Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that some people develop after going through a stressful and dangerous event. This widespread disorder can affect individuals psychologically, emotionally and behaviorally following the experience of a traumatic event. Not all individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event develop PTSD; researches hypothesized that biological and environmental factors contribute simultaneously to the development of PTSD. In order to better understand the disorder, this paper focuses on the possible risk and resilience factors of PTSD, its symptoms, its biological environmental contribution and types of treatment. In conclusion, the paper advocates the interrelated nature of the disorder and suggests the next steps needed in research to better prevent and overcome the disorder. Life after Trauma
Living with post-traumatic stress disorder is a continuous challenge to all of its victims. The most common types of event leading to the development of PTSD are war combat, rape, torture, childhood neglect and physical abuse, physical attack, natural disasters and other disasters such as plane crashes. Anyone can get PTSD at any age but a mix of risk factors make it more likely, namely: the mental risks a person may inherit such as an increased risk in anxiety and depression and the aspects of his/her personality; the early life experiences and severity of trauma a person may be exposed to; the structure of the brain and the genetic makeup a person holds and finally the social support a person receives after the event. The symptoms this disorder can be categorized into three groups: re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance symptoms, and hyper arousal symptoms. Psychotherapy, medication or both can treat PTSD. The next step for PTSD research is to discover new medications to target underlying causes of the disorder in order to prevent it. As well as work on the personality of individuals and the social protective factors that help reduce the trauma after an event. Who gets PTSD?
Anyone can get PTSD and at any age, but the median age has been found at 23 years (Kessler, Berglund, Demier, Jin & Walter, 2005). Around 7.7 million Americans aged 18 and older have been diagnosed with it so far. (Kessler, Chiu, Demier & Walters, 2005). Any person exposed to a traumatic event such as war veterans, survivors of rape, car accidents, and sexual and physical attacks can develop PTS. The individual however does not always have to personally experience the traumatic event, however a person close to him or a relative that was harmed or injured. In some cases, the death of a very close person or relative can induce PTSD in individuals (National Institute of Human Health). A number of researches have been conducted to draw the rates of PTSD in women and men, and it has been found that women are twice more likely to develop PTSD than men due to the fact that the women interviewed had experienced traumatic events that made it more likely for the development of PTSD However as women grow older, the rate of PTSD tends to drop. With respect to marital status, it has also been found that men and women who were previously married (divorced, separated or widowed) are more prone to develop PTSD than currently married individuals (Tull, 2008). What are the risk factors of PTSD?
Environmental factors influence some individuals who have a history of an emotional disorder such as depression or anxiety before any traumatic event might occur. This pre-existing emotional disorder places them at a higher risk of developing PTSD. Children with shy personalities, or personalities likely to be targets of bullying have a higher chance to become anxious later in life and thus develop PTSD right after a stressful event. People who are optimistic or who have a tendency to view things in a positive rather than negative away are better at coping with stressful events.
...Post –TraumaticStressDisorder (PTSD)
June 10, 2011
Post-TraumaticStressDisorder also known as PTSD is an emotional condition that can develop following a terrifying or traumatic event.
Post-TraumaticStressDisorder also known as PTSD is an emotional condition that can develop following a traumatic or terrifying event. PTSD has only been recognized as a diagnosis since 1980. This emotional disorder was brought to public attention after soldiers would return home and often referred to as “shell shock or combat fatigue”.
This Disorder can occur at any age and affects approximately eight percent of the adult population. (Michael B. First, 2000) Women are said to be twice more likely than men to develop PTSD. Ethnic minorities are also more likely than Caucasians to develop this as well. This condition may be hereditary based on depression, substance abuse or other anxiety disorders that can accompany PTSD. Some traumatic events that can trigger PTSD are military combat, physical or sexual assault, robbery, mugging, kidnapping, automobile accidents, natural or manmade disasters, terrorist attacks or...
Intro to Psychology
People are constantly diagnosed with psychological mental disorders on an everyday basis. A common psychological disorder in today’s society is posttraumatic stress, which is a health effect diagnosed with flashbacks. It is a normal disorder people encounter in an everyday basis. We face hardships in life that sometimes may be difficult to control. Everyone may be diagnosed with this mental disorder, depending on what they have been through in life which is known as a traumatic event. Which results into fearful memories that make you jump when loud noises are occurring. This mental disorder causes numerous symptoms, one being the ability to concentrate and perform normally. Posttraumatic stress affects a person physically, mentally, and emotionally. Veterans suffer from these severe, emotional traumas.
Posttraumatic stress causes a huge impact on a person life. This anxiety disorder occurs when a person experiences a frightful traumatic event. Some traumatic events people experience are sexual and physical abuse, death from a family member or close friend, veterans in combat, and sexual assault. Not everyone who experiences traumatic events suffers from this catastrophic disorder. The highest percentages of people...
