity were at their greatest as a result of the success of the Umayyad’s (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 2007). The European colonisation also had a major impact on the spread of Islamism as they had effects on the function of Islam in North Africa and in...
1. The word “Islam” is derived form the Arabic root “asalama” which literally means peace, purity and submission. Thus Islam means “surrender to the Almighty” and Muslim means “one who is in a state of submission”. It is understood that this submission is to the Will of God, as is laid down in the Quran. This tenet is unequivocally accepted by all sects of Islam be they Shia, Sunni or Sufis.
2. Islam is an unerringly monotheistic religion. It enjoins the existence of one God, his prophet Muhammad who is the Last Prophet (khatam-in-nabiyin) in a long line of prophets sent throughout time and to every civilization, and the Quran as the Word of God revealed to Muhammad through the angel Jibrael. Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of life is to worship him and to adhere to his word, as laid down in the Quran, and in Sunnah (the normative practices of the Prophet), as closely as possible. They believe that Islam is the final, completed and universal version of a faith (Deen-e-Ibrahimi) revealed too many prophets before; most notably Abraham, Moses and Jesus, but whose message has now been distorted.
3. The practices of Islam are based on the ubiquitous “Five Pillars”. These are, in order of importance, Shahadah or acceptance of One-ness (Taw hid) of God, Salat or five daily Prayers, Saum or Fasting in the month of Ramadan, Zakat or...
...Nasser and Sadat Presidencies play in shaping political Islam in Egypt?
Political Islam is playing a major rule now in the current political scene; so it is important to analyze how it rose in Egypt and how it has been shaped over the years. The political Islam is mainly a set of ideologies that holds the belief that Islam can be a political ideology as much as it is a religion. Although Islamic thinkers have always emphasized the enforcement of the Islamic law (Sharia) as the main reference of the state’s political and social ideologies, they never agreed on the exact means and degree of enforcing it. This difference of course dates back to the early times of Islam when different interpretations lead to a schism in the guided Caliphate called the Great Fitna which results we have to bear with until today. As the Islamic Thinker Mohamed Abdu suggested the Holy text is “alive” in the sense that its interpretations differ greatly depending on the background of the interpreter, these different interpretations lead to the forging of different schools of thought and Madhabs. And as political Islam is directly derived from Islamic teachings and has been affected by the differences in interpretations, Political Islam has never been united under one banner. The Ex Egyptians presidents Gamal Abd El Nasser and Anwar El Sadat had their different ways in dealing with the Islamists...