Introduction 350 words per page
Higher Education must lead the march back to the fundamentals of human relationships, to the old discovery that is ever new, that man does not live by bread alone. - John A. Hannah Education has always been and continues to be one of the most important needs of mankind. It helps man indoctrinate values and apply the technical know-how in real life situations. Of late, there has been an increasing trend towards privatisation of higher education in India. The Government of India cannot absolve itself from the responsibility of providing higher education to its citizens. The Government is thus obliged to not only strive towards providing access to higher education to all its citizens but must also try and improve the quality of higher education in India. In order to cater to these needs, a large investment is required. But in India lack of adequate funds continues to be a major hurdle. In the given context, there is a pressing need for the Private Sector to pitch in and that at the risk of privatization and monopolization of higher education by the Private Sector. There are several schools of thought in this regard and the term ‘privatisation’ raises several issues. Would it be feasible to have a Public- Private partnership as far higher education is concerned? Would the disadvantages of Privatisation outweigh its advantages? Would Privatisation in India lead to monopolization of Higher Education by the Private Sector? These are some of the compelling questions that this paper attempts to answer. II. Definition of ‘Education’ and the need for the Privatization of Higher Education in India The term ‘Education’ has been clearly defined as ....the process of developing and training the powers and capabilities of human beings. In its broadest sense the word comprehends not merely the instruction received at school, or college but the whole course of training moral, intellectual and physical; is not limited to the ordinary instruction of the child in the pursuits of literature. It also comprehends a proper attention to the moral and religious sentiments of the child . Education used to be charity or philanthropy in the good old times. Gradually it became an 'occupation'. Some of the Judicial Dicta go on to hold it as an 'industry'. Whether the right to receive education is a fundamental right or not has been debated for quite some time. But it is settled that establishing and administering of an educational institution for imparting knowledge to the students is an occupation, protected by Article 19(1)(g) and additionally by Article 26(a), if there is no element of profit generation. As of now, imparting education has come to be a means of livelihood for some professionals and a mission in life for some altruists. The Prime Minister’s Council on Trade and Industry, in a recent Report, has observed that education is universally recognised as an important investment in building human capital, which is a driver for technical innovation and economic growth. Providing Education to one and all has been the constant endeavour and one of the primary duties of the Government. To be fair, it is indeed impractical to expect the Government, in one of the most populous countries in the world, to solely shoulder the responsibility of providing education to its citizens. India has one of the largest systems of higher education in the world and according to Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Government of India there are about 338 Universities as on 31/3/2005. With a vast majority of the student population having access to higher education, the situation is quite satisfying in the developed countries. Yet the percentage of student population studying at Universities in India is dismal when compared to some of the other developing countries. Providing free and compulsory primary education has been one of the primary duties of the Government as enunciated in the Constitution, and to do justice to this...
...education. These institutions, with the exception of some notable ones, have however, not been able to maintain the high standards of education or keep pace with developments, especially in the fields of knowledge and technology.
Over time, financial constraints with exploding enrolments, and a very high demand from primary and secondary education has led to the deterioration in the financial support provided by the Government. On top of this, an overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. However, on the science and technology side, India has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians.
Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of highereducation in India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated university-level institutions. In addition, there are about 10 million students in over 6500 vocational institutions. The enrolment is growing at the rate of 5.1 per cent per year. However, of the Degree students only 5 per cent are enrolled into engineering courses, while an overall 20 per cent in sciences. The demand for professional courses is growing rapidly.
Both public and private institutions operate simultaneously in...
...PRIVATIZATION OF HIGHEREDUCATION – S.Divya Abirami
Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the country, highereducation enrolments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption.
– Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 20071
At the eve of liberalization, globalization and privatization, many changes are taking place in different spheres of Indian socio-economic life. These changes have affected all the sectors including education. Education is such a factor which affects all other sectors. So, it is important to observe the changes in education. Because of new economic policy privatization is welcome in India and also in education. Now private educational institutions are increasing day by day. This paper gives an overview of state of highereducation system in India & highlights the need for private sector to step up...
HigherEducation in India – Issues and Challenges
HigherEducation in India is improving gradually after Independence. It is in the second place in the world after United States. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), National Institute of Technology (NITs) and Jawaharlal Nehru University have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. University Grants Commission (UGC) and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), are two apex organisations that cater for the highereducation in India. The solutions for the below mentioned Issues, Challenges and Concerns of HigherEducation in India discussed in this paper would improve the status of Highereducation system in India.
Issues Challenges and Concerns dealt in this paper includes :
Autonomy of Universities, Access, Equity, Caste-based Reservation, Quality, Cost of Education, Declining Enrolment in Traditional Fields of Knowledge, Red Tapism, Vocationalization at the First Degree Level,Privatization and other Domestic Issues and Challenges of HigherEducation in India
... Education in Emerging India
Meaning of education
1.Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship.
2. (by j.parankimalil) Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means. Its goal is to make an individual perfect. Every society gives importance to education because it is a panacea for all evils. It is the key to solve the various problems of life.
Since time immemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western side have explained the term ‘education’ according to the need of the...
...Highereducation system of India
In India 69 crore(6.9 billion) people belong to 15-60 year age group. This is the working age group. Growth of any nation depends on its youth. It is possible only if the youth get proper education. Highereducation plays a key role to produce Good engineers, doctors, administrators, artists etc.
Today, we have 16 IIT’s, 30 NIT’s, 13 IIM’s and around 550 universities in all over India. But still the nomination rate in highereducation is only 13%. In developed countries this rate is approximately 57%. Our government is spending 0.7% of its GDP on education and 19% of education expenditure is for highereducation. But our educational institutes are passing through the lack of quality. Our 25% engineers and managers are not suitable for industry and market.
More than 90% of our private institutes are not providing standard level of education.
In such situations we can have following solutions-
1. Concentrating on enhancing the capabilities and approach of students by introducing research oriented facilities.
2. The privatization is necessary to increase the number of graduates. If we want to increase our nomination rate to 20% till 2020 in, it is necessary to invest Rs. 5 lakh crore. So we need the help...
...INDIA'S GROWTH THROUGH ADVANCEMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR
*Research scholar,sri Venkateshwara university,gajraula
**Supervisor, Maharaja agarsen college,Delhi university.
Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Present education system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up. At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The present research focus on steps through which our indian education system had gone through. The basic moto of this research is to show that india has done serious efforts in education nd has shotremendous development but it is still lacking in comparison with developed nations. This study is an effort to suggest some measures for its...
...7 Problems with HigherEducation in India
Razib Ahmed August 16, 2006
Know More: India 2.0, India
One of the key factors behind Indian success in outsourcing is the fact that India could produce thousands of graduates who are skilled in English language. Indian universities are often thought of to be among the best in the world and it is a reality that many Indians are working in the major international companies around the world. However, all is not well with the Indian education sector. I just read an excellent article of Kaushik Basu, Professor of economics, Cornell University in BBC News. ' India's faltering education system'- this is the title of this article. I would strongly recommend you to read this article. Here, Professor Basu has stated some of the problems faced by Indian education system. Based on this article and some research done by me, I am discussing some of the major problems of highereducation in India.
1. Quality vs quantity: In terms of quantity, India is quite impressive. Every year, India is producing 2.5 million graduates and this figure is just after US and China. However, in terms of quality India is falling behind than the developed world. In fact, many of the graduates cannot find job as they are not up to the mark.
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages in America. One who possesses...