Primary and secondary education in the Netherlands and China Jiajun Cen, March 7th 2012
In the Dutch education system one ought to have 12 years of education, starting at the primary school from the age of 4. After 8 years of primary education the children will do a CITO-test that determines to which level of secondary education they can attend.
The Dutch secondary education consists of three levels, respectively: VMBO, HAVO and VWO. VMBO is a 4 year program that has a more practical focus than the remaining levels and it is subdivided into four groups: BBL, GL, KBL and TL. A VMBO degree gives access to the subsequent vocational programs (MBO), which are 2 to 4 years depending on the chosen courses.
The intermediate level of the secondary education is the HAVO program of 5 years. After completion and obtaining the HAVO degree, one can choose to do either a higher vocational program (HBO) of 4 years or a MBO. However, recently the Dutch government has declared a HBO degree to be equivalent to a university’s bachelor degree and therefore it is more attractive to HAVO graduates to pursue a program in HBO.
Finally, the highest level in the Dutch secondary education is VWO. After completion of this program of 6 years, one has access to all universities in the Netherlands. Unfortunately, some popular courses, such as medicine and psychology, do have a minimum grade as entry requirement and therefore students willing to pursue a career in those fields will have to face a strong competition.
In the Chinese education system one has 9 years of compulsory education, starting at the primary school from an age of 6. However, before the primary school many Chinese children will go to a preschool to develop their linguistic skills. After 6 years of primary school, the children will do a national test that ultimately determines to which secondary school they can attend.
In china there are no distinctive levels in the secondary school system, but reputation...
...The SecondaryEducation in Britain
The United Kingdom has a completely world-leading education system. The education in the United Kingdom has hundreds years of history, which is quite perfect and complex, and also has a very large flexibility. It is quite different from the education in China. Overall, the education in the UK is divided into three parts: primaryeducation, secondaryeducation and tertiary education.
The secondaryeducation in the UK and China
The difference of education between the United Kingdom and China is mainly started from secondaryeducation. In the UK, students enter the secondary school by taking the 11 plus exam at the age of 11. Private schools and public schools are the 2 types of British secondary schools. Public School is totally free and private school will cost a lot. But Private schools are usually much better than public schools no matter in facilities or teachers. But in China most secondary schools are public schools, which is better than private schools.
British secondaryeducation lasts seven years and it can divide into two stages. One stage is before the age of 16...
...order to realize these goals, secondaryeducation schools need to adopt a new paradigm that embeds learning within real world contexts and that involves students in hands-on activities that promote meaningful problem solving and cognitive apprenticeship (Jonassen,1991).
The Philippines, classified as a developing country and grouped in the East Asian region, needs to establish a system of mass secondaryeducation: (a) that responsive to the country’s socio economic needs and capabilities; ( b) that can respond effectively to increased and diversified demand by expanding access to secondaryeducation; and (c) that can help students to graduate with knowledge, skills, attitudes and experience needed to exercise their choices beyond secondaryeducation. Hence, secondaryeducation is considered the bridge between primary or basic education, the labor market and tertiary education.
Patterns of SecondaryEducation in the East Asian Region
From year 1945 onwards, primary and secondaryeducation were given significant investments that advanced economies of Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan adopted to increase the length, access and improve the quality of basic education that included lower...
The education policy of Malaysia was started since 1956 and it was before the independence of Malaya Peninsula. Then the policy was developed through four major phases, which were Razak Report era, 1956, Rahman Talib Report era, 1960, the Cabinet Report 1979, and the Education Bill 1995.
Razak report, 1956
Malaysian second Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak as the Minister of Education at that time, had chaired theeducation committee 1956 which was formed to devise a national education system. The committee was created to devise a national education system, to encourage the use of Malay as the language of instruction in schools and ensure the protection of the language and culture of other ethnic groups.
Recommendations of the Razak report 1956 became the starting point for the Education Ordinance 1957. It was important as an educational framework for independent Malaya and eventually Malaysia. The following was the major recommendations contained in the Razak Report:
* Create School Board of Governors for all schools, the primary and secondary.
* Schools were classified and indentified into: (1) private/independent school which will not receive assistance from public funds; (2) government-aided; (3) public; and (4) national-type (sekolah jenis kebangsaan) the medium of instruction can be Mandarin, Tamil, or English....