...After experiencing a traumatic event, the mind has been known to horde away the details and memories and then send them back at unexpected times and places, sometimes after years have passed. It does so in a haunting way that makes the recall just as disturbing as the original event. It is easy to understand how PostTraumaticStressDisorder (PTSD) can affect a person’s life. For example: Edgar Allen Poe’s Gothic style of writing about the darker side of romantic imagination, the supernatural, and death were clearly a result of PTSD. PTSD is the name for the acquired mental condition that follows a psychologically distressing event "outside the range of usual human experience" (Bower, 1997). There are five diagnostic criteria for this disorder and there are no cures for this affliction, only therapies which lessen the burden of the symptoms. The root of the disorder is a traumatic event which implants itself so firmly in the mind that the person may be shackled by the pain and distress of the event indefinitely, experiencing it again and again as the mind stays connected with the past rather than the present, making it difficult to think of the future.
The research on this topic is all rather recent as the disorder was only added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in the last twenty years....
Many people throughout the world suffer from PostTraumaticStressDisorder also known as PTSD. This is a disorder that must be diagnosed and can be caused from a variety of reasons. “PTSD is classified as an anxiety disorder that develops in some individuals after exposure to an extremely traumatic event(s).” (Kazdin) One of the symptoms of PTSD is re experiencing the traumatic event. In most cases disruptive memories constantly occur relating to the trauma. Frightening dreams and nightmares are an example of memories that often occur. Flashbacks of the event are also something related to the disorder. Flashbacks can last anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours. (Kazdin) PTSD can occur in many different situations, with a large variety of people. It does not limit itself to any specific type of person.
Diagnosing an individual with PTSD is not a simple process. The trauma experienced must be approved by a doctor to be considered a life threatening occurrence. Many physicians have such difficulty in diagnosing patients with this disorder. Since talking about the trauma may induce painful emotions many patients often refrain from talking about the event. When someone is unwilling to discuss their traumatic event, this is difficult...
“Post-TraumaticStressDisorder is a psychological illness in which people repeatedly remember relive, or dream about a terrible experience” (“Post-TraumaticStressDisorder” 710). Explanations of PTSD mainly focus on the way the mind is affected by traumatic experiences. The mind is unable to process information and emotions properly when one is faced with overwhelming trauma (Cohen Web). Post-TraumaticStressDisorder changes the body’s response to stress by affecting the stress hormones and chemicals that deliver information between the nerves (Post-TraumaticStressDisorder Web). The “fight-or-flight” response is damaged in a person with PTSD. They are constantly feeling stressed or freighted even when they are no longer in danger (Post-TraumaticStressDisorder Web). This disorder can led to substance or alcohol abuse, depression, and or panic attacks (Post-TraumaticStressDisorder Web). Due to many soldiers developing this disorder it was formally known as battle fatigue,...
...Following a traumatic event, the mind sometimes stores and hides away the details and memories of the event and then sends them back at unexpected times and places, sometimes years later. It does so in a way that makes the recall just as disturbing as the original event and sometimes more. PostTraumaticStressDisorder is the name for the mental condition acquired following a psychologically distressing event outside normal human experience. There are five things that determine that someone has this disorder and there are no cures for this disorder, only therapy which lessens the burden of the symptoms. The root of the disorder is a traumatic event which places itself so firmly in the mind that the person may be attached by the pain and distress of the event indefinitely, experiencing it again and again as the mind stays in the past rather than the present.
The disorder is quite common, damaging the lives of approximately 8% of the American population (5% of men and 10% of women). Any person is a potential candidate for developing PostTraumaticStressDisorder if subject to enough stress. There is no definite way to determine who will get PostTraumaticStressDisorder. Even though all people who...
What is PTSD?
Develops after a person experiences or witnesses a
Causes intense fear, helplessness or horror
Family members can also develop
What are its symptoms/effects?
excessive alcohol use
combat related nightmares
PTSD In The Vietnam
In 1980 National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study
Helped U.S. government to understand the
development of PTSD in the Vietnam War
Used to be called Post Vietnam Syndrome
Results Of The Study
Among the veterans, approx. 15% of men and 9% of
women were found to have PTSD
30% of men and 27% of women had PTSD at in their
life following Vietnam
A decade after the war, for many veterans, their PTSD
became a chronic condition
Post Vietnam Syndrome
Up until the 1980s the disorder wasn’t referred to as
The disorder was published in the DSM-III under anxiety
The DSM was a manual for the criteria for different
The syndrome had several different types of effects on
Treatment for PTSD
Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy: Carefully
exposing yourself to your thoughts and feelings
Family Therapy: Affects everyone so family therapy can be
...Post-TraumaticStressDisorderPost-TraumaticStressDisorder is a very serious psychological disorder many ordinary people can develop. It causes large scale depression and can severely damage relationships and lives. Its main causes are from a person experiencing or witnessing an event involving death or serious injury.
A person’s response to the trauma usually involves fear, helplessness or horror. In children evidence of Post-TraumaticStressDisorder (PTSD) can be exhibited in disorganized or agitated behaviors. One of the most common side effects of PTSD in adults is the recurring thoughts, images and perceptions about the specific trauma they endured. Consistent, frightening dreams of the event are also signs of developing PTSD. For children, they may also experience frightening dreams but with unrecognizable content they might not understand too well. Adults can also exhibit signs by acting as if they were reliving the events over and over again. Another sign of PTSD is the avoidance of thoughts, feelings and conversations with others about what happened, and the restricted range of affections and emotions exhibited by the individual. Many people feel like they are unable to have loving feelings and can have a sense of a foreshortened future where...