A secondary school teacher at a public school must be licensed with a bachelor’s degree and by completing an approved teacher education program. Secondary school teachers at private schools do not need to be licensed but are required to have a bachelor’s degree to teach. For hard to fill positions, some states offer alternative licensing programs to secondary school teachers. Understanding a student’s needs, the ability to motivate them and communicate well, are important qualifications for secondary school teachers. Job prospects are best in rural and undesirable school districts as well as those teaching mathematics, science or bilingual education.
Secondary school teachers play an important role for students during their formative years by fostering the intellectual and social development of their students. They provide their students with an environment and the proper tools to develop into responsible adults.
Whether they use a hands-on approach with props or ask students to work together in groups, secondary school teachers can provide instruction to students that will help them later on in life. Secondary school teachers will prepare report cards, listen to oral presentations, observe a student’s performance and potential as well as meet with members of the staff and parents to go over any...
...The Education in Britain and China
Education plays an important role all over the world. A highly developed nation depends on educated professionals and a skilled workforce. Education is an absolute necessity for economic and social development. UK and China, sharing different culture, have two typically different education systems. This essay pays more attention to the diversity of twoeducation systems.Some similarities and differences can be found, which can be classified as the comparison in eastern and western education.
Key Words: Education; Britain; China;
The education system of the UK is quite special and has an old history of evolution. It differs from that of China, but there are also some connections and differences between two countries. As for which one is better, it depends. Just as a coin has two sides, both are better than each other in some areas.
1. Education System
Education is a vital concern throughout Britain. The Britain education system is divided into early years, primaryeducation, secondaryeducation and tertiary education.
While in China the public education is run by the Ministry of...
...THE FREE PRIMARYEDUCATION POLICY IN KENYA
According to the Kenyan government, education is “A long term objective to provide basic quality education to enhance Kenyans ability to preserve and utilize the environment for productive and sustainable livelihoods, to develop quality of the human race; to realize the universal access to education and training for all including the disadvantaged and the vulnerable and as a necessary tool for development and protection of the democratic institutions of human rights” (Ministry Of Education Science and Technology, 2005 pp2).
The current Kenyan education system consists of Early Childhood Education, primary and secondaryeducation. Early Childhood Education takes one year. At the end of the primaryeducation, pupils sit for the Kenya Certificate of PrimaryEducation (KCPE) prepared by the Kenya National Examination Council. Performance in the KCPE determines who is admitted to secondary schools. At the end of secondaryeducation, students sit for the Kenya Certificate of SecondaryEducation.
Primary school education in Kenya is a basic and is considered the root of all formal and informal learning...
...International Education in China
22 chapters and 27,000 words plan China’s future educational initiatives. The pledges amongst these pages promise a future China that is more dedicated to quality education, available to all. Amongst the proponents of this large document, many seek to vastly change the face of “international education” programs that are present in public schools in China today. There are those that wish to abolish it entirely, but most merely seek to increase quality by developing standards, reforms and requirements to decrease the presence of inefficiency and corruption. With such vast changes taking place by the year 2020, programs, such as AEF, must have a competitive advantage. In order to create a more sustainable, long-term international education program, AEF must develop and implement a higher quality plan of action, based on sound educational theory and forward-thinking marketing practices.
At the foundation of any effective language program are good teachers. In the four years I’ve been working for AEF, it has struggled to find and keep good teachers, especially foreign teachers. There are three things that can remedy this problem. First, an effective interview process must be developed. An effective interview process includes comprehensive questions that accurately: distinguishes between different candidates, confirms confidence in the teacher’s...
...PrimaryEducation in India
The Government of India in 2001 launched the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a nationwide programme to provide universal primaryeducation, thereby encouraging secondaryeducation also. The Center passed The Right to Education Act in 1 April 2010, which guarantees free and compulsory education to every child in the 6-14 age groups. But, the lack of awareness on the requirement of pre-school education & operational challenges including the availability of quality teachers are some of the issues that still limit the widespread benefits from the government act. Though the number of institutes has gone up significantly since then, but most of them provide an average education. Many state-funded schools in India lack even the basic infrastructure. In fact the quality of education, especially in remote villages, is very dismal. The quality of teaching in elementary schools is not up to the mark. Teacher absenteeism is widespread, teachers are not adequately trained and the quality of pedagogy is poor. One of the major challenges is the diminishing inclination of youth towards the teaching profession. The low salary base, lack of incentives and a lethargic job with less of dynamism have made the profession a last resort for the youth. Also, the profession has lost the level of respect that it